Free-to-air
Overview
 
Free-to-air describes television
Television
Television is a telecommunication medium for transmitting and receiving moving images that can be monochrome or colored, with accompanying sound...

 (TV) and radio
Radio
Radio is the transmission of signals through free space by modulation of electromagnetic waves with frequencies below those of visible light. Electromagnetic radiation travels by means of oscillating electromagnetic fields that pass through the air and the vacuum of space...

 services broadcast in clear (unencrypted
Encryption
In cryptography, encryption is the process of transforming information using an algorithm to make it unreadable to anyone except those possessing special knowledge, usually referred to as a key. The result of the process is encrypted information...

) form, allowing any person with the appropriate receiving equipment to receive the signal and view or listen to the content without requiring a subscription (or other ongoing cost) or one-off fee (e.g. Pay-per-view
Pay-per-view
Pay-per-view provides a service by which a television audience can purchase events to view via private telecast. The broadcaster shows the event at the same time to everyone ordering it...

). In the traditional sense, this is carried on terrestrial radio
Radio
Radio is the transmission of signals through free space by modulation of electromagnetic waves with frequencies below those of visible light. Electromagnetic radiation travels by means of oscillating electromagnetic fields that pass through the air and the vacuum of space...

 signals and received with an antenna.

FTA also refers to the concept of channels and broadcasters providing content for which no subscription is expected, even though they may be delivered to the viewer/listener by another carrier for which a subscription is required, e.g.
Encyclopedia
Free-to-air describes television
Television
Television is a telecommunication medium for transmitting and receiving moving images that can be monochrome or colored, with accompanying sound...

 (TV) and radio
Radio
Radio is the transmission of signals through free space by modulation of electromagnetic waves with frequencies below those of visible light. Electromagnetic radiation travels by means of oscillating electromagnetic fields that pass through the air and the vacuum of space...

 services broadcast in clear (unencrypted
Encryption
In cryptography, encryption is the process of transforming information using an algorithm to make it unreadable to anyone except those possessing special knowledge, usually referred to as a key. The result of the process is encrypted information...

) form, allowing any person with the appropriate receiving equipment to receive the signal and view or listen to the content without requiring a subscription (or other ongoing cost) or one-off fee (e.g. Pay-per-view
Pay-per-view
Pay-per-view provides a service by which a television audience can purchase events to view via private telecast. The broadcaster shows the event at the same time to everyone ordering it...

). In the traditional sense, this is carried on terrestrial radio
Radio
Radio is the transmission of signals through free space by modulation of electromagnetic waves with frequencies below those of visible light. Electromagnetic radiation travels by means of oscillating electromagnetic fields that pass through the air and the vacuum of space...

 signals and received with an antenna.

FTA also refers to the concept of channels and broadcasters providing content for which no subscription is expected, even though they may be delivered to the viewer/listener by another carrier for which a subscription is required, e.g. cable
Cable television
Cable television is a system of providing television programs to consumers via radio frequency signals transmitted to televisions through coaxial cables or digital light pulses through fixed optical fibers located on the subscriber's property, much like the over-the-air method used in traditional...

, satellite
Satellite television
Satellite television is television programming delivered by the means of communications satellite and received by an outdoor antenna, usually a parabolic mirror generally referred to as a satellite dish, and as far as household usage is concerned, a satellite receiver either in the form of an...

 or the Internet
Internet
The Internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks that use the standard Internet protocol suite to serve billions of users worldwide...

. These carriers may be mandated (or opt) in some geographies to deliver FTA channels even if a premium subscription is not present (providing the necessary equipment is still available), especially where FTA channels are expected to be used for emergency broadcasts, similar to the 112
1-1-2
112 is the principal emergency telephone number that can be dialed free of charge from any telephone or any mobile phone in order to reach emergency services in the European Union , its candidates for accession, members of the EEA agreement, as well as several other countries in the world...

 emergency service provided by mobile phone operators and manufacturers.

Free-to-view
Free-to-view
Free-to-view is a term used for free of charge and encrypted audio and/or video contents transmission that do not require any form of continual subscription...

