Genealogical DNA test
Overview
 
A genealogical DNA test examines the nucleotide
Nucleotide
Nucleotides are molecules that, when joined together, make up the structural units of RNA and DNA. In addition, nucleotides participate in cellular signaling , and are incorporated into important cofactors of enzymatic reactions...

s at specific locations on a person's DNA
DNA
Deoxyribonucleic acid is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms . The DNA segments that carry this genetic information are called genes, but other DNA sequences have structural purposes, or are involved in...

 for genetic genealogy
Genetic genealogy
Genetic genealogy is the application of genetics to traditional genealogy. Genetic genealogy involves the use of genealogical DNA testing to determine the level of genetic relationship between individuals.-History:...

 purposes. The test results are not meant to have any informative medical value and do not determine specific genetic diseases or disorders (see possible exceptions in Medical information below); they are intended only to give genealogical information. Genealogical DNA tests generally involve comparing the results of living individuals to historic populations.
The general procedure for taking a genealogical DNA test involves taking a painless cheek-scraping (also known as a buccal swab) at home and mailing the sample to a genetic genealogy laboratory for testing.
Encyclopedia
A genealogical DNA test examines the nucleotide
Nucleotide
Nucleotides are molecules that, when joined together, make up the structural units of RNA and DNA. In addition, nucleotides participate in cellular signaling , and are incorporated into important cofactors of enzymatic reactions...

s at specific locations on a person's DNA
DNA
Deoxyribonucleic acid is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms . The DNA segments that carry this genetic information are called genes, but other DNA sequences have structural purposes, or are involved in...

 for genetic genealogy
Genetic genealogy
Genetic genealogy is the application of genetics to traditional genealogy. Genetic genealogy involves the use of genealogical DNA testing to determine the level of genetic relationship between individuals.-History:...

 purposes. The test results are not meant to have any informative medical value and do not determine specific genetic diseases or disorders (see possible exceptions in Medical information below); they are intended only to give genealogical information. Genealogical DNA tests generally involve comparing the results of living individuals to historic populations.

Procedure

The general procedure for taking a genealogical DNA test involves taking a painless cheek-scraping (also known as a buccal swab) at home and mailing the sample to a genetic genealogy laboratory for testing. Some laboratories use mouth wash or chewing gum
Chewing gum
Chewing gum is a type of gum traditionally made of chicle, a natural latex product, or synthetic rubber known as polyisobutylene. For economical and quality reasons, many modern chewing gums use rubber instead of chicle...

 instead of cheek swabs. Some laboratories, such as the Human Origins Genotyping Laboratory (HOGL) at the University of Arizona
University of Arizona
The University of Arizona is a land-grant and space-grant public institution of higher education and research located in Tucson, Arizona, United States. The University of Arizona was the first university in the state of Arizona, founded in 1885...

, offer to store DNA samples for ease of future testing. All United States laboratories will destroy the DNA sample upon request by the customer, guaranteeing that a sample is not available for further analysis.

Types of tests

The most popular ancestry tests are Y chromosome (Y-DNA) testing and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) testing, which test direct-line paternal and maternal ancestry, respectively. DNA tests for other purposes attempt, for example, to determine a person's comprehensive genetic make-up and/or ethnic origins.

Y chromosome (Y-DNA) testing


A man's patrilineal ancestry, or male-line ancestry, can be traced using the DNA on his Y chromosome
Y chromosome
The Y chromosome is one of the two sex-determining chromosomes in most mammals, including humans. In mammals, it contains the gene SRY, which triggers testis development if present. The human Y chromosome is composed of about 60 million base pairs...

 (Y-DNA) through Y-STR
Y-STR
A Y-STR is a short tandem repeat on the Y-chromosome. Y-STRs are often used in forensics, paternity, and genealogical DNA testing.-Nomenclature:Y-STRs are assigned names by the HUGO gene nomenclature committee....

 testing. This is useful because the Y chromosome passes down almost unchanged from father to son, i.e., the non-recombining and sex-determining regions of the Y chromosome do not change. A man's test results are compared to another man's results to determine the time frame in which the two individuals shared a most recent common ancestor
Most recent common ancestor
In genetics, the most recent common ancestor of any set of organisms is the most recent individual from which all organisms in the group are directly descended...

 or MRCA. If their test results are a perfect, or nearly perfect match, they are related within genealogy's time frame.

Each person can then look at the other's father-line information, typically the names of each patrilineal ancestor and his spouse, together with the dates and places of their marriage and of both spouses' births and deaths. This information table will be referred to again within the mtDNA testing section below as the (matrilineal) "information table". The two matched persons may find a common ancestor or MRCA, as well as whatever information the other already has about their joint patrilineal ancestry prior to the MRCA—which might be a big help to one of them. Or if not, both keep trying to extend their patrilineal ancestry further back in time. Each may choose to have their test results included in their surname
Surname
A surname is a name added to a given name and is part of a personal name. In many cases, a surname is a family name. Many dictionaries define "surname" as a synonym of "family name"...

's "Surname DNA project". And each receives the other's contact information if the other chose to allow this. They may correspond, and may work together in the future on joint research.

Women who wish to determine their direct paternal DNA ancestry can ask their father, brother, paternal uncle, paternal grandfather, or a cousin who shares a common patrilineal ancestry (the same Y-DNA) to take a test for them.

What gets tested

Y-DNA testing involves looking at STR
Y-STR
A Y-STR is a short tandem repeat on the Y-chromosome. Y-STRs are often used in forensics, paternity, and genealogical DNA testing.-Nomenclature:Y-STRs are assigned names by the HUGO gene nomenclature committee....

 segments of DNA on the Y chromosome. The STR segments which are examined are referred to as genetic marker
Genetic marker
A genetic marker is a gene or DNA sequence with a known location on a chromosome that can be used to identify cells, individuals or species. It can be described as a variation that can be observed...

s and occur in what is considered "junk" DNA
Noncoding DNA
In genetics, noncoding DNA describes components of an organism's DNA sequences that do not encode for protein sequences. In many eukaryotes, a large percentage of an organism's total genome size is noncoding DNA, although the amount of noncoding DNA, and the proportion of coding versus noncoding...

