General Dynamics
Overview
 
General Dynamics Corporation is a U.S. defense conglomerate
Conglomerate (company)
A conglomerate is a combination of two or more corporations engaged in entirely different businesses that fall under one corporate structure , usually involving a parent company and several subsidiaries. Often, a conglomerate is a multi-industry company...

 formed by mergers and divestitures, and as of 2008 it is the fifth largest defense contractor
Defense contractor
A defense contractor is a business organization or individual that provides products or services to a military department of a government. Products typically include military aircraft, ships, vehicles, weaponry, and electronic systems...

 in the world. Its headquarters are in West Falls Church (previously Jefferson), unincorporated
Unincorporated area
In law, an unincorporated area is a region of land that is not a part of any municipality.To "incorporate" in this context means to form a municipal corporation, a city, town, or village with its own government. An unincorporated community is usually not subject to or taxed by a municipal government...

 Fairfax County
Fairfax County, Virginia
Fairfax County is a county in Virginia, in the United States. Per the 2010 Census, the population of the county is 1,081,726, making it the most populous jurisdiction in the Commonwealth of Virginia, with 13.5% of Virginia's population...

, Virginia
Virginia
The Commonwealth of Virginia , is a U.S. state on the Atlantic Coast of the Southern United States. Virginia is nicknamed the "Old Dominion" and sometimes the "Mother of Presidents" after the eight U.S. presidents born there...

, in the Falls Church
Falls Church, Virginia
The City of Falls Church is an independent city in Virginia, United States, in the Washington Metropolitan Area. The city population was 12,332 in 2010, up from 10,377 in 2000. Taking its name from The Falls Church, an 18th-century Anglican parish, Falls Church gained township status within...

 area.

The company has changed markedly in the post-Cold War
Cold War
The Cold War was the continuing state from roughly 1946 to 1991 of political conflict, military tension, proxy wars, and economic competition between the Communist World—primarily the Soviet Union and its satellite states and allies—and the powers of the Western world, primarily the United States...

 era of defense consolidation. The company has four main business segments: Marine Systems, Combat Systems, Information Systems and Technology, and Aerospace.
Encyclopedia
General Dynamics Corporation is a U.S. defense conglomerate
Conglomerate (company)
A conglomerate is a combination of two or more corporations engaged in entirely different businesses that fall under one corporate structure , usually involving a parent company and several subsidiaries. Often, a conglomerate is a multi-industry company...

 formed by mergers and divestitures, and as of 2008 it is the fifth largest defense contractor
Defense contractor
A defense contractor is a business organization or individual that provides products or services to a military department of a government. Products typically include military aircraft, ships, vehicles, weaponry, and electronic systems...

 in the world. Its headquarters are in West Falls Church (previously Jefferson), unincorporated
Unincorporated area
In law, an unincorporated area is a region of land that is not a part of any municipality.To "incorporate" in this context means to form a municipal corporation, a city, town, or village with its own government. An unincorporated community is usually not subject to or taxed by a municipal government...

 Fairfax County
Fairfax County, Virginia
Fairfax County is a county in Virginia, in the United States. Per the 2010 Census, the population of the county is 1,081,726, making it the most populous jurisdiction in the Commonwealth of Virginia, with 13.5% of Virginia's population...

, Virginia
Virginia
The Commonwealth of Virginia , is a U.S. state on the Atlantic Coast of the Southern United States. Virginia is nicknamed the "Old Dominion" and sometimes the "Mother of Presidents" after the eight U.S. presidents born there...

, in the Falls Church
Falls Church, Virginia
The City of Falls Church is an independent city in Virginia, United States, in the Washington Metropolitan Area. The city population was 12,332 in 2010, up from 10,377 in 2000. Taking its name from The Falls Church, an 18th-century Anglican parish, Falls Church gained township status within...

 area.

The company has changed markedly in the post-Cold War
Cold War
The Cold War was the continuing state from roughly 1946 to 1991 of political conflict, military tension, proxy wars, and economic competition between the Communist World—primarily the Soviet Union and its satellite states and allies—and the powers of the Western world, primarily the United States...

 era of defense consolidation. The company has four main business segments: Marine Systems, Combat Systems, Information Systems and Technology, and Aerospace. The company's former Fort Worth Division manufactured the F-16 Fighting Falcon
F-16 Fighting Falcon
The General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon is a multirole jet fighter aircraft originally developed by General Dynamics for the United States Air Force . Designed as an air superiority day fighter, it evolved into a successful all-weather multirole aircraft. Over 4,400 aircraft have been built since...

, the most-produced Western jet fighter, but that subsidiary was sold to Lockheed
Lockheed Martin
Lockheed Martin is an American global aerospace, defense, security, and advanced technology company with worldwide interests. It was formed by the merger of Lockheed Corporation with Martin Marietta in March 1995. It is headquartered in Bethesda, Maryland, in the Washington Metropolitan Area....

 in 1993. GD reentered the airframe business in 1999 with their purchase of Gulfstream Aerospace
Gulfstream Aerospace
Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation is a producer of several models of jet aircraft. Gulfstream has been a unit of General Dynamics since 1999.The company has produced more than 1,500 aircraft for corporate, government, private, and military customers around the world...

.

Electric Boat

General Dynamics traces its ancestry to John Philip Holland
John Philip Holland
John Philip Holland was an Irish engineer who developed the first submarine to be formally commissioned by the U.S...

's Holland Torpedo Boat Company. This company was responsible for developing the U.S. Navy's first submarine
Submarine
A submarine is a watercraft capable of independent operation below the surface of the water. It differs from a submersible, which has more limited underwater capability...

s built at Lewis Nixon
Lewis Nixon (naval architect)
Lewis Nixon I was a naval architect, shipbuilding executive, public servant, and political activist. He designed the United States' first modern battleships, and supervised the construction of its first modern submarines, all before his 40th birthday. He was briefly the leader of Tammany Hall...

's Crescent Shipyard
Crescent Shipyard
Crescent Shipyard, located in Elizabeth, New Jersey, built a number of ships for the United States Navy and allied nations as well during their production run, which lasted about ten years while under the Crescent name and banner. Production of these ships began before the Spanish-American war and...

, located in Elizabethport, New Jersey
Elizabethport, New Jersey
A neighborhood in the City of Elizabeth, New Jersey. Formerly home of the Singer Manufacturing Company, makers of Singer Sewing Machines....