 (FTV) is, generally, available without subscription but is digitally encoded and may be restricted geographically.

These channels are described as free, but are more accurately described as free to receive. In many cases the viewer does in fact pay for them, by various means:
  • Directly
    • by levy of a license fee
      Television licence
      A television licence is an official licence required in many countries for the reception of television broadcasts...

       (as in the case of the BBC
      BBC
      The British Broadcasting Corporation is a British public service broadcaster. Its headquarters is at Broadcasting House in the City of Westminster, London. It is the largest broadcaster in the world, with about 23,000 staff...

      ) or
    • voluntary donation (in the case of educational broadcasters like PBS)
  • Indirectly
    • Consumer products and services where part of the cost goes toward television advertising
      Advertising
      Advertising is a form of communication used to persuade an audience to take some action with respect to products, ideas, or services. Most commonly, the desired result is to drive consumer behavior with respect to a commercial offering, although political and ideological advertising is also common...

       and sponsorship (in the case of Japanese television broadcasters like TV Asahi
      TV Asahi
      , also known as EX and , is a Japanese television network headquartered in Roppongi, Minato, Tokyo, Japan. The company writes its name in lower-case letters, tv asahi, in its logo and public-image materials. The company also owns All-Nippon News Network....

       and TV Tokyo
      TV Tokyo
      is a television station headquartered in Toranomon, Minato, Tokyo, Japan. Also known as , a blend of "terebi" and "Tokyo", it is the key station of TX Network. It is one of the major Tokyo television stations, particularly specializing in anime...

       which relies on sponsorship heavily, similar to Philippine Television like ABS-CBN
      ABS-CBN
      ABS–CBN Corporation is a Philippine-based media conglomerate. It is the Philippines' largest media and entertainment conglomerate. The corporation was the merger of Alto Broadcasting System which at that time owned by James Lindenberg and Antonio Quirino, and the Chronicle Broadcasting Network ...

      , and GMA
      GMA Network
      GMA Network is a major commercial television & radio network in the Philippines. GMA Network is owned by GMA Network, Inc. a publicly listed company...

      )
  • Direct & Indirect
    • One further variation is in Canada
      Canada
      Canada is a North American country consisting of ten provinces and three territories. Located in the northern part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west, and northward into the Arctic Ocean...

      , where the CBC Television
      CBC Television
      CBC Television is a Canadian television network owned by the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, the national public broadcaster.Although the CBC is supported by public funding, the television network supplements this funding with commercial advertising revenue, in contrast to CBC Radio which are...

      /Télévision de Radio-Canada
      Télévision de Radio-Canada
      Télévision de Radio-Canada is a Canadian French language television network. It is owned by the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, known in French as Société Radio-Canada. Headquarters are at Maison Radio-Canada in Montreal, which is also home to the network's flagship station, CBFT-DT...

       network is partly funded by taxpayer dollars, and otherwise supports itself with commercial advertising revenues as it competes with other free over-the-air
      Terrestrial television
      Terrestrial television is a mode of television broadcasting which does not involve satellite transmission or cables — typically using radio waves through transmitting and receiving antennas or television antenna aerials...

       commercial networks.


Free-to-air is often used for international broadcasting
International broadcasting
International broadcasting is broadcasting that is deliberately aimed at a foreign, rather than a domestic, audience. It usually is broadcast by means of longwave, mediumwave, or shortwave radio, but in recent years has also used direct satellite broadcasting and the Internet as means of reaching...

, making it something of a video equivalent to shortwave radio.
Most authorized FTA retailers list free to air channel guides and content available in North America for free to air use.

Australia

Australia
Australia
Australia , officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country in the Southern Hemisphere comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area...

 has 5 free-to-air major networks, ABC
Australian Broadcasting Corporation
The Australian Broadcasting Corporation, commonly referred to as "the ABC" , is Australia's national public broadcaster...

, Seven Network
Seven Network
The Seven Network is an Australian television network owned by Seven West Media Limited. It dates back to 4 November 1956, when the first stations on the VHF7 frequency were established in Melbourne and Sydney.It is currently the second largest network in the country in terms of population reach...