.

STR markers

A chromosome contains sequences of repeating nucleotides known as short tandem repeat
Short tandem repeat
A short tandem repeat in DNA occurs when a pattern of two or more nucleotides are repeated and the repeated sequences are directly adjacent to each other. The pattern can range in length from 2 to 5 base pairs and is typically in the non-coding intron region...

s (STRs). The number of repetitions varies from one person to another and a particular number of repetitions is known as an allele
Allele
An allele is one of two or more forms of a gene or a genetic locus . "Allel" is an abbreviation of allelomorph. Sometimes, different alleles can result in different observable phenotypic traits, such as different pigmentation...

 of the marker. Y-chromosome STRs are assigned names by the HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee
HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee
The HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee approves a unique and meaningful name for every known human gene based on a query of experts. In addition to a long name, the HGNC also assigns an abbreviation to every gene...

. The example below shows the allele of Rumpelstiltskin's DYS393 marker is 12, also called the marker's "value". The value 12 means the DYS393 sequence of nucleotides is repeated 12 times—with a DNA sequence of (AGAT)12.

SNP markers

A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) is a change to a single nucleotide in a DNA sequence. The relative mutation rate for an SNP is extremely low. This makes them ideal for marking the history of the human genetic tree. SNPs are named with a letter code and a number. The letter indicates the lab or research team that discovered the SNP. The number indicates the order in which it was discovered. For example, M173 is the 173rd SNP documented by the Human Population Genetics Laboratory at Stanford University
Stanford University
The Leland Stanford Junior University, commonly referred to as Stanford University or Stanford, is a private research university on an campus located near Palo Alto, California. It is situated in the northwestern Santa Clara Valley on the San Francisco Peninsula, approximately northwest of San...

, which uses the letter M.

Understanding test results

Y-DNA tests generally examine 10-67 STR markers on the Y chromosome, but over 100 markers are available. STR test results provide the personal haplotype
Haplotype
A haplotype in genetics is a combination of alleles at adjacent locations on the chromosome that are transmitted together...

. SNP results indicate the haplogroup.

Haplotype

A Y-DNA haplotype
Haplotype
A haplotype in genetics is a combination of alleles at adjacent locations on the chromosome that are transmitted together...

 is the numbered results of a genealogical Y-DNA test. Each allele
Allele
An allele is one of two or more forms of a gene or a genetic locus . "Allel" is an abbreviation of allelomorph. Sometimes, different alleles can result in different observable phenotypic traits, such as different pigmentation...

 value has a distinctive frequency within a population. For example, at DYS455, the results will show 8, 9, 10, 11 or 12 repeats, with 11 being most common. For high marker tests the allele
Allele
An allele is one of two or more forms of a gene or a genetic locus . "Allel" is an abbreviation of allelomorph. Sometimes, different alleles can result in different observable phenotypic traits, such as different pigmentation...

 frequencies provide a signature for a surname lineage
Patrilineality
Patrilineality is a system in which one belongs to one's father's lineage. It generally involves the inheritance of property, names or titles through the male line as well....

.
Kit Surname Haplo 3
9
3

 
3
9
0

 
1
9


 
3
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3
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3
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11111 Rumpelstiltskin Q 12 23 13 10 16 17 12 12 13 14 14 31 18 8 9 11 11 27 13 19 28 14 14 15 15

The test results are then compared to another project
Surname project
A surname DNA project is a genetic genealogy project which uses genealogical DNA tests to trace male lineage.Because surnames are passed down from father to son in many cultures, and Y-chromosomes are passed from father to son with a predictable rate of mutation, people with the same surname can...

 member's results to determine the time frame in which the two people shared a most recent common ancestor
Most recent common ancestor
In genetics, the most recent common ancestor of any set of organisms is the most recent individual from which all organisms in the group are directly descended...

 (MRCA). If the two tests match perfectly on 37 markers, there is a 50% probability that the MRCA was fewer than 2 to 3 generations ago, 90% probability that the MRCA was fewer than 5 generations ago, and 95% probability that the MRCA was fewer than 7 generations ago.
Kit Surname Haplo 3
9
3

 
3
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0

 
1
9


 
3
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1

 
3
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3
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b

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11111 Rumpelstiltskin Q 12 23 13 10 16 17 12 12 13 14 14 31 18 8 9 11 11 27 13 19 28 14 14 15 15
11178 Rumpelstiltskin Q 12 23 13 10 16 17 12 12 13 14 14 31 18 8 9 11 11 27 13 19 28 14 14 15 15

Before choosing a test, it is important for an individual to check the number of markers that will be tested. For example, the Genographic Project looks at only 12 markers, while most laboratories and surname project
Surname project
A surname DNA project is a genetic genealogy project which uses genealogical DNA tests to trace male lineage.Because surnames are passed down from father to son in many cultures, and Y-chromosomes are passed from father to son with a predictable rate of mutation, people with the same surname can...

s recommend testing at least 25. The more markers that are tested, the more discriminating and powerful the results will be. A 12-marker STR test is usually not discriminating enough to provide conclusive results for a common surname.

STRs results may also indicate a likely haplogroup, though this can only be confirmed by specifically testing for that Haplogroups' single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs).

Haplogroup

Haplogroups are large groups of haplotype
Haplotype
A haplotype in genetics is a combination of alleles at adjacent locations on the chromosome that are transmitted together...

s that can be used to define genetic populations and are often geographically oriented.

Y-DNA haplogroups are determined by SNP
Single nucleotide polymorphism
A single-nucleotide polymorphism is a DNA sequence variation occurring when a single nucleotide — A, T, C or G — in the genome differs between members of a biological species or paired chromosomes in an individual...

 tests. SNPs are locations on the DNA where one nucleotide has "mutated" or "switched" to a different nucleotide. The nucleotide switch must occur in at least 1% of the population to be considered a useful SNP. If it occurs in less than 1% of the population, it is considered a personal (or private) SNP.