. The revolutionary submarine boat Holland VI was built there, its keel being laid down in 1896. Crescent's superintendent and naval architect, Arthur Leopold Busch
Arthur Leopold Busch
Arthur Leopold Busch or Du Busc was a British-born American naval architect responsible for the development of the United States Navy's first submarines.-Career:...

, supervised the construction of this submarine. After being launched on 17 May 1897, it was eventually purchased by the Navy and renamed USS Holland
USS Holland
Several ships of the United States Navy have been named USS Holland:, launched 1897 as the prototype Holland VI, then commissioned as USS Holland in 1900, was one of the US Navy's first submarines., launched 1926, was a submarine tender that served in World War II and was scrapped in 1953.,...

. The Holland was officially commissioned on 12 October 1900 and became the United States Navy's first submarine, later known as SS-1. The Navy placed an order for more submarines, which were developed in rapid succession and were assembled at two different locations on both coasts. These submarines were known as the A-Class or Adder Class, and became America's first fleet of underwater craft at the beginning of the 20th century.

Due to the lengthy and expensive process of introducing the world's first practical submarines, Holland, short on funds, had to part with his company and sell his interest to financier Isaac Leopold Rice, renaming the new firm as the Electric Boat Company
Electric boat
While a significant majority of water vessels are powered by diesel engines, with sail power and gasoline engines also remaining popular, boats powered by electricity have been used for over 120 years. Electric boats were very popular from the 1880s until the 1920s, when the internal combustion...

 on 7 February 1899. Holland effectively lost control of the company and found himself earning a salary of $90 a week as chief engineer, while the company he founded was selling submarines for $300,000 each. Holland resigned from the company effective April 1904. Rice became Electric Boat's first President, remaining there from that time until 1915 when he stepped down just prior to his death on 2 November 1915.

Electric Boat gained a reputation for unscrupulous arms dealing in 1904-05, when it sold submarines to Japan's Imperial Japanese Navy
Imperial Japanese Navy
The Imperial Japanese Navy was the navy of the Empire of Japan from 1869 until 1947, when it was dissolved following Japan's constitutional renunciation of the use of force as a means of settling international disputes...

 and Russia's Imperial Russian Navy
Imperial Russian Navy
The Imperial Russian Navy refers to the Tsarist fleets prior to the February Revolution.-First Romanovs:Under Tsar Mikhail Feodorovich, construction of the first three-masted ship, actually built within Russia, was completed in 1636. It was built in Balakhna by Danish shipbuilders from Holstein...

, who were then at war. Holland submarines were also sold to the British Royal Navy through the English armaments company Vickers
Vickers
Vickers was a famous name in British engineering that existed through many companies from 1828 until 1999.-Early history:Vickers was formed in Sheffield as a steel foundry by the miller Edward Vickers and his father-in-law George Naylor in 1828. Naylor was a partner in the foundry Naylor &...

, and to the Dutch to serve in the Royal Netherlands Navy
Royal Netherlands Navy
The Koninklijke Marine is the navy of the Netherlands. In the mid-17th century the Dutch Navy was the most powerful navy in the world and it played an active role in the wars of the Dutch Republic and later those of the Batavian Republic and the Kingdom of the Netherlands...

. The new pioneering craft (originally) developed by the company was now legitimized as genuine naval weapons by the world's most powerful navies.

In the post-World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

 wind-down, Electric Boat was cash-flush but lacking in work, with its workforce shrinking from 13,000 to 4,000 by 1946. Hoping to diversify, the president and chief executive officer, John Jay Hopkins
John Jay Hopkins
John Jay Hopkins was founder and president of General Dynamics from 1952 to 1957.Hopkins was born in Santa Ana, California....

, started looking for companies that would fit into Electric Boat's market.

Canadair purchase

They quickly found that Canadair
Canadair
Canadair Ltd. was a civil and military aircraft manufacturer in Canada. It was a subsidiary of other aircraft manufacturers, then a nationalized corporation until privatized in 1986, and became the core of Bombardier Aerospace....

, owned by the Canadian government, was suffering from similar post-war malaise and was up for sale. Hopkins bought the company for $10 million in 1946. Even by the Canadian government's calculations, the factory alone was worth more than $22 million, excluding the value of the remaining contracts for planes or spare parts.

When they purchased Canadair, its production line and inventory systems were in disorder. Hopkins hired Canadian-born mass-production specialist H. Oliver West to take over the president's role and return Canadair to profitability. Shortly after the takeover, Canadair began delivering its new Canadair North Star
Canadair North Star
The Canadair North Star was a 1940s Canadian development of the Douglas C-54 / DC-4 aircraft. Instead of radial piston engines found on the Douglas design, Canadair employed Rolls-Royce Merlin engines in order to achieve a 35 mph faster cruising speed. The prototype flew on 15 July 1946 and...

 (a version of the DC-4), and was able to deliver aircraft to Trans-Canada Airlines, Canadian Pacific Airlines
Canadian Pacific Airlines
Canadian Pacific Air Lines was a Canadian airline that operated from 1942 to 1987. It operated under the name CP Air from 1968 to 1986...

 and British Overseas Airways Corporation
British Overseas Airways Corporation
The British Overseas Airways Corporation was the British state airline from 1939 until 1946 and the long-haul British state airline from 1946 to 1974. The company started life with a merger between Imperial Airways Ltd. and British Airways Ltd...

 (BOAC) well in advance of their contracted delivery times.

As defense spending increased with the onset of the Cold War, Canadair would go on to win many Canadian military contracts for the Royal Canadian Air Force
Royal Canadian Air Force
The history of the Royal Canadian Air Force begins in 1920, when the air force was created as the Canadian Air Force . In 1924 the CAF was renamed the Royal Canadian Air Force and granted royal sanction by King George V. The RCAF existed as an independent service until 1968...

, and became a major aerospace company. These included Canadair T-33
Canadair T-33
|-See also:-References:NotesBibliography* "Canada's Fab Four". Air Forces Monthly. Stamford, Lincolnshire, UK: Key Publishing Limited, August, 2003. ISSN 0955-7091....

 trainer, the Canadair Argus long-range maritime reconnaissance and transport aircraft
Military transport aircraft
Military transport aircraft are typically fixed and rotary wing cargo aircraft which are used to deliver troops, weapons and other military equipment by a variety of methods to any area of military operations around the surface of the planet, usually outside of the commercial flight routes in...