, Nine Network
Nine Network
The Nine Network , is an Australian television network with headquarters based in Willoughby, a suburb located on the North Shore of Sydney. For 50 years since television's inception in Australia, between 1956 and 2006, it was the most watched television network in Australia...

, Network Ten
Network Ten
Network Ten , is one of Australia's three major commercial television networks. Owned-and-operated stations can be found in Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Adelaide and Perth, while affiliates extend the network to cover most of the country...

, and SBS
SBS TV
SBS One is a national public television channel in Australia. Launched on 24 October 1980, it is the responsibility of SBS's television division, and is available nationally...

. Traditionally each network had only a single channel in any given geography, though with the advent of digital television each network now has one extra SD multichannel 7Two
7Two
7TWO is an Australian free-to-air standard definition digital television channel which was launched by the Seven Network on Sunday 1 November 2009 at 12pm....

, GO!
Go! (Australian TV channel)
GO! is an Australian free-to-air standard definition digital television channel launched by the Nine Network on Sunday 9 August 2009.-Origins:...

, Eleven
Eleven (TV channel)
Eleven is an Australian free-to-air standard definition digital television channel, which was launched by ElevenCo, on 11 January 2011.-Joint venture:...

 and SBS Two respectively, and one HD
High-definition television
High-definition television is video that has resolution substantially higher than that of traditional television systems . HDTV has one or two million pixels per frame, roughly five times that of SD...

 multichannel 7mate
7mate
7mate is an Australian free-to-air high definition digital television channel, which was launched by the Seven Network on 25 September 2010.The network stated that 7mate would contain sport and regular programs aimed primarily at a male audience, with programming drawn from a combination of new...

, GEM HD, One HD and SBS HD respectively. The Australian Broadcasting Corporation
Australian Broadcasting Corporation
The Australian Broadcasting Corporation, commonly referred to as "the ABC" , is Australia's national public broadcaster...

 is the only exception to this policy, probably because of its government ownership, the company runs three SD channels ABC1
ABC1
ABC1 was a United Kingdom based television channel from Disney using the branding of the Disney owned American network, ABC.The channel initially launched exclusively on the British digital terrestrial television platform Freeview on 27 September 2004. On 10 December 2004 it was launched on...

, ABC2
ABC2
ABC2 is a national public television channel in Australia. Launched on 7 March 2005, it is the responsibility of the Australian Broadcasting Corporation's television division, and is available nationally to digital television viewers in Australia...

 and ABC3
ABC3
-Future shows:Programming confirmed for future broadcast will include:* After School Care * Bindi's Boot Camp * Bushwacked! * Dance Academy * Dancing Down Under...

, with one HD channel ABC News 24
ABC News 24
ABC News 24 is an Australian 24-hour news channel launched and owned by the Australian Broadcasting Corporation. The channel replaced the former ABC High Definition simulcast of ABC1 and commenced broadcasting at 7:30pm 5:30 on Thursday, 22 July 2010.-Pre-launch:The ABC announced in January 2010...

. In addition to their primary channel (simulcast on both analogue and digital). ABC and SBS channels are available across Australia; outside the major capital cities, regional affiliates provide channels that are essentially identical to the metropolitan commercial channels. In addition, Community television provides one channel in some major cities.

Australia's two main government-owned TV channels
Public broadcasting
Public broadcasting includes radio, television and other electronic media outlets whose primary mission is public service. Public broadcasters receive funding from diverse sources including license fees, individual contributions, public financing and commercial financing.Public broadcasting may be...

, ABC
Australian Broadcasting Corporation
The Australian Broadcasting Corporation, commonly referred to as "the ABC" , is Australia's national public broadcaster...

 and SBS
Special Broadcasting Service
The Special Broadcasting Service is a hybrid-funded Australian public broadcasting radio and television network. The stated purpose of SBS is "to provide multilingual and multicultural radio and television services that inform, educate and entertain all Australians and, in doing so, reflect...