Haplogroup prediction

A person's haplogroup can often be inferred from their haplotype, but can be proven only with a Y-chromosome SNP tests (Y-SNP test). In addition, some companies offer sub-clade tests, such as for Haplogroup G
Haplogroup G (Y-DNA)
In human genetics, Haplogroup G is a Y-chromosome haplogroup. It is a branch of Haplogroup F . Haplogroup G has an overall low frequency in most populations but is widely distributed within many ethnic groups of the Old World in Europe, northern and western Asia, northern Africa, the Middle East,...

.
For example, Haplogroup G has a known modal haplotype:
Y-STR markers 3
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Haplogroup G: Modal STR values 14 14 12 12 29 22 10 11 14 15 11 16 11 23 21 31 11 11 16 9 9 12 13 13 14

Few haplotypes will exactly match the modal values for Haplogroup G. One can consult an allele frequency
Allele frequency
Allele frequency or Gene frequency is the proportion of all copies of a gene that is made up of a particular gene variant . In other words, it is the number of copies of a particular allele divided by the number of copies of all alleles at the genetic place in a population. It can be expressed for...

 table to determine the likelihood of remaining in Haplogroup G based on the variations observed.

Additional predictions include:
  • If DYS426 is 12 and DYS392 is 11, one is probably a member of haplogroup R1a1.
  • If DYS426 is 12 and DYS392 is not 11, one is probably a member of haplogroup R1b.
  • If DYS426 is 11, one is probably a member of haplogroup G,I, or J.
  • If DYS426 is 11 and DYS388 is 12, one is in the known modal haplotype for G shown above.


A Bayes classifier
Naive Bayes classifier
A naive Bayes classifier is a simple probabilistic classifier based on applying Bayes' theorem with strong independence assumptions...

 to predict the haplogroup probabilities for an observed haplotype is available on the web: Whit Athey Haplogroup Predictor.

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) testing


A person's matrilineal or mother-line ancestry can be traced using the DNA in his or her mitochondria, the mtDNA, as follows: This mtDNA is passed down by the mother unchanged, to all children. If a perfect match is found to another person's mtDNA test results, one may find a common ancestor in the other relative's (matrilineal) "information table", similar to the patrilineal or Y-DNA testing case above. However, because mtDNA mutations are very rare, a nearly perfect match is not as helpful as it is for the above patrilineal case. In the matrilineal case, it takes a perfect match to be very helpful.

Note that, in cultures lacking matrilineal surnames to pass down, neither relative above is likely to have as many generations of ancestors in their matrilineal information table as in the above patrilineal or Y-DNA case: for further information on this difficulty in traditional genealogy, due to lack of matrilineal surnames (or matrinames), see Matriname
Matriname
Matrilineal surnames, or equivalently matrinames, are inherited or handed down from mother to daughter in matrilineal cultures, and this line of descent or "mother line" is called a matriline...

.

Some people cite paternal mtDNA transmission
Paternal mtDNA transmission
In genetics, paternal mtDNA transmission and paternal mtDNA inheritance refer to the incidence of mitochondrial DNA being passed from a father to his offspring. Paternal mtDNA inheritance is observed in a small proportion of species; in general, mtDNA is passed unchanged from a mother to her...

 as invalidating mtDNA testing, but this has not been found problematic in genealogical DNA testing, nor in scholarly population genetics
Population genetics
Population genetics is the study of allele frequency distribution and change under the influence of the four main evolutionary processes: natural selection, genetic drift, mutation and gene flow. It also takes into account the factors of recombination, population subdivision and population...

 studies. See the rest of this article.

What gets tested

mtDNA by current conventions is divided into three regions. They are the coding region (00577-16023) and two Hyper Variable Regions (HVR1 [16024-16569], and HVR2 [00001-00576]). All test results are compared to the mtDNA of a Europe
Europe
Europe is, by convention, one of the world's seven continents. Comprising the westernmost peninsula of Eurasia, Europe is generally 'divided' from Asia to its east by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways connecting...

an in Haplogroup H2a2a
Haplogroup H (mtDNA)
In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup H is a human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup that likely originated in Southwest Asia 25,000-30,000 YBP.-Origin:...

. This early sample is known as the Cambridge Reference Sequence
Cambridge Reference Sequence
The Cambridge Reference Sequence for human mitochondrial DNA was first published in 1981 leading to the initiation of the human genome project.A group under Dr...

 (CRS). A list of single nucleotide polymorphism
Single nucleotide polymorphism
A single-nucleotide polymorphism is a DNA sequence variation occurring when a single nucleotide — A, T, C or G — in the genome differs between members of a biological species or paired chromosomes in an individual...

s (SNPs) is returned. The relatively few "mutations" or "transitions" that are found are then reported simply as differences from the CRS, such as in the examples just below.

The two most common mtDNA tests are a sequence of HVR1 and a sequence of both HVR1 and HVR2. Some mtDNA tests may only analyze a partial range in these regions. Some people are now choosing to have a full sequence performed, to maximize their genealogical help. The full sequence is still somewhat controversial because it may reveal medical information.

Understanding test results

The most basic of mtDNA tests will sequence Hyper Variable Region 1 (HVR1). HVR1 nucleotide
Nucleotide
Nucleotides are molecules that, when joined together, make up the structural units of RNA and DNA. In addition, nucleotides participate in cellular signaling , and are incorporated into important cofactors of enzymatic reactions...

s are numbered 16024-16569.

Examples:
  • Some test reports might omit the "16" (16nnn) prefix from HVR1 results, i.e. 519C and not 16519C.

Region HVR1 HVR2
Differences from CRS 111T,223T,259T,290T,319A,362C Not Tested

  • More extensive tests will also sequence Hyper Variable Region 2 (HVR2). HVR2 nucleotides are numbered 00001-00576.