, and the Canadair F-86 Sabre. Between 1950 and 1958, 1,815 Sabres were built. Canadair also produced 200 CF-104 Starfighter supersonic fighter aircraft, a licensed-built version of the Lockheed F-104.

In 1976 Canadair was sold back to the Canadian Government, which sold it to Bombardier Inc. in 1986.

General Dynamics emerges

As the aircraft production at Canadair became increasingly important to the company, Hopkins argued that the name "Electric Boat" was no longer appropriate. On 24 April 1952 the name was officially changed to General Dynamics.

General Dynamics was still cash-flush after the Canadair purchase, and, given the success of that company, they continued to look for new aviation purchases. In March 1953 they purchased Convair
Convair
Convair was an American aircraft manufacturing company which later expanded into rockets and spacecraft. The company was formed in 1943 by the merger of Vultee Aircraft and Consolidated Aircraft, and went on to produce a number of pioneering aircraft, such as the Convair B-36 bomber, and the F-102...

 from the Atlas Group. The sale was approved by government oversight with the proviso that General Dynamics would continue to operate out of Air Force Plant 4 in Fort Worth, Texas
Fort Worth, Texas
Fort Worth is the 16th-largest city in the United States of America and the fifth-largest city in the state of Texas. Located in North Central Texas, just southeast of the Texas Panhandle, the city is a cultural gateway into the American West and covers nearly in Tarrant, Parker, Denton, and...

. This factory was set up in order to spread out strategic aircraft production and rented to Convair during the war to produce B-24 Liberator
B-24 Liberator
The Consolidated B-24 Liberator was an American heavy bomber, designed by Consolidated Aircraft of San Diego, California. It was known within the company as the Model 32, and a small number of early models were sold under the name LB-30, for Land Bomber...

 bombers. Over time, the Fort Worth plant would become Convair's major production center.

As was the case with Canadair, Convair worked as an independent division within the General Dynamics umbrella. Over the next decade the company introduced the F-106 Delta Dart
F-106 Delta Dart
The Convair F-106 Delta Dart was the primary all-weather interceptor aircraft for the United States Air Force from the 1960s through the 1980s. Designed as the so-called "Ultimate Interceptor", it has proven to be the last dedicated interceptor in USAF service to date...

 Interceptor
Interceptor aircraft
An interceptor aircraft is a type of fighter aircraft designed specifically to prevent missions of enemy aircraft, particularly bombers and reconnaissance aircraft. Interceptors generally rely on high speed and powerful armament in order to complete their mission as quickly as possible and set up...

 (the earlier F-102 Delta Dagger
F-102 Delta Dagger
The Convair F-102 Delta Dagger was a US interceptor aircraft built as part of the backbone of the United States Air Force's air defenses in the late 1950s. Entering service in 1956, its main purpose was to intercept invading Soviet bomber fleets...

 being designed before the takeover), the B-58 Hustler
B-58 Hustler
The Convair B-58 Hustler was the first operational supersonic jet bomber capable of Mach 2 flight. The aircraft was designed by Convair engineer Robert H. Widmer and developed for the United States Air Force for service in the Strategic Air Command during the 1960s...

 and the Convair 880
Convair 880
The Convair 880 was a narrow-body jet airliner produced by the Convair division of General Dynamics. It was designed to compete with the Boeing 707 and Douglas DC-8 by being smaller and faster, a niche that failed to create demand...

 and 990
Convair 990
The Convair 990 Coronado was a narrow-body jet airliner produced by the Convair division of General Dynamics, a "stretched" version of their earlier Convair 880 produced in response to a request from American Airlines. The 990 was lengthened by 10 feet, which increased the number of passengers from...

 airliner
Airliner
An airliner is a large fixed-wing aircraft for transporting passengers and cargo. Such aircraft are operated by airlines. Although the definition of an airliner can vary from country to country, an airliner is typically defined as an aircraft intended for carrying multiple passengers in commercial...

s. Convair also introduced the first U.S. operational intercontinental ballistic missile
Intercontinental ballistic missile
An intercontinental ballistic missile is a ballistic missile with a long range typically designed for nuclear weapons delivery...

, the Atlas.

Management churn

Hopkins fell seriously ill during 1957, and was eventually replaced by Frank Pace later that year. Meanwhile, John Naish succeeded Joseph McNarney as president of Convair. Henry Crown
Henry Crown
Henry Crown was an American industrialist and philanthropist. Among other things, he founded the Material Service Corporation, which merged with General Dynamics in 1959. At the time of his death, he was a billionaire...

 became the company's largest shareholder, and merged his Material Service Corporation with GD in 1959.

Naish left in May 1961, taking most of Convair's top people with him. GD subsequently reorganized into Eastern Group in New York
New York
New York is a state in the Northeastern region of the United States. It is the nation's third most populous state. New York is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south, and by Connecticut, Massachusetts and Vermont to the east...

 and Western Group in San Diego, California
California
California is a state located on the West Coast of the United States. It is by far the most populous U.S. state, and the third-largest by land area...

, with the latter taking over all of the aerospace activities and dropping the Convair brand name from its aircraft in the process.

Frank Pace retired under pressure in 1962 and Roger Lewis, former Assistant Secretary of the Air Force and Pan American Airways CEO was brought in as the new CEO. The company recovered then fell back into the same struggles. In 1971, the board brought in Dave Lewis
David S. Lewis, Jr.
David Sloan Lewis, Jr. was an aeronautical engineer who led aerospace and defense giant General Dynamics for 14 years.- Early life :David Lewis was born in 1917, in North Augusta, South Carolina...

 (no relation) as Chairman and CEO. At the time he was President of McDonnell Douglas
McDonnell Douglas
McDonnell Douglas was a major American aerospace manufacturer and defense contractor, producing a number of famous commercial and military aircraft. It formed from a merger of McDonnell Aircraft and Douglas Aircraft in 1967. McDonnell Douglas was based at Lambert-St. Louis International Airport...

. Dave Lewis served until his retirement in 1985.

Aviation powerhouse

During the early 1960s the company bid on the United States Air Force's
United States Air Force
The United States Air Force is the aerial warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the American uniformed services. Initially part of the United States Army, the USAF was formed as a separate branch of the military on September 18, 1947 under the National Security Act of...

 TFX (Tactical Fighter, eXperimental) project for a new low-level "penetrator". Robert McNamara
Robert McNamara
Robert Strange McNamara was an American business executive and the eighth Secretary of Defense, serving under Presidents John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson from 1961 to 1968, during which time he played a large role in escalating the United States involvement in the Vietnam War...