, along with the digital-only multichannels ABC2
ABC2
ABC2 is a national public television channel in Australia. Launched on 7 March 2005, it is the responsibility of the Australian Broadcasting Corporation's television division, and is available nationally to digital television viewers in Australia...

, ABC3
ABC3
-Future shows:Programming confirmed for future broadcast will include:* After School Care * Bindi's Boot Camp * Bushwacked! * Dance Academy * Dancing Down Under...

 and SBS Two, are both available free-to-air on the Optus D1 satellite. Viewers in remote parts of Australia can also access Seven Central and Imparja Television
Imparja Television
Imparja Television is an Australian television network servicing remote eastern and central Australia, that began broadcasting on 2 January 1988. It is based in Alice Springs, where it has a studio and satellite uplink facility. Notably, it is controlled by Australian Aborigines through ownership...

, or WIN WA and GWN
Golden West Network
GWN7 is an Australian television network owned by the Prime Media Group that is based in Bunbury, Western Australia. The Golden West Network launched on 10 March 1967 as BTW-3 in Bunbury, and has since expanded to cover regional and remote Western Australia, servicing all areas except metropolitan...

 in Western Australia
Western Australia
Western Australia is a state of Australia, occupying the entire western third of the Australian continent. It is bounded by the Indian Ocean to the north and west, the Great Australian Bight and Indian Ocean to the south, the Northern Territory to the north-east and South Australia to the south-east...

, through the free-to-view Optus Aurora
Optus Aurora
Optus Aurora is a free-to-view satellite television platform in Australia, aimed at providing television and radio services to remote and black spot areas using the Optus C1 and B3 satellites...

 service.

Other satellite-only channels such as NITV
National Indigenous Television
National Indigenous Television, commonly referred to as NITV, is an Australian television network broadcasting throughout Australia via satellite.-History:...

, TVSN
TVSN
Television Shopping Network is an Australian home shopping channel. It is owned by Innovations Direct Pty Ltd, a home shopping company based in Sydney, which also owns sister channel Expo.-History:...

, Expo
Expo Channel
Expo Channel is an Australian home shopping channel. It is owned by Direct Group Pty Ltd, a marketing and direct sales company based in Sydney, which also owns sister channel TVSN.-History:...

, Press TV
Press TV
Press TV is a 24-hour English language global news network owned by the Iranian government. Its headquarters are located in Tehran, Iran, with bureaux in Beirut , Damascus , London , Seoul and Washington DC ....

 and Al Jazeera English are available free-to-air on various satellites.

Brazil

In Brazil
Brazil
Brazil , officially the Federative Republic of Brazil , is the largest country in South America. It is the world's fifth largest country, both by geographical area and by population with over 192 million people...

 the main FTA satellite is the Star One C2
Star One C2
Star One C2 is a Brazilian communications satellite. It was launched on 18 April 2008 by an Ariane 5ECA carrier rocket, as part of a dual-payload launch with Vinasat-1. It was built by Thales Alenia Space, based on the Spacebus-3000B3 satellite bus...

, it holds approximately 30 C-band analog channels, including all major networks like Rede Globo
Rede Globo
Rede Globo , or simply Globo, is a Brazilian television network, launched by media mogul Roberto Marinho on April 26, 1965. It is owned by media conglomerate Organizações Globo, being by far the largest of its holdings...

, SBT, Record
Rede Record
Rede Record de Televisão is a Brazilian television network, founded in 1953 by Paulo Machado de Carvalho, also founder of Rádio Record. Currently it is owned by businessman Edir Macedo, founder and bishop of the Universal Church of the Kingdom of God. Since 2007 it is Brazil's second largest...