Region HVR1 HVR2
Differences from CRS 111T,223T,259T,290T,319A,362C 073G,146C,153G

Haplogroup

Most results include a prediction of mtDNA Haplogroup
Human mitochondrial DNA haplogroups
In human genetics, a human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup is a haplogroup defined by differences in human mitochondrial DNA. Haplogroups are used to represent the major branch points on the mitochondrial phylogenetic tree...

.

If you belong to a Haplogroup that is distantly related to the CRS, then the prediction may be sufficient. Some companies test for specific mutations in the coding region. For large Haplogroups, such as mtDNA Haplogroup H
Haplogroup H (mtDNA)
In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup H is a human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup that likely originated in Southwest Asia 25,000-30,000 YBP.-Origin:...

, an extended test is offered to assign a sub-clade.

Geographic origin tests

Autosomal tests that test the recombining chromosomes are available. These attempt to measure an individual's mixed geographic heritage by identifying particular markers, called ancestry informative markers or AIM, that are associated with populations of specific geographical areas. The tests' validity
Validity
In logic, argument is valid if and only if its conclusion is entailed by its premises, a formula is valid if and only if it is true under every interpretation, and an argument form is valid if and only if every argument of that logical form is valid....

 and reliability
Reliability (statistics)
In statistics, reliability is the consistency of a set of measurements or of a measuring instrument, often used to describe a test. Reliability is inversely related to random error.-Types:There are several general classes of reliability estimates:...

 have been called into question but they continue to be popular. Anomalous findings most often result from databases too small to associate markers with all the areas where they occur in indigenous populations.

Biogeographical ancestry

Autosomal DNA
Autosome
An autosome is a chromosome that is not a sex chromosome, or allosome; that is to say, there is an equal number of copies of the chromosome in males and females. For example, in humans, there are 22 pairs of autosomes. In addition to autosomes, there are sex chromosomes, to be specific: X and Y...

 testing purports either to determine the "genetic percentages" of a person's ancestry from particular continents/regions or to identify the countries and "tribes" of origin on an overall basis. Admixture tests arrive at these percentages by examining SNPs
Single nucleotide polymorphism
A single-nucleotide polymorphism is a DNA sequence variation occurring when a single nucleotide — A, T, C or G — in the genome differs between members of a biological species or paired chromosomes in an individual...

, which are locations on the DNA where one nucleotide has "mutated" or "switched" to a different nucleotide. Tests' listing geographical places of origin use alleles—individual and family variations on various chromosomes across the genome analyzed with the aid of population databases. As further detailed below, this latter type of test concentrates on standard identity markers, such as the CODIS profile, combined with databases such as OmniPop, ENFSI and proprietary adaptations of published studies.

STR tests

In 2006, one company developed an autosomal DNA
DNA
Deoxyribonucleic acid is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms . The DNA segments that carry this genetic information are called genes, but other DNA sequences have structural purposes, or are involved in...

 ancestry-tracing product that combined the traditional CODIS markers used by law enforcement officers and the judicial system with OmniPop, a population database developed by San Diego detective Brian Burritt. Customers received matches to their profile's frequency of occurrence in world populations, as well as a breakout for European ancestry based on the European Network of Forensic Science Institutes (ENFSI). As a public service, the company has supported the expansion of OmniPop, which currently encompasses over 360 populations, double that of its first release. The ENFSI calculator uses data from 24 European
European ethnic groups
The ethnic groups in Europe are the various ethnic groups that reside in the nations of Europe. European ethnology is the field of anthropology focusing on Europe....

 populations (5700 profiles). The two databases must be searched separately, because they are based on two different sets of markers. The company sells its product as the DNA Fingerprint Test. The 16 markers incorporated in its results are: D8S1179, D21S11, D7S820, CSFIPO, D3S1358, THO1, D13S317, D16S539, D2S1338, D19S433, VWA, TPOX, D18S51, D5S818, and FGA.

The theory behind using a forensic profile for ancestry tracing is that the alleles' respective frequency of occurrence develops over generations with equal input of the two parents, since for each location we take one value from our mother and one from our father. It thus serves as a window into a person's total ancestral composition. The configuration of scores reflects inherited changes from all previous generations in all ancestral lines, and can predict an individual's unique probable ethnic matches based on the profile's frequency or rarity in different populations.

As studies from more populations are included, the accuracy of results should improve, leading to a more informative picture of one's ancestry.

Along the same lines, yet another company identifies the indigenous and diaspora populations in which an individual's autosomal STR profile is most common. This test examines autosomal STRs
Short tandem repeat
A short tandem repeat in DNA occurs when a pattern of two or more nucleotides are repeated and the repeated sequences are directly adjacent to each other. The pattern can range in length from 2 to 5 base pairs and is typically in the non-coding intron region...

, which are locations on a chromosome where a pattern of two or more nucleotides is repeated and the repetitions are directly adjacent to each other. The populations in which the individual's profile is most common are identified and assigned a likelihood score. The individual's profile is assigned a likelihood of membership in each of thirty-four world regions:

The STR analysis
STR analysis
Short tandem repeat analysis is a molecular biology method used to compare specific loci on DNA from two or more samples. A short tandem repeat is a microsatellite, consisting of a unit of two to thirteen nucleotides repeated hundreds of times in a row on the DNA strand. STR analysis measures...

 measures the frequency of a person's DNA profile within major world regions. Unlike SNP admixture tests, this analysis is based on objectively identified world regions and does not depend on any system of presumed biogeographic classifications. As most STR analysis examines markers chosen for their high intra-group variation, the utility of these particular STR markers to access inter-group relationships may be greatly diminished.

SNP tests

The same company also provides since 2011 a geographical "deep ancestry" analysis that can be performed based on genotype raw data from any of several SNP microarray tests. The report includes both admixture and total similarity comparisons of one's DNA to world genetic structure. The report identifies ancestral contributions to one's genome from 7 continental zones (European, Middle Eastern, Sub‐Saharan African, East Asian, North Asian, South Asian, Native American) as well as from 20 world regions (Atlantic European, Caucasus‐Anatolian, Arabian, North African, Baltic-Urals, South India, Indus Valley, African Great Lakes, West African, Southern African, Horn of Africa, Southeast Asian, Chinese, Manchurian, Siberian, Arctic, Mongolian, Oceanian, Mesoamerican).