, newly installed as the Secretary of Defense
United States Secretary of Defense
The Secretary of Defense is the head and chief executive officer of the Department of Defense of the United States of America. This position corresponds to what is generally known as a Defense Minister in other countries...

, forced a merger of the TFX with U.S. Navy
United States Navy
The United States Navy is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States. The U.S. Navy is the largest in the world; its battle fleet tonnage is greater than that of the next 13 largest navies combined. The U.S...

 plans for a new long-range "fleet defender" aircraft. In order to bid on a naval version successfully, GD partnered with Grumman, who would build a customized version for aircraft carrier
Aircraft carrier
An aircraft carrier is a warship designed with a primary mission of deploying and recovering aircraft, acting as a seagoing airbase. Aircraft carriers thus allow a naval force to project air power worldwide without having to depend on local bases for staging aircraft operations...

 duties. After four rounds of bids and changes, the GD/Grumman team finally won the contract over a Boeing
Boeing
The Boeing Company is an American multinational aerospace and defense corporation, founded in 1916 by William E. Boeing in Seattle, Washington. Boeing has expanded over the years, merging with McDonnell Douglas in 1997. Boeing Corporate headquarters has been in Chicago, Illinois since 2001...

 submission.

The F-111
General Dynamics F-111
The General Dynamics F-111 "Aardvark" was a medium-range interdictor and tactical strike aircraft that also filled the roles of strategic bomber, reconnaissance, and electronic warfare in its various versions. Developed in the 1960s by General Dynamics, it first entered service in 1967 with the...

 first flew in December 1964. The F-111B flew in May 1965, but the Navy said that it was too heavy for use on aircraft carriers. With an unacceptable Navy version, estimates for 2,400 F-111s, including exports, were sharply reduced, but GD still managed to make a $300-million profit on the project. Grumman went on to build the F-14 Tomcat
F-14 Tomcat
The Grumman F-14 Tomcat is a supersonic, twin-engine, two-seat, variable-sweep wing fighter aircraft. The Tomcat was developed for the United States Navy's Naval Fighter Experimental program following the collapse of the F-111B project...

, an aircraft that used many of the innovations of the F-111, but designed solely as a carrier-borne fighter.

Reorganization

In May 1965, GD reorganized into 12 operating divisions based on product lines. The board decided to build all future planes in Fort Worth, ending plane production at San Diego (Convair's original plant), but continuing with space and missile development there. In October 1970, Roger Lewis left and David S. Lewis from McDonnell Douglas
McDonnell Douglas
McDonnell Douglas was a major American aerospace manufacturer and defense contractor, producing a number of famous commercial and military aircraft. It formed from a merger of McDonnell Aircraft and Douglas Aircraft in 1967. McDonnell Douglas was based at Lambert-St. Louis International Airport...

 was named CEO. Lewis required that the company headquarters move to St. Louis, Missouri
St. Louis, Missouri
St. Louis is an independent city on the eastern border of Missouri, United States. With a population of 319,294, it was the 58th-largest U.S. city at the 2010 U.S. Census. The Greater St...

, which occurred in February 1971.

F-16 success

In 1972, GD bid on the USAF's Lightweight Fighter (LWF) project. GD and Northrop
Northrop Corporation
Northrop Corporation was a leading United States aircraft manufacturer from its formation in 1939 until its merger with Grumman to form Northrop Grumman in 1994. The company is known for its development of the flying wing design, although only a few of these have entered service.-History:Jack...

 were awarded prototype contracts. GD, whose F-111 program was winding down, desperately needed a new aircraft contract. They organized their own "Skunk Works
Skunk works
Skunk Works is an official alias for Lockheed Martin’s Advanced Development Programs , formerly called Lockheed Advanced Development Projects. Skunk Works is responsible for a number of famous aircraft designs, including the U-2, the SR-71 Blackbird, the F-117 Nighthawk, and the F-22 Raptor...

" group, the Advanced Concepts Laboratory, and responded with a new aircraft design that incorporated more modern equipment than the Northrop contender, mainly fly-by-wire flight controls.

GD's YF-16
F-16 Fighting Falcon
The General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon is a multirole jet fighter aircraft originally developed by General Dynamics for the United States Air Force . Designed as an air superiority day fighter, it evolved into a successful all-weather multirole aircraft. Over 4,400 aircraft have been built since...

 first flew in January 1974, and proved to have slightly better performance than the YF-17 in head-to-head testing. It entered production as the F-16 in January 1975 with an initial order of 650 and a total order of 1,388. The F-16 also won contracts worldwide, beating the F-17 in foreign competition as well. F-16 orders eventually totaled more than 4,000, making it the largest and most successful program for GD, and one of the most successful western military projects since World War II.

Land Systems focus

In 1976, General Dynamics sold the struggling Canadair back to the Canadian government for $38 million. By 1984, General Dynamics had four divisions: Convair in San Diego, General Dynamics-Fort Worth, General Dynamics-Pomona, and General Dynamics-Electronics. In 1985 a further reorganization created the Space Systems Division from the Convair Space division. In 1985, GD also acquired Cessna
Cessna
The Cessna Aircraft Company is an airplane manufacturing corporation headquartered in Wichita, Kansas, USA. Their main products are general aviation aircraft. Although they are the most well known for their small, piston-powered aircraft, they also produce business jets. The company is a subsidiary...

.

Henry Crown, still GD's largest shareholder, died on 15 August 1990. Following this, the company started to rapidly divest its under-performing divisions under CEO William Anders
William Anders
William Alison Anders is a former United States Air Force officer, NASA astronaut, businessman, and engineer. He is, along with Apollo 8 crewmates Frank Borman and Jim Lovell, one of the first three persons to have left Earth orbit and traveled to the Moon .-Biography:Anders was born to Arthur...

. Cessna was re-sold to Textron in January 1992, the San Diego missile production to General Motors
General Motors
General Motors Company , commonly known as GM, formerly incorporated as General Motors Corporation, is an American multinational automotive corporation headquartered in Detroit, Michigan and the world's second-largest automaker in 2010...

-Hughes Aerospace in May 1992, the Fort Worth aircraft production to Lockheed
Lockheed Corporation
The Lockheed Corporation was an American aerospace company. Lockheed was founded in 1912 and later merged with Martin Marietta to form Lockheed Martin in 1995.-Origins:...

 in March 1993 (a nearby electronics production facility was separately sold to Israeli-based Elbit Systems
Elbit Systems
Elbit Systems Ltd. is one of the world's largest defense electronics manufacturers and integrators. Established in 1967, and based in Haifa, Israel, Elbit employs 11,000 people worldwide....