, RedeTV!, Band
Rede Bandeirantes
Rede Bandeirantes , officially nicknamed Band or Band Network, is a television network from Brazil, based in São Paulo. Part of the Grupo Bandeirantes de Comunicação , it aired for the first time in 1967...

 and others, and 5 digital HDTV channels.+itv 1

Europe

The term free-to-air, in Europe (or the UK, as the English-speaking part of Europe), would be taken by most people to refer to non-pay distribution, regardless of distribution method - in particular, it would be assumed to refer to terrestrial broadcasting. However, the remainder of this section concentrates on satellite FTA only.
European countries have a tradition of most television services being free to air. Germany, in particular, receives in excess of 100 digital TV channels free to air, including MTV
MTV
MTV, formerly an initialism of Music Television, is an American network based in New York City that launched on August 1, 1981. The original purpose of the channel was to play music videos guided by on-air hosts known as VJs....

 (which remains encrypted for much of Europe). Approximately half of the television channels on Astra
SES Astra
Astra is the name for the geostationary communication satellites, both individually and as a group, which are owned and operated by SES S.A., a global satellite operator based in Betzdorf, in eastern Luxembourg. The name is sometimes also used to describe the channels broadcasting from these...

's 19.2° east
Astra 19.2°E
Astra 19.2°E is the name for the group of communications satellites co-located at the 19.2°East orbital position in the Clarke Belt that are owned and operated by SES Astra, a subsidiary of SES based in Betzdorf, Luxembourg....

 and 28.2° east
Astra 28.2°E
Astra 28.2°E is the name for the group of Astra communications satellites co-located at the 28.2° East position in the Clarke Belt that are owned and operated by SES based in Betzdorf, Luxembourg...

 satellite positions, and Eutelsat
Eutelsat
Eutelsat S.A. is a French-based satellite provider. Providing coverage over the entire European continent, as well as the Middle East, Africa, India and significant parts of Asia and the Americas, it is one of the world's three leading satellite operators in terms of revenues.Eutelsat’s satellites...

's Hot Bird
Hot Bird
Hot Bird is the name of a popular family of satellites operated by Eutelsat, located at 13°E over the Equator and with a transmitting footprint over Europe, North Africa and the Middle East....

 (13°E) are free-to-air.

In Austria
Austria
Austria , officially the Republic of Austria , is a landlocked country of roughly 8.4 million people in Central Europe. It is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north, Slovakia and Hungary to the east, Slovenia and Italy to the south, and Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the...

, the main national networks which broadcast via satellite are encrypted for copyright reasons, but there are no subscriptions. Instead, almost every receiver sold in Austria is equipped with a standardized decryption device which allows to watch the Austrian channels without any ongoing cost, so Austrian channels are encrypted in order to respect all copyright issues but are still free to watch. Legally, it is a copyright offense to export the decryption cards to neighboring countries in order to watch Austrian TV there. Nevertheless, all regional or smaller channels from Austria are transmitted free-to-air via satellite and the national public broadcaster ORF
ORF
ORF may refer to:* ORF , the Austrian public service broadcaster.* Open reading frame, a portion of the genome.* The IATA airport code for Norfolk International Airport in Norfolk, Virginia.* ORF format , Olympus raw image file format....

 offers a special free-to-air channel which airs selected programming without copyright issues via satellite all over Europe.
As Germany and Austria speak the same language and use the same satellite, Austrian viewers are able to receive about 120 free German-speaking channels from both countries.

In general, all satellite radio
Satellite radio
Satellite radio is an analogue or digital radio signal that is relayed through one or more satellites and thus can be received in a much wider geographical area than terrestrial FM radio stations...

 in Europe is free to air, but the more conventional broadcast systems in use mean that SiriusXM style in-car reception is not possible.

A number of European channels which one might expect to receive in free-to-air - including many countries' national terrestrial broadcasters - do not do so via satellite for copyright
Copyright
Copyright is a legal concept, enacted by most governments, giving the creator of an original work exclusive rights to it, usually for a limited time...

 reasons. Rights to purchase programmes for free-to-air broadcast, especially via satellite, are often higher in price than for encrypted broadcasts. However, these channels usually provide a scheme to offer free, but encrypted, viewing with free-to-view
Free-to-view
Free-to-view is a term used for free of charge and encrypted audio and/or video contents transmission that do not require any form of continual subscription...

 broadcasts. The UK's Channel Five, certain programming on Italy's RAI
RAI
RAI — Radiotelevisione italiana S.p.A. known until 1954 as Radio Audizioni Italiane, is the Italian state owned public service broadcaster controlled by the Ministry of Economic Development. Rai is the biggest television company in Italy...