Sample Results (October 2011)
Population (October 2011) Atlantic European Baltic-Urals Caucasus-Anatolian North African Arabian Indus Valley South India Siberian Arctic Mongolian Other
Adyghe 0.0% 1.7% 92.5% 0.0% 0.0% 4.4% 0.0% 0.3% 0.0% 1.1% 0.0%
Algeria 3.8% 0.1% 0.0% 86.0% 9.2% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.0% 0.7%
Armenian 0.0% 0.0% 83.3% 0.0% 16.7% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
Basque 92.6% 0.0% 0.0% 5.9% 1.5% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
Belarus 27.2% 68.6% 4.2% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
Bergamo 72.5% 0.0% 12.2% 3.2% 12.1% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
Bulgaria 70.7% 0.0% 23.6% 0.0% 5.7% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
Chuvash 0.0% 67.0% 5.2% 0.0% 0.0% 7.1% 0.0% 10.0% 3.9% 5.8% 0.9%
Cornwall 97.8% 2.1% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1%
Cyprus 7.1% 0.0% 46.0% 0.0% 47.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
Egypt 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 8.8% 88.8% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 2.4%
England 94.1% 5.8% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1%
Finland 0.0% 100.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
France 93.4% 0.0% 1.5% 1.4% 3.8% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
Greece 36.5% 0.0% 51.4% 2.9% 9.2% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
Hungary 69.8% 21.0% 5.6% 0.0% 1.8% 1.7% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
Ireland 86.6% 13.1% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.3%
Lebanon 0.8% 0.0% 43.8% 5.3% 45.7% 2.6% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 1.7%
Lezgin 0.0% 4.2% 80.2% 0.0% 0.0% 15.6% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
Lithuania 0.0% 100.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
Mordvin 0.0% 84.9% 8.7% 0.0% 0.0% 3.8% 0.0% 1.9% 0.0% 0.0% 0.8%
Nogay 0.1% 12.3% 59.9% 0.0% 0.0% 7.6% 0.0% 2.9% 1.4% 10.1% 5.7%
North Morocco 12.5% 0.0% 1.7% 85.8% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
Orkney 88.5% 10.3% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 1.1% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.2%
Portugal 71.3% 3.7% 1.2% 15.1% 8.4% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.3%
Romania 54.9% 7.8% 24.3% 0.0% 10.1% 0.0% 2.5% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.2%
Russia 29.3% 64.6% 4.3% 0.0% 0.0% 0.9% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.9%
Sardinia 69.5% 0.0% 0.0% 9.8% 20.7% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
Scandinavia 88.0% 10.8% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.0% 0.0% 0.4% 0.0% 0.8%
Slovenia 74.4% 20.3% 5.1% 0.0% 0.0% 0.3% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
Southern Italy and Sicily 38.2% 0.0% 31.1% 2.0% 28.8% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
Spain 86.4% 0.0% 0.0% 7.4% 6.3% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
Tunisia 9.4% 0.0% 3.6% 87.1% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
Turkey 0.0% 0.0% 84.4% 0.8% 9.8% 0.7% 1.4% 2.0% 0.0% 0.5% 0.5%
Tuscany 61.0% 0.0% 18.0% 0.3% 20.6% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
Ukraine 31.8% 61.7% 5.6% 0.0% 0.9% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
Vologda 0.0% 95.4% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 1.4% 0.2% 2.2% 0.0% 0.0% 0.8%

United States

Because of its history of immigration, slavery, and significant indigenous peoples, people of the United States have been interested in using genealogical DNA studies to help them learn more about their ancestry.

United States - Native American ancestry

Autosomal testing, Y-DNA, and mtDNA testing can be conducted to determine Amerindian
Native Americans in the United States
Native Americans in the United States are the indigenous peoples in North America within the boundaries of the present-day continental United States, parts of Alaska, and the island state of Hawaii. They are composed of numerous, distinct tribes, states, and ethnic groups, many of which survive as...

 ancestry. A mitochondrial Haplogroup determination test based on mutations in Hypervariable Region
Hypervariable region
A hypervariable region is a location within nuclear DNA or the D-loop of mitochondrial DNA in which base pairs of nucleotides repeat or have substitutions...

 1 and 2 may establish whether a person's direct female line belongs to one of the canonical Native American Haplogroups, A
Haplogroup A (mtDNA)
In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup A is a human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup.-Origin:Haplogroup A is believed to have arisen in Asia some 30,000-50,000 years before present...

, B
Haplogroup B (mtDNA)
In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup B is a human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup.-Origin:Haplogroup B is believed to have arisen in Asia some 50,000 years before present. Its ancestral haplogroup was Haplogroup R....

, C
Haplogroup C (mtDNA)
In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup C is a human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup.-Origin:Haplogroup C is believed to have arisen somewhere between the Caspian Sea and Lake Baikal some 60,000 years before present. It is a descendant of the haplogroup M.-Distribution:Haplogroup C is found in...

, D
Haplogroup D (mtDNA)
In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup D is a human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup.-Origin:Haplogroup D is believed to have arisen in Asia some 48,000 years before present. It is a descendant haplogroup of haplogroup M.-Distribution:...

 or X
Haplogroup X (mtDNA)
In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup X is a human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup. It has a widespread global distribution but no major regions of distinct localization.-Origin:...

. If one's DNA belonged to one of those groups, the implication would be that he or she is, in whole or part, Native American.

As political entities, tribes have established their own requirements for membership, often based on at least one of a person's ancestors having been included on tribal-specific Native American censuses (or final rolls) prepared during treaty
Treaty
A treaty is an express agreement under international law entered into by actors in international law, namely sovereign states and international organizations. A treaty may also be known as an agreement, protocol, covenant, convention or exchange of letters, among other terms...