, marking their entry into the United States market), and its Space Systems Division to Martin Marietta
Martin Marietta
Martin Marietta Corporation was an American company founded in 1961 through the merger of The Martin Company and American-Marietta Corporation. The combined company became a leader in chemicals, aerospace, and electronics. In 1995, it merged with Lockheed Corporation to form Lockheed Martin. The...

 in 1994. The remaining Convair Aircraft Structure unit was sold to McDonnell Douglas in 1994. The remains of the Convair Division were simply closed in 1996. GD's exit from the aviation world was short-lived, and in 1999 the company acquired Gulfstream Aerospace
Gulfstream Aerospace
Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation is a producer of several models of jet aircraft. Gulfstream has been a unit of General Dynamics since 1999.The company has produced more than 1,500 aircraft for corporate, government, private, and military customers around the world...

.

Having divested itself of its aviation holdings, GD concentrated on land and sea products. GD purchased Chrysler
Chrysler
Chrysler Group LLC is a multinational automaker headquartered in Auburn Hills, Michigan, USA. Chrysler was first organized as the Chrysler Corporation in 1925....

's defense divisions in 1982, renaming them General Dynamics Land Systems. In 2003 they purchased the defense divisions of General Motors
General Motors
General Motors Company , commonly known as GM, formerly incorporated as General Motors Corporation, is an American multinational automotive corporation headquartered in Detroit, Michigan and the world's second-largest automaker in 2010...

 as well. It is now a major supplier of armored vehicles of all types, including the M1 Abrams
M1 Abrams
The M1 Abrams is a third-generation main battle tank produced in the United States. It is named after General Creighton Abrams, former Army Chief of Staff and Commander of US military forces in Vietnam from 1968 to 1972. The M1 is a well armed, heavily armored, and highly mobile tank designed for...

, LAV 25
LAV 25
The LAV-25 is an eight-wheeled amphibious reconnaissance vehicle used by the United States Marine Corps. It was built by General Dynamics Land Systems Canada and is based on the Swiss MOWAG Piranha I 8x8 family of armored fighting vehicles....

, Stryker
Stryker
The IAV Stryker is a family of eight-wheeled, 4-wheel-drive , armored fighting vehicles derived from the Canadian LAV III and produced by General Dynamics Land Systems, in use by the United States Army. The vehicle is named for two American servicemen who posthumously received the Medal of Honor:...

, and a wide variety of vehicles based on these chassis.

General Dynamics Land Systems was hurt by the cancellation of the US Army's Future Combat Systems program and the loss in the MRAP-All Terrain Vehicle competition.

Government lawsuit and settlement

On August 19, 2008, GD agreed to pay $4 million to settle a lawsuit brought by the US Government claiming a GD unit fraudulently billed the government for defectively manufactured parts used in US military aircraft and submarines. The US alleged that from September 2001 to August 2003 GD defectively manufactured or failed to test parts used in US military aircraft, such as the C-141 Starlifter
C-141 Starlifter
The Lockheed C-141 Starlifter was a military strategic airlifter in service with the Air Mobility Command of the United States Air Force...

 transport plane. The GD unit involved, based in Glen Cove, New York
Glen Cove, New York
Glen Cove is a city in Nassau County, New York on the North Shore of Long Island. As of the United States 2010 Census, the city population was 26,964....

, closed in 2004.

Timeline

Electric Boat
Electric Boat Corporation
The General Dynamics Electric Boat is a division of General Dynamics Corporation. It has been the primary builder of submarines for the United States Navy for over 100 years....

 was established in 1899.

20th century acquisitions

  • 1946 - Canadair
    Canadair
    Canadair Ltd. was a civil and military aircraft manufacturer in Canada. It was a subsidiary of other aircraft manufacturers, then a nationalized corporation until privatized in 1986, and became the core of Bombardier Aerospace....

     purchased from the Canadian government.
  • 1952 - Electric Boat became General Dynamics.
  • 1953 - Convair
    Convair
    Convair was an American aircraft manufacturing company which later expanded into rockets and spacecraft. The company was formed in 1943 by the merger of Vultee Aircraft and Consolidated Aircraft, and went on to produce a number of pioneering aircraft, such as the Convair B-36 bomber, and the F-102...

     merged with General Dynamics.
  • 1959 - Henry Crown acquires company and becomes majority shareholder.
  • 1962-1963 - Convair-produced Mercury-Atlas rockets launch four manned Mercury
    Project Mercury
    In January 1960 NASA awarded Western Electric Company a contract for the Mercury tracking network. The value of the contract was over $33 million. Also in January, McDonnell delivered the first production-type Mercury spacecraft, less than a year after award of the formal contract. On February 12,...

     missions into low Earth orbit, including John Glenn
    John Glenn
    John Herschel Glenn, Jr. is a former United States Marine Corps pilot, astronaut, and United States senator who was the first American to orbit the Earth and the third American in space. Glenn was a Marine Corps fighter pilot before joining NASA's Mercury program as a member of NASA's original...

    .
  • 1971-1985 David S. Lewis, Jr.
    David S. Lewis, Jr.
    David Sloan Lewis, Jr. was an aeronautical engineer who led aerospace and defense giant General Dynamics for 14 years.- Early life :David Lewis was born in 1917, in North Augusta, South Carolina...

    , was chairman and chief executive officer. During his tenure, General Dynamics’ revenues and earnings quadrupled.
  • 1982 - Formed General Dynamics Land Systems after the acquisition of Chrysler's combat systems.
  • 1995 - Acquired Bath Iron Works
    Bath Iron Works
    Bath Iron Works is a major American shipyard located on the Kennebec River in Bath, Maine, United States. Since its founding in 1884 , BIW has built private, commercial and military vessels, most of which have been ordered by the United States Navy...

     from Prudential Insurance.
  • 1996 - Acquired Teledyne Vehicle Systems.
  • 1997 - Acquired Lockheed Martin Defense Systems and Lockheed Martin Armament Systems.
  • 1997 - Acquired Advanced Technology Systems, formerly an operating unit of Lucent Technologies
    Lucent Technologies
    Alcatel-Lucent USA, Inc., originally Lucent Technologies, Inc. is a French-owned technology company composed of what was formerly AT&T Technologies, which included Western Electric and Bell Labs...