, and the majority of Dutch channels are covered by such schemes (although in the case of RAI some programming is transmitted without encryption where there are no copyright issues).

Cable and satellite distribution allows many more channels to carry sports, movies and specialist channels which are not broadcast as FTA. The viewing figures for these channels are much lower than the FTA channels.

New Zealand

The national networks, Television New Zealand
Television New Zealand
Television New Zealand, more commonly referred to, and stylized as TVNZ, is a government-owned corporation television network broadcasting in New Zealand and parts of the Pacific. It operates TV1, TV2, TVNZ7, TVNZ Heartland, TVNZ U and new media services....

 TV ONE and TV2, as well as TV3
TV3 (New Zealand)
TV3 is a New Zealand commercial television network, owned by MediaWorks New Zealand. Launched on 26 November 1989, the first private television network in New Zealand...

, Four (formerly C4), Prime
Prime Television New Zealand
Prime is the seventh national free-to-air television station in New Zealand. The station airs a mixed group of programmes, largely imported from Australia, the UK and the United States, as well as free-to-air rugby union, cricket and rugby league matches....

, Triangle TV and Māori Television
Maori Television
Māori Television is a New Zealand TV station broadcasting programmes that make a significant contribution to the revitalisation of the Māori language and culture . Funded by the New Zealand Government, the station started broadcasting on 28 March 2004 from a base in Newmarket.Te Reo is the...

 are free-to-air analog signals. Additionally, satellite reception is available on Optus D1 - branded Freeview. A new Channel - TVNZ6 was introduced which will only be available on Freeview. A broadcast of parliament and a number of regional channels are also available. A Digital Terrestrial version of Freeview was launched in 2008, which, unlike the analog and satellite options, supports high definition broadcasts.

North America

There are a number of competing systems in use, with early adopters having used C-band satellite dish
Satellite dish
A satellite dish is a dish-shaped type of parabolic antenna designed to receive microwaves from communications satellites, which transmit data transmissions or broadcasts, such as satellite television.-Principle of operation:...

es of several feet in diameter to receive signals which were originally analogue microwaves, and then digital microwave using the 3.7-4.2 GHz band. Today, in the 11.7-12.2 GHz Ku band, which enables the use of under one-meter dishes, with most often the DVB-S
DVB-S
DVB-S is an abbreviation for Digital Video Broadcasting — Satellite; it is the original Digital Video Broadcasting forward error coding and demodulation standard for satellite television and dates from 1994, in its first release, while development lasted from 1993 to 1997...

 standard, FTA can be used from apartment balconies.

The most common North American sources for free-to-air DVB satellite television
Satellite television
Satellite television is television programming delivered by the means of communications satellite and received by an outdoor antenna, usually a parabolic mirror generally referred to as a satellite dish, and as far as household usage is concerned, a satellite receiver either in the form of an...

 are:
  • NHK World HD on Intelsat 9 (58°W)
  • Retro Television Network
    Retro Television Network
    The Retro Television Network is a system of television stations that airs classic television shows as well as more recently produced programs...

     on AMC 9 (83°W)
  • NASA TV
    NASA TV
    NASA TV is the television service of the United States government agency NASA. NASA TV is broadcast by satellite with a simulcast over the Internet. Local cable television systems across the U.S. and amateur television repeaters may carry NASA TV at their discretion, as NASA-created content is...

     Multi-channel (NASA HD, NASA Public, NASA Media, NASA Education), TVU Music channel
    TVU Music channel
    TVU Music Television is a commercial-free, Christian rock television network which broadcasts through the Internet, Sky Angel and KTV. TVU began in 2001, and is owned and operated by Spirit Communications Incorporated, and is a fully non-profit, listener-supported station...

     and This TV
    This TV
    This TV is a United States general entertainment television network, with a large emphasis in its programming on movies....

     on AMC 3
    AMC 3
    AMC-3 is a commercial broadcast communications satellite owned by SES World Skies, formerly SES Americom and before that GE Americom. Launched on September 4, 1997, from Cape Canaveral, Florida, AMC-3 is a hybrid C band/Ku band satellite. It provides coverage to the continental United States,...

