Ge languages
The Jê languages or Jê–Kaingang languages, are spoken by the Gê, a group of indigenous peoples in Brazil
Indigenous peoples in Brazil
The Indigenous peoples in Brazil comprise a large number of distinct ethnic groups who inhabited the country prior to the European invasion around 1500...


Family division

The language family is as follows:
  • Jaikó (†) (Northern Jê)
  • Central Jê
    • Acroa (†)
    • Xavante
      Xavante language
      The Xavante language is a Ge language spoken by the Xavante people in about 170 villages in the area surrounding Eastern Mato Grosso, Brazil. The Xavante language is unusual in its phonology, its object–subject–verb word order, and its use of honorary and endearment terms in its...

    • Xerente
    • Xakriabá
      Xakriabá language
      Xakriabá is an extinct Ge language formerly spoken in Minas Gerais, Brazil by the Xakriabá people, who today speak Portuguese.The last confirmed native speaker of the language died in 1864....

  • Northwest Jê
    • Apinayé
      Apinayé language
      Apinayé is a SOV Jê language spoken in Tocantins, Brazil by some 1200 speakers of Apinajé people.- Consonants :- Vowels :...

    • Mẽbengokre (Kayapó)
    • Panará (Kreen Akarore)
    • Suyá
    • Timbira
      Timbira language
      Timbira is a dialect continuum of Ge languages of Brazil. The various varieties are distinct enough to sometimes be considered separate languages. The principal varieties, Krahô , and Kanela , have 2000 speakers apiece, few of whom speak Portuguese. Kreye, however, is nearly extinct, with only 30...

       (Canela-Krayô, with the Canela
      Canela language
      -External links:**...

       and Kreye
      Kreye language
      Kreye is a Gê language that is spoken by about 30 individuals in Maranhão and Pará, Brazil. It is considered an endangered language....

  • Kaingáng (Southern Jê)
    • Kaingáng
      Kaingang language
      The Kaingang language is an indigenous language spoken in the South of Brazil, belonging to the Gê language family. The Kaingang nation has about 30,000  people, and about from 60% to 65% speak the language...

    • Xokleng
    • São Paulo Kaingáng (†)
    • Ingain (†)
    • Guayana (†)

Genetic relations

The Jê family forms the core of the Macro-Jê family. Kaufman (1990) finds the proposal convincing.

External links

  • Gê languages at Ethnologue
    Ethnologue: Languages of the World is a web and print publication of SIL International , a Christian linguistic service organization, which studies lesser-known languages, to provide the speakers with Bibles in their native language and support their efforts in language development.The Ethnologue...

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