-making, relocation to reservations
Indian reservation
An American Indian reservation is an area of land managed by a Native American tribe under the United States Department of the Interior's Bureau of Indian Affairs...

 or apportionment of land in the late 19th century and early 20th century. One example is the Dawes Rolls
Dawes Rolls
The Dawes Rolls were created by the Dawes Commission. The Commission, authorized by United States Congress in 1893, was required to negotiate with the Five Civilized Tribes to convince them to agree to an allotment plan and dissolution of the reservation system...

. In addition, the U.S. government does not consider DNA as admissible evidence for enrollment in any federally recognized tribe
Native Americans in the United States
Native Americans in the United States are the indigenous peoples in North America within the boundaries of the present-day continental United States, parts of Alaska, and the island state of Hawaii. They are composed of numerous, distinct tribes, states, and ethnic groups, many of which survive as...

 or reception of benefits. Tribes are political constructs, not genetic populations.

The vast majority of Native American individuals do belong to one of the five identified mtDNA Haplogroup
Haplogroup
In the study of molecular evolution, a haplogroup is a group of similar haplotypes that share a common ancestor having the same single nucleotide polymorphism mutation in both haplotypes. Because a haplogroup consists of similar haplotypes, this is what makes it possible to predict a haplogroup...

s. Many Americans are just discovering they have some percentage of Native ancestry. Some attempt to validate their heritage with the goal of gaining admittance into a tribe, but most tribes do not use DNA results in that way. These tests may be useful for adoptees
Adoption
Adoption is a process whereby a person assumes the parenting for another and, in so doing, permanently transfers all rights and responsibilities from the original parent or parents...

 to discover Native American ancestry.

United States - African ancestry

Y-DNA and mtDNA testing may be able to determine with which peoples in present-day Africa
Africa
Africa is the world's second largest and second most populous continent, after Asia. At about 30.2 million km² including adjacent islands, it covers 6% of the Earth's total surface area and 20.4% of the total land area...

n country a person shares a direct line of part of his or her ancestry, but patterns of historic migration and historical events cloud the tracing of ancestral groups. Testing company African Ancestry maintains an "African Lineage Database" of African lineages from 30 countries and over 160 ethnic groups. Due to joint long histories in the US, approximately 30% of African American
African American
African Americans are citizens or residents of the United States who have at least partial ancestry from any of the native populations of Sub-Saharan Africa and are the direct descendants of enslaved Africans within the boundaries of the present United States...

 males have a European Y chromosome haplogroup Approximately 58% of African Americans have the equivalent of one great-grandparent (12.5 percent) of European ancestry. Only about 5% have the equivalent of one great-grandparent of Native American ancestry. By the early 19th century, substantial families of Free Persons of Color had been established in the Chesapeake Bay area who were descended from people free during the colonial period; most of those have been documented as descended from white men and African women (servant, slave or free). Over time various groups married more within mixed-race, black or white communities.

According to authorities like Salas, nearly three-quarters of the ancestors of African Americans taken in slavery
History of slavery in the United States
Slavery in the United States was a form of slave labor which existed as a legal institution in North America for more than a century before the founding of the United States in 1776, and continued mostly in the South until the passage of the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution in...

 came from regions of West Africa. The African-American movement to discover and identify with ancestral tribes has burgeoned since DNA testing became available. Often members of African-American churches take the test as groups. African Americans cannot easily trace their ancestry during the years of slavery through surname research
Surname project
A surname DNA project is a genetic genealogy project which uses genealogical DNA tests to trace male lineage.Because surnames are passed down from father to son in many cultures, and Y-chromosomes are passed from father to son with a predictable rate of mutation, people with the same surname can...

, census
Census
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. It is a regularly occurring and official count of a particular population. The term is used mostly in connection with national population and housing censuses; other common...

 and property records, and other traditional means. Genealogical DNA testing may provide a tie to regional African heritage.

United States - Melungeon testing

Melungeon
Melungeon
Melungeon is a term traditionally applied to one of a number of "tri-racial isolate" groups of the Southeastern United States, mainly in the Cumberland Gap area of central Appalachia, which includes portions of East Tennessee, Southwest Virginia, and East Kentucky. Tri-racial describes populations...

s are one of numerous multiracial groups in the United States with origins wrapped in myth. The historical research of Paul Heinegg has documented that many of the groups in the Upper South were descended from mixed-race people who were free in colonial Virginia and descended from unions between the Europeans and Africans. They moved to the frontiers of Virginia, North Carolina, Kentucky and Tennessee to gain some freedom from the racial barriers of the plantation areas. Several efforts, including a number of ongoing studies, have examined the genetic makeup of families historically identified as Melungeon
Melungeon
Melungeon is a term traditionally applied to one of a number of "tri-racial isolate" groups of the Southeastern United States, mainly in the Cumberland Gap area of central Appalachia, which includes portions of East Tennessee, Southwest Virginia, and East Kentucky. Tri-racial describes populations...

. Most results point primarily to a mixture of European and African, which is supported by historical documentation. Some may have a very small amount of Native American lineages (none in one study). Though some companies provide additional Melungeon research materials with Y-DNA and mtDNA tests, any test will allow comparisons with the results of current and past Melungeon DNA studies.

Cohanim ancestry

The Cohanim
Kohen
A Kohen is the Hebrew word for priest. Jewish Kohens are traditionally believed and halachically required to be of direct patrilineal descent from the Biblical Aaron....

 (or Kohanim) is a patrilineal
Patrilineality
Patrilineality is a system in which one belongs to one's father's lineage. It generally involves the inheritance of property, names or titles through the male line as well....

 priestly line of descent in Judaism
Judaism
Judaism ) is the "religion, philosophy, and way of life" of the Jewish people...

. According to the Bible
Torah
Torah- A scroll containing the first five books of the BibleThe Torah , is name given by Jews to the first five books of the bible—Genesis , Exodus , Leviticus , Numbers and Deuteronomy Torah- A scroll containing the first five books of the BibleThe Torah , is name given by Jews to the first five...