    .
  • 1997 - Acquired Computing Devices International, formerly a division of Ceridian Corporation.
  • 1998 - Acquired National Steel and Shipbuilding Company
    National Steel and Shipbuilding Company
    National Steel and Shipbuilding Company, commonly referred to as NASSCO, is a shipyard in San Diego, California and Norfolk, Virginia and a division of General Dynamics. The shipyard specializes in constructing commercial cargo ships and auxiliary vessels for the US Navy and Military Sealift...

    .
  • 1999 - Acquired Gulfstream Aerospace
    Gulfstream Aerospace
    Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation is a producer of several models of jet aircraft. Gulfstream has been a unit of General Dynamics since 1999.The company has produced more than 1,500 aircraft for corporate, government, private, and military customers around the world...

     from Forstmann Little
    Forstmann Little & Company
    Forstmann, Little & Company is a private equity firm, specializing in leveraged buyouts . At its peak in the late 1990s, Forstmann Little was among the largest private equity firms globally...

    .
  • 1999 - Acquired GTE Government Systems, Communication Systems, Electronic Systems and Worldwide Telecommunication Systems Divisions.


21st century acquisitions

  • 2001 - Acquired Galaxy Aerospace Company from Israeli Aircraft Industries (IAI)
  • 2001 - GD Decision Systems formed (and later merged with General Dynamics C4 Systems
    General Dynamics C4 Systems
    General Dynamics C4 Systems is a business unit of General Dynamics. General Dynamics C4 Systems is a leading integrator of secure communication and information systems and technology.-History:...

    ) after acquisition of Motorola
    Motorola
    Motorola, Inc. was an American multinational telecommunications company based in Schaumburg, Illinois, which was eventually divided into two independent public companies, Motorola Mobility and Motorola Solutions on January 4, 2011, after losing $4.3 billion from 2007 to 2009...

    's Integrated Information Systems Group.
  • 2002 - Acquired Advanced Technical Products.
  • 2003 - Acquired GM Defense
    GM Defense
    GM Defense was the military products division of General Motors founded in 1950. It was acquired by General Dynamics in 2003 and now part of the General Dynamics Land Systems division.-Products:Products produced by GM Defense include:...

     from General Motors.
  • 2003 - Acquired Steyr Daimler Puch Spezialfahrzeug (SSF) from an Austrian investor group, which bought the company in 1998 from the Steyr-Daimler-Puch
    Steyr-Daimler-Puch
    Steyr-Daimler-Puch was a large manufacturing conglomerate based in Steyr, Austria, which was broken up in stages between 1987 and 2001. The component parts and operations continued to exist under separate ownership and new names.-History:...

    -conglomerate. SSF is now part of "General Dynamics European Land Combat Systems" which includes also the Spanish Santa Bárbara Sistemas and the Swiss MOWAG
    MOWAG
    MOWAG is a Swiss company which develops, designs and produces armoured vehicles for military applications in both land-only and amphibious configurations. These vehicles have gross vehicle weights ranging from 9t to 30t. More than 12,000 armoured wheeled vehicles of the type Piranha, Eagle and DURO...

    , and has its headquarters in Vienna
    Vienna
    Vienna is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria. Vienna is Austria's primary city, with a population of about 1.723 million , and is by far the largest city in Austria, as well as its cultural, economic, and political centre...

    , Austria
    Austria
    Austria , officially the Republic of Austria , is a landlocked country of roughly 8.4 million people in Central Europe. It is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north, Slovakia and Hungary to the east, Slovenia and Italy to the south, and Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the...

    .
  • 2003 - Acquired Veridian
    Veridian
    Veridian may refer to:* Veridian Credit Union, a credit union in Iowa* Veridian Dynamics, a fictional company in the U.S. television series Better Off Ted...

     and Digital Systems Resources
    Digital Systems Resources
    Digital System Resources was a provider of advanced systems for the DoD and became a success story for the military's SBIR program. From 1991–1997 it had been funded to the amount of $52,000,000, As of 2003 it was 75th on the Top 100 Federal Prime Contractors....

    .
  • 2003 - Acquired Datron's Intercontinental Manufacturing Company (IMCO) Unit.
  • 2004 - Acquired Spectrum Astro.
  • 2005 - Acquired MAYA Viz Ltd, the primary developer of the US Army's Command Post of the Future
    Command Post of the Future
    The United States Army's Command Post of the Future is a C2 software system that allows commanders to maintain topsight over the battlefield; collaborate with superiors, peers and subordinates over live data; and communicate their intent....

     software into General Dynamics C4 Systems
    General Dynamics C4 Systems
    General Dynamics C4 Systems is a business unit of General Dynamics. General Dynamics C4 Systems is a leading integrator of secure communication and information systems and technology.-History:...

    .
  • 2005 - Acquired Tadpole Computer
    Tadpole Computer
    Tadpole Computer is a manufacturer of rugged UNIX workstations and thin client laptops and lightweight servers. Tadpole is based in Cupertino, California.- Products :...

    .
  • 2005 - Acquired Itronix.
  • 2006 - Acquired FC Business Systems.
  • 2006 - Acquired Anteon International.
  • 2007 - Acquired Mediaware International.
  • 2008 - Acquired ViPS, Inc.
  • 2008 - Acquired Jet Aviation
    Jet Aviation
    Jet Aviation, a wholly owned subsidiary of General Dynamics , was founded in Switzerland in 1967 and is one of the leading business aviation services companies in the world. Close to 5,000 employees cater to client needs from 26 airport facilities throughout Europe, the Middle East, Asia and North...

    .
  • 2009 - Acquired Axletech International.
  • 2010 - Acquired Ascend Intelligence, Inc. TIGR(software)
  • 2011 - Acquired Vangent, Inc. from The Veritas Capital Fund III, LP.


Divestitures

  • Coal mining
  • Building materials
  • Limestone
  • Concrete
  • 1967 - General Atomics
    General Atomics
    General Atomics is a nuclear physics and defense contractor headquartered in San Diego, California. General Atomics’ research into fission and fusion matured into competencies in related technologies, allowing the company to expand into other fields of research...

     to Gulf Oil
    Gulf Oil
    Gulf Oil was a major global oil company from the 1900s to the 1980s. The eighth-largest American manufacturing company in 1941 and the ninth-largest in 1979, Gulf Oil was one of the so-called Seven Sisters oil companies...

