Glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta, also known as GSK3B, is an enzyme
Enzymes are proteins that catalyze chemical reactions. In enzymatic reactions, the molecules at the beginning of the process, called substrates, are converted into different molecules, called products. Almost all chemical reactions in a biological cell need enzymes in order to occur at rates...

 that in humans is encoded by the GSK3B gene
A gene is a molecular unit of heredity of a living organism. It is a name given to some stretches of DNA and RNA that code for a type of protein or for an RNA chain that has a function in the organism. Living beings depend on genes, as they specify all proteins and functional RNA chains...



Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3
Glycogen synthase kinase 3 is a serine/threonine protein kinase that mediates the addition of phosphate molecules on certain serine and threonine amino acids in particular cellular substrates...

) is a proline-directed serine-threonine kinase
Serine/threonine-specific protein kinase
Serine/threonine protein kinases phosphorylate the OH group of serine or threonine .At least 125 of the 500+ human protein kinases are serine/threonine kinases .-Regulation:...

 that was initially identified as a phosphorylating
Phosphorylation is the addition of a phosphate group to a protein or other organic molecule. Phosphorylation activates or deactivates many protein enzymes....

 and inactivating glycogen synthase
Glycogen synthase
Glycogen synthase is an enzyme involved in converting glucose to glycogen. It takes short polymers of glucose and converts them into long polymers....

. Two isoforms, alpha (GSK3A
Glycogen synthase kinase-3 alpha is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the GSK3A gene.Glycogen synthase kinase 3-alpha is a multifunctional protein serine kinase, homologous to Drosophila 'shaggy' and implicated in the control of several regulatory proteins including glycogen synthase and...

) and beta, show a high degree of amino acid homology. GSK3B is involved in energy metabolism, neuronal cell development, and body pattern formation.


GSK3B has been shown to interact
Protein-protein interaction
Protein–protein interactions occur when two or more proteins bind together, often to carry out their biological function. Many of the most important molecular processes in the cell such as DNA replication are carried out by large molecular machines that are built from a large number of protein...

 with CTNNB1
Beta-catenin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CTNNB1 gene. In Drosophila, the homologous protein is called armadillo...

, SGK3
Serine/threonine-protein kinase Sgk3 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the SGK3 gene.-Further reading:...

, TSC2
Tuberous sclerosis protein 2, also known as TSC2 and Tuberin, is a human protein and gene.-Interactions:TSC2 has been shown to interact with FOXO1, GSK3B, Peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase, RAP1A, MAPK1, AKT1, AXIN1, TSC1, PTK2, Protein kinase, AMP-activated, alpha 1, YWHAZ, RPS6KA1,...

, AR
Androgen receptor
The androgen receptor , also known as NR3C4 , is a type of nuclear receptor that is activated by binding of either of the androgenic hormones testosterone or dihydrotestosterone in the cytoplasm and then translocating into the nucleus...

, MUC1
Mucin 1, cell surface associated or polymorphic epithelial mucin is a mucin encoded by the MUC1 gene in humans. MUC1 is a proteoglycan with extensive O-linked glycosylation of its extracellular domain. Mucins line the apical surface of epithelial cells in the lungs, stomach, intestines, eyes and...

Axin-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AXIN1 gene.-Interactions:AXIN1 has been shown to interact with Beta-catenin, GSK3B, TSC2, APC, LRP5, DVL1, MAP3K1, CSNK1E, Casein kinase 1, alpha 1 and PPP2R5A.-Further reading:...

cAMP-dependent protein kinase type II-alpha regulatory subunit is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PRKAR2A gene.-Interactions:...

, AKAP11
A-kinase anchor protein 11 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the AKAP11 gene.-Interactions:AKAP11 has been shown to interact with PPP1CA, GSK3B, PRKAR2A and PRKAR2B.-Further reading:...

Dynamin-1-like protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DNM1L gene.- Function :The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the dynamin superfamily of GTPases. Members of the dynamin-related subfamily, including the S...

, P53
p53 , is a tumor suppressor protein that in humans is encoded by the TP53 gene. p53 is crucial in multicellular organisms, where it regulates the cell cycle and, thus, functions as a tumor suppressor that is involved in preventing cancer...

Axin-2 also known as axin-like protein or axis inhibition protein 2 or conductin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AXIN2 gene.- Function :...

Neurogenic locus notch homolog protein 2 also known as notch 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NOTCH2 gene.NOTCH2 is associated with Alagille syndrome and Hajdu–Cheney syndrome.- Function :Notch 2 a member of the notch family...

Mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 3
Mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 3 also known as SMAD family member 3 or SMAD3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SMAD3 gene. SMAD3 is a member of the SMAD family of proteins.The human SMAD3 gene is located on chromosome 15...

 and NOTCH1
Notch homolog 1, translocation-associated , also known as NOTCH1, is a human gene encoding a single-pass transmembrane receptor.A deficiency can be associated with bicuspid aortic valve....


Further reading

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