, the ancestor of the Cohanim is Aaron
Aaron
In the Hebrew Bible and the Qur'an, Aaron : Ααρών ), who is often called "'Aaron the Priest"' and once Aaron the Levite , was the older brother of Moses, and a prophet of God. He represented the priestly functions of his tribe, becoming the first High Priest of the Israelites...

, brother of Moses
Moses
Moses was, according to the Hebrew Bible and Qur'an, a religious leader, lawgiver and prophet, to whom the authorship of the Torah is traditionally attributed...

. Many believe that descent from Aaron is verifiable with a Y-DNA test: the first published study in genealogical Y chromosome DNA testing found that a significant percentage of Cohens had distinctively similar DNA, rather more so than general Jewish or Middle Eastern populations. These Cohens tended to belong to Haplogroup J
Haplogroup J (Y-DNA)
In human genetics, Haplogroup J is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. It is one of the major male lines of all living men...

, with Y-STR values clustered unusually closely around a haplotype known as the Cohen Modal Haplotype (CMH). This could be consistent with a shared common ancestor, or with the hereditary priesthood having originally been founded from members of a single closely related clan.

Nevertheless, the original studies tested only six Y-STR markers, which is considered a low-resolution test. Such a test does not have the resolution to prove relatedness, nor to estimate reliably the time to a common ancestor. The Cohen Modal Haplotype (CMH), while notably frequent among Cohens, also appears in the general populations of haplogroups J1
Haplogroup J1 (Y-DNA)
In human genetics, Y DNA haplogroup J1, also known as J-M267, is a sub-haplogroup of Y DNA haplogroup J, along with its sibling clade Y DNA haplogroup J2. Men with this type of Y DNA share a common paternal ancestry, which is demonstrated and defined by the presence of the SNP mutation referred to...

 and J2
Haplogroup J2 (Y-DNA)
In human genetics, Haplogroup J2 is a Y-chromosome haplogroup which is a subdivision of haplogroup J. It is further divided into two complementary clades, J2a-M410 and J2b-M12.-Origins:...

 with no particular link to the Cohen ancestry. So while many Cohens have haplotypes close to the CMH, many more of such haplotypes worldwide belong to people with no likely Cohen connection at all. According to researchers (Hammer), it is only the CMH that is found in J1 that is to be attributed to the Aaron lineage, not the CMH in J2. Jews with the CMH in both J1 and J2 cannot all be descended from one man who lived approximately 3,300 years ago, because J1 diverged from J2 10,000 years ago.

Resolution may be increased by the testing of more than six Y-STR markers. For some, this could help to establish relatedness to particular recent Cohen clusters. For many, the testing is unlikely to distinguish definitively shared Cohen ancestry from that of the more general population distribution. So far no published research indicates what extended Y-STR haplotype distributions appear to be characteristic of Cohens.

Although some high-resolution testing has been done, to date the results have not been released.

European testing

For people with Europe
Europe
Europe is, by convention, one of the world's seven continents. Comprising the westernmost peninsula of Eurasia, Europe is generally 'divided' from Asia to its east by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways connecting...

an maternal ancestry, mtDNA tests are offered to determine which of eight European maternal "clans" the direct-line maternal ancestor belonged to. This mtDNA haplotype test was popularized in the book The Seven Daughters of Eve
The Seven Daughters of Eve
The Seven Daughters of Eve is a book by Bryan Sykes that presents the theory of human mitochondrial genetics to a general audience...

.

SNP testing may enable mostly European individuals to determine to which Sub-European population they belong:
  • Northern European subgroup (NOR) - mostly Northern and Southwestern European
  • Southeastern European (Mediterranean) subgroup (MED) - mostly Southeastern Europeans (Greeks, Albanians or Turks)
  • Middle Eastern subgroup (MIDEAS) - mostly Middle Eastern
  • South Asian subgroup (SA) - mostly South Asian from the Indian sub-continent (i.e. Indian)

Hindu testing

The 49 established gotra
Gotra
In the Hindu society, the term Gotra broadly refers to people who are descendants in an unbroken male line from a common male ancestor. Panini defines gotra for grammatical purposes as apatyam pautraprabhrti gotram , which means "the word gotra denotes the progeny beginning with the son's son"...

s
are clans or families whose members trace their descent to a common ancestor, usually a sage
Wise old man
The wise old man is an archetype as described by Carl Jung, as well as a classic literary figure, and may be seen as a stock character...

 of ancient times. The gotra proclaims a person's identity and a "gotraspeak" is required to be presented at Hindu
Hindu
Hindu refers to an identity associated with the philosophical, religious and cultural systems that are indigenous to the Indian subcontinent. As used in the Constitution of India, the word "Hindu" is also attributed to all persons professing any Indian religion...

 ceremonies. People of the same gotra are not allowed to marry.

One company says it can use a 37-marker Y-DNA test to "verify genetic relatedness and historical gotra genealogies for Hindu
Hindu
Hindu refers to an identity associated with the philosophical, religious and cultural systems that are indigenous to the Indian subcontinent. As used in the Constitution of India, the word "Hindu" is also attributed to all persons professing any Indian religion...

 and Buddhist engagements, marriages and business partnerships." This has not been supported by independent research. Any Y-DNA test can be used to compare results with another person whose gotra is known.

Benefits

Genealogical DNA tests have become popular due to the ease of testing at home and their supplementing genealogical research
Genealogy
Genealogy is the study of families and the tracing of their lineages and history. Genealogists use oral traditions, historical records, genetic analysis, and other records to obtain information about a family and to demonstrate kinship and pedigrees of its members...

. Genealogical DNA tests allow for an individual to determine with high accuracy whether he or she is related to another person within a certain time frame, or with certainty that he or she is not related. DNA tests are perceived as more scientific, conclusive and expeditious than searching the civil records. But, they are limited by restrictions on lines which may be studied. The civil records are always only as accurate as the individuals who provided or wrote the information.