  • 1976 - Canadair sold back to the Canadian government.
  • 1981 - Following expropriation
    Nationalization
    Nationalisation, also spelled nationalization, is the process of taking an industry or assets into government ownership by a national government or state. Nationalization usually refers to private assets, but may also mean assets owned by lower levels of government, such as municipalities, being...

     legislation passed by the government of the Province of Quebec, General Dynamics' Canadian subsidiary sold its 54.6% controlling interest in Asbestos Corporation Limited to the Quebec government-owned corporation, Société nationale de l'amiante (SNA).
  • 1991 - Data Systems Division outsourced to Computer Sciences Corp.
  • 1992 - Tactical Missiles Division to Hughes Aircraft Company.
  • 1992 - Cessna
    Cessna
    The Cessna Aircraft Company is an airplane manufacturing corporation headquartered in Wichita, Kansas, USA. Their main products are general aviation aircraft. Although they are the most well known for their small, piston-powered aircraft, they also produce business jets. The company is a subsidiary...

     to Textron
    Textron
    Textron is a conglomerate that includes Bell Helicopter, E-Z-GO, Cessna Aircraft Company, and Greenlee, among others. It was founded by Royal Little in 1923 as the Special Yarns Company, and is headquartered at the Textron Tower in Providence, Rhode Island, United States.With total revenues of...

    .
  • 1993 - Fort Worth Division, a producer of fixed-wing military aircraft, to Lockheed
    Lockheed Corporation
    The Lockheed Corporation was an American aerospace company. Lockheed was founded in 1912 and later merged with Martin Marietta to form Lockheed Martin in 1995.-Origins:...

    .
  • 1993 - Space Systems Division to Martin Marietta
    Martin Marietta
    Martin Marietta Corporation was an American company founded in 1961 through the merger of The Martin Company and American-Marietta Corporation. The combined company became a leader in chemicals, aerospace, and electronics. In 1995, it merged with Lockheed Corporation to form Lockheed Martin. The...

    .
  • 1994 - Convair's aerostructure
    Aerostructure
    An aerostructure is a component of an aircraft's airframe. This may include all or part of the fuselage, wings, or flight control surfaces. Companies that specialize in constructing these components are referred to as "aerostructures manufacturers," though many larger aerospace firms with a more...

    s unit to McDonnell Douglas
    McDonnell Douglas
    McDonnell Douglas was a major American aerospace manufacturer and defense contractor, producing a number of famous commercial and military aircraft. It formed from a merger of McDonnell Aircraft and Douglas Aircraft in 1967. McDonnell Douglas was based at Lambert-St. Louis International Airport...

    , (Convair closed in 1996).
  • 2010 - GD Advanced Information Systems unit to Orbital Sciences

Marine systems

  • American Overseas Marine Corporation
  • Bath Iron Works
    Bath Iron Works
    Bath Iron Works is a major American shipyard located on the Kennebec River in Bath, Maine, United States. Since its founding in 1884 , BIW has built private, commercial and military vessels, most of which have been ordered by the United States Navy...

  • Electric Boat
    Electric boat
    While a significant majority of water vessels are powered by diesel engines, with sail power and gasoline engines also remaining popular, boats powered by electricity have been used for over 120 years. Electric boats were very popular from the 1880s until the 1920s, when the internal combustion...

  • National Steel and Shipbuilding Company
    National Steel and Shipbuilding Company
    National Steel and Shipbuilding Company, commonly referred to as NASSCO, is a shipyard in San Diego, California and Norfolk, Virginia and a division of General Dynamics. The shipyard specializes in constructing commercial cargo ships and auxiliary vessels for the US Navy and Military Sealift...

  • Quincy Shipbuilding Division (closed 1986)

Combat systems

  • General Dynamics Land Systems
    • General Dynamics Robotic Systems
      • Autonomous Navigation System
      • Mobile Detection and Assessment Response System
      • Unmanned Surface Vehicle
    • Expeditionary tank
      Expeditionary tank
      The Expeditionary tank was a United States light tank developed for the Armored Gun System competition in the 1980s by Teledyne Vehicle Systems .-Development:...

    • M1 Series Abrams Main Battle Tank
      M1 Abrams
      The M1 Abrams is a third-generation main battle tank produced in the United States. It is named after General Creighton Abrams, former Army Chief of Staff and Commander of US military forces in Vietnam from 1968 to 1972. The M1 is a well armed, heavily armored, and highly mobile tank designed for...

    • Expeditionary Fighting Vehicle
      Expeditionary Fighting Vehicle
      The Expeditionary Fighting Vehicle is an amphibious assault vehicle that was being developed for the U.S. Marine Corps. It is launched at sea, from an amphibious assault ship beyond the horizon, able to transport a full Marine rifle squad to shore...

    • Heavy Assault Bridge
      M104 Wolverine
      The M104 Wolverine Heavy Assault Bridge is an armored combat engineering vehicle designed to provide deployable bridge capability for units engaged in military operations.-Background:...

       Program
    • Stryker Armored Combat Vehicle
      Stryker
      The IAV Stryker is a family of eight-wheeled, 4-wheel-drive , armored fighting vehicles derived from the Canadian LAV III and produced by General Dynamics Land Systems, in use by the United States Army. The vehicle is named for two American servicemen who posthumously received the Medal of Honor:...

    • Crusader Self-Propelled Howitzer
      XM2001 Crusader
      The XM2001 Crusader was to be the United States Army's next-generation self-propelled howitzer , designed to improve survivability, lethality, mobility, and effectiveness and planned to be introduced by 2008. United Defense was the prime contractor; General Dynamics the major subcontractor...

  • General Dynamics Armament and Technical Products
    • GAU-17
      Minigun
      The Minigun is a 7.62 mm, multi-barrel heavy machine gun with a high rate of fire , employing Gatling-style rotating barrels with an external power source...

       (Minigun)
    • GAU-19
      GAU-19
      The GECAL 50, officially designated by the United States military as the GAU-19/A, is an electrically driven Gatling gun that fires the .50 BMG cartridge...

  • General Dynamics Ordnance and Tactical Systems
  • General Dynamics European Land Combat Systems
    • European Land Systems (previously known as Steyr-Daimler-Puch
      Steyr-Daimler-Puch
      Steyr-Daimler-Puch was a large manufacturing conglomerate based in Steyr, Austria, which was broken up in stages between 1987 and 2001. The component parts and operations continued to exist under separate ownership and new names.-History:...

      )
      • ASCOD AFV
        ASCOD AFV
        The ASCOD armoured fighting vehicle family is the product of a cooperation agreement between Austrian Steyr-Daimler-Puch AG and Spanish Santa Bárbara Sistemas The ASCOD (Austrian Spanish Cooperation Development) armoured fighting vehicle family is the product of a cooperation agreement between...

         (Ulan)
    • MOWAG Corporation
      MOWAG
      MOWAG is a Swiss company which develops, designs and produces armoured vehicles for military applications in both land-only and amphibious configurations. These vehicles have gross vehicle weights ranging from 9t to 30t. More than 12,000 armoured wheeled vehicles of the type Piranha, Eagle and DURO...

      • MOWAG Piranha
        Mowag Piranha
        The MOWAG Piranha is a family of armoured fighting vehicles designed by the Swiss MOWAG , corporation....

    • Santa Bárbara Sistemas
      Santa Bárbara Sistemas
      Santa Bárbara Sistemas is a Spanish defense contractor based in Madrid, integrated under the European Land Systems of General Dynamics. It is one of the primary suppliers of the Military of Spain and is responsible for the assembly of heavy vehicles such as the Spanish Army's Leopard 2E main battle...

      • Leopard 2E
        Leopard 2E
        The Leopard 2E is a variant of the German Leopard 2 main battle tank, tailored to the requirements of the Spanish Army, which acquired it as part of an armament modernization program named Programa Coraza, or Program Armor...

      • ASCOD AFV
        ASCOD AFV
        The ASCOD armoured fighting vehicle family is the product of a cooperation agreement between Austrian Steyr-Daimler-Puch AG and Spanish Santa Bárbara Sistemas The ASCOD (Austrian Spanish Cooperation Development) armoured fighting vehicle family is the product of a cooperation agreement between...

         (Pizarro)

Information systems and technology

Information systems and technology represent 34% of the company's revenue.
  • General Dynamics Advanced Information Systems
  • General Dynamics C4 Systems
    General Dynamics C4 Systems
    General Dynamics C4 Systems is a business unit of General Dynamics. General Dynamics C4 Systems is a leading integrator of secure communication and information systems and technology.-History:...

    • Sectéra Edge
      Sectéra Secure Module
      Sectéra is a family of secure voice and data communications products made by General Dynamics C4 Systems which are approved by the United States National Security Agency...

      , the first NSA
      National Security Agency
      The National Security Agency/Central Security Service is a cryptologic intelligence agency of the United States Department of Defense responsible for the collection and analysis of foreign communications and foreign signals intelligence, as well as protecting U.S...

      -certified smartphone
      Smartphone
      A smartphone is a high-end mobile phone built on a mobile computing platform, with more advanced computing ability and connectivity than a contemporary feature phone. The first smartphones were devices that mainly combined the functions of a personal digital assistant and a mobile phone or camera...

    • General Dynamics SATCOM Technologies, a subsidiary of GD C4S.
  • General Dynamics Information Technology
  • General Dynamics United Kingdom
  • General Dynamics Wireless Systems

Corporate governance

Current members of the board of directors
Board of directors
A board of directors is a body of elected or appointed members who jointly oversee the activities of a company or organization. Other names include board of governors, board of managers, board of regents, board of trustees, and board of visitors...

 of General Dynamics are: Nicholas Chabraja
Nicholas Chabraja
Nicholas D. Chabraja was the Chief Executive Officer of General Dynamics Corporation He attended Northwestern University where he graduated with Bachelor of Arts and law degrees...

, Jay L. Johnson
Jay L. Johnson
Admiral Jay L. Johnson, USN, is a retired United States Navy officer who served from 1996-2000 as 26th Chief of Naval Operations . He succeeded to the position following the death of Admiral Jeremy M. Boorda...

, James Crown
James Crown
James Schine Crown is an American businessman. He is president of Henry Crown and Company, a private investment company. He is a director of JPMorgan Chase & Co., General Dynamics and Sara Lee as well as being the Chairman of the Board of Trustees for the University of Chicago. A member of...

, William P. Fricks, Charles H. Goodman, George Joulwan
George Joulwan
George Alfred Joulwan is a retired United States Army general, and is now a businessman. Joulwan, of Lebanese origin, studied at the United States Military Academy and Loyola University Chicago....

, John M. Keane, Paul G. Kaminski, Deborah J. Lucas, Lester Lyles
Lester Lyles
General Lester L. Lyles is a former United States Air Force general, Vice Chief of Staff of the United States Air Force, and Commander, Air Force Materiel Command, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio...

, Carl E. Mundy, Jr., J. Christopher Reyes, and Robert Walmsley
Robert Walmsley
Admiral Sir Robert Walmsley KCB was Chief of Defence Procurement at the UK Ministry of Defence from 1996 to 2003, and is a retired admiral in the Royal Navy.-Early career:...

.

Financials

General Dynamics has about $30 billion in sales, primarily military, but also civilian with its Gulfstream Aerospace unit and conventional shipbuilding and repair with its National Steel and Shipbuilding subsidiary.

In 2004 General Dynamics bid for the UK company Alvis Vickers, the leading British manufacturer of armored vehicles. In March the board of Alvis Vickers voted in favor of the £309m takeover. However at the last minute BAE Systems
BAE Systems
BAE Systems plc is a British multinational defence, security and aerospace company headquartered in London, United Kingdom, that has global interests, particularly in North America through its subsidiary BAE Systems Inc. BAE is among the world's largest military contractors; in 2009 it was the...

 offered £355m for the company in what was seen as a move to keep General Dynamics out of its "back yard". This deal was finalized in June 2004.

General Dynamics has tried to acquire Newport News Shipbuilding
Northrop Grumman Newport News
Newport News Shipbuilding , originally Newport News Shipbuilding and Drydock Company , was the largest privately-owned shipyard in the United States prior to being purchased by Northrop Grumman in 2001...

 but been blocked by regulators and competitors, as this would make General Dynamics the sole manufacturer of nuclear-powered ships in the United States.

Controlled subsidiaries of the corporation are donors to the Canadian Defence and Foreign Affairs Institute
Canadian Defence and Foreign Affairs Institute
The Canadian Defence & Foreign Affairs Institute was incorporated as a charitable organization in 2001. CDFAI is an independent “research institute/think tank” based in Calgary. It pursues new ideas to focus the national debate and understanding of Canada’s international policies with the ultimate...

.

External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
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