The aforementioned Y-DNA testing results are normally stated as probabilities: For example, a perfect 12/12 marker test match gives a 90% likelihood of the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) being within 23 generations, while a 67 of 67 marker match gives the same 90% likelihood of the MRCA being within 4 generations back.

As presented above in mtDNA testing, if a perfect match is found, the mtDNA test results can be helpful. In some cases, research according to traditional genealogy methods encounters difficulties due to the lack of regularly recorded matrilineal surname information in many cultures.(see Matrilineal surname).

Drawbacks

Common concerns about genealogical DNA test are cost and privacy issues (some testing companies retain samples and results for their own use without a privacy agreement with subjects). The most common complaint from DNA test customers is the failure of the company to make results understandable to them.

DNA tests can do some things well, but there are constraints. Testing of the Y-DNA lineage from father to son may reveal complications, due to unusual mutations, secret adoptions, and false paternity (i.e. the father in one generation is not the father in birth records.) According to some genomics experts, autosomal tests may have a margin of error up to 15% and blind spots.

Some users have recommended that there be government or other regulation of ancestry testing to ensure more standardization.

Medical information

Though genealogical DNA test results generally have no informative medical value and are not intended to determine genetic diseases or disorders, a correlation exists between a lack of DYS464 markers and infertility
Infertility
Infertility primarily refers to the biological inability of a person to contribute to conception. Infertility may also refer to the state of a woman who is unable to carry a pregnancy to full term...

, and between mtDNA haplogroup H
Haplogroup H (mtDNA)
In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup H is a human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup that likely originated in Southwest Asia 25,000-30,000 YBP.-Origin:...

 and protection from sepsis
Sepsis
Sepsis is a potentially deadly medical condition that is characterized by a whole-body inflammatory state and the presence of a known or suspected infection. The body may develop this inflammatory response by the immune system to microbes in the blood, urine, lungs, skin, or other tissues...

. Certain haplogroups have been linked to longevity.

The testing of full mtDNA sequences is still somewhat controversial as it may reveal medical information. The field of linkage disequilibrium, unequal association of genetic disorders with a certain mitochondrial lineage, is in its infancy, but those mitochondrial mutations that have been linked are searchable in the genome database Mitomap. The National Human Genome Research Institute operates the Genetic And Rare Disease Information Center that can assist consumers in identifying an appropriate screening test
Genetic testing
Genetic testing is among the newest and most sophisticated of techniques used to test for genetic disorders which involves direct examination of the DNA molecule itself. Other genetic tests include biochemical tests for such gene products as enzymes and other proteins and for microscopic...

 and help locate a nearby medical center that offers such.

DNA in genealogy software

Some genealogy
Comparison of genealogy software
This article compares several selected client-based genealogy programs. Web-based genealogy software is not included.-General information:-Operating system support:-Features:-Languages:Available user interface languages...

 software programs now allow recording DNA marker test results, allowing for tracking of both Y-chromosome and mtDNA tests, and recording results for relatives. DNA-family tree wall charts are available.

See also

  • Archaeogenetics
    Archaeogenetics
    Archaeogenetics, a term coined by Colin Renfrew, refers to the application of the techniques of molecular population genetics to the study of the human past. This can involve:*the analysis of DNA recovered from archaeological remains, i.e...

  • Electropherogram
    Electropherogram
    An electropherogram is a plot of results from an analysis done by electrophoresis automatic sequencing.Electropherograms may be used for deriving results from:*genealogical DNA testing*paternity testing*DNA sequencing*Genetic fingerprinting...

  • Family name
    Family name
    A family name is a type of surname and part of a person's name indicating the family to which the person belongs. The use of family names is widespread in cultures around the world...

     (Patrilineal surname)
  • FamilyTreeDNA
    FamilyTreeDNA
    Family Tree DNA is a commercial genetic genealogy company based in Houston, Texas with its partner laboratory, Arizona Research Labs, housed at the University of Arizona. Family Tree DNA offers analysis of autosomal DNA, YDNA, and mtDNA to individuals for genealogical purposes based on DNA samples...

  • Genetic fingerprinting
    Genetic fingerprinting
    DNA profiling is a technique employed by forensic scientists to assist in the identification of individuals by their respective DNA profiles. DNA profiles are encrypted sets of numbers that reflect a person's DNA makeup, which can also be used as the person's identifier...

  • Genetic genealogy
    Genetic genealogy
    Genetic genealogy is the application of genetics to traditional genealogy. Genetic genealogy involves the use of genealogical DNA testing to determine the level of genetic relationship between individuals.-History:...

  • Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act
    Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act
    The Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008 , is an Act of Congress in the United States designed to prohibit the improper use of genetic information in health insurance and employment...

  • Genetic testing
    Genetic testing
    Genetic testing is among the newest and most sophisticated of techniques used to test for genetic disorders which involves direct examination of the DNA molecule itself. Other genetic tests include biochemical tests for such gene products as enzymes and other proteins and for microscopic...

  • HARRIS Surname DNA Project
    Harris Surname DNA Project
    The Harris Surname DNA Project is one of the larger DNA surname projects, with close to 500 participants worldwide. It was created as a cooperative organization to develop a collection of Harris family groups who descend from various male Harris ancestors, in order to use genealogical DNA testing...

  • Human genetic clustering
    Human genetic clustering
    Human genetic clustering analysis uses mathematical cluster analysis of the degree of similarity of genetic data between individuals and groups to infer population structures and assign individuals to groups that often correspond with their self-identified geographical ancestry...

  • International HapMap Project
    International HapMap Project
    The International HapMap Project is an organization that aims to develop a haplotype map of the human genome, which will describe the common patterns of human genetic variation. HapMap is a key resource for researchers to find genetic variants affecting health, disease and responses to drugs and...

  • List of DNA tested mummies
  • Paternity test


External links

Societies

Foundations and research projects

STR converters

Information and Maps on Y-DNA haplogroups
The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
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