     (87°W)
  • ABC News Now
    ABC News Now
    ABC News Now is an American 24-hour news channel offered via digital television, broadband and streaming video at ABCNews.com and on mobile phones. It delivers breaking news, headline news each half hour, and wide range of entertainment and lifestyle programs. The channel is currently available in...

     on Galaxy 28
    Galaxy 28
    Galaxy 28 is a communications satellite owned by Intelsat located at 89° W longitude, serving the North American market. It was built by Space Systems/Loral, as part of its FS-1300 line. Galaxy 28 was formerly known as Intelsat Americas 8 and Telstar 8...

     (89°W)
  • Eternal Word Television Network
    Eternal Word Television Network
    The Eternal Word Television Network is an American cable television network which presents Catholic-themed programming. It was founded in 1980 by Mother Mary Angelica of the Annunciation, PCPA...

     on Galaxy 17
    Galaxy 17
    Galaxy 17 is a communications satellite owned by Intelsat to be located at 91° West longitude, serving the North American market. Galaxy 17 was intended to replace SBS 6...

     (91°W)
  • My Family TV
    My Family TV
    My Family TV is a United States general entertainment television network jointly owned by ValCom and Luken Communications, and based in Chattanooga, Tennessee.-History:...

     on Galaxy 3C (95°W).
  • AMGTV
    AMGTV
    AMGTV is an American family-oriented television network, featuring programming including sitcoms, lifestyle programs, sports, films and more...

     and BYU Television
    BYU Television
    __NOEDITSECTION__Brigham Young University Television is a cable/satellite television channel operated by Brigham Young University...

     on Galaxy 19
    Galaxy 19
    Galaxy 19 is a communications satellite owned by Intelsat located at 97° West longitude, serving the North American market. Galaxy 19 replaced Galaxy 25 which is nearing the end of its design life and has been moved to 93.1°W longitude. It was built by Space Systems/Loral, as part of its FS-1300...

     (97°W)
  • English and foreign language broadcasters RT (TV network)
    RT (TV network)
    RT, previously known as Russia Today, is a global multilingual television news network based in the Russian Federation run by the state-owned state-run RIA Novosti....

    , MHz Worldview
    MHz Worldview
    MHz WorldView is an independent, non-commercial Public television network that broadcasts newscasts and other programs from around the world. It is owned and operated by Commonwealth Public Broadcasting Corporation who also run MHz Networks....

    , Ebru TV, IRINN
    IRINN
    IRINN stands for Islamic Republic of Iran News Network and is a full news channel, part of Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting corporation, headquartered in the Jame Jam Park in Tehran, Iran. The main programs are political, but sports, science and medical news programs also exist...

    , Al Jazeera English and more up-linked by GlobeCast World TV
    GlobeCast World TV
    GlobeCast World TV is a direct-to-home provider of free-to-air and Nagravision-encrypted ethnic television and audio channels via the Galaxy 19 satellite received in North America...

     on Galaxy 19
    Galaxy 19
    Galaxy 19 is a communications satellite owned by Intelsat located at 97° West longitude, serving the North American market. Galaxy 19 replaced Galaxy 25 which is nearing the end of its design life and has been moved to 93.1°W longitude. It was built by Space Systems/Loral, as part of its FS-1300...

     (97°W)
  • Christian broadcasters The Word Network, Emmanuel TV
    Emmanuel TV
    Emmanuel TV is one of Africa's largest Christian television networks with headquarters in Lagos, Nigeria, founded by T.B. Joshua, Pastor of The Synagogue, Church Of All Nations .-History:...

    , Daystar Television Network
    Daystar Television Network
    The Daystar Television Network is an American evangelical Christian television religious broadcasting network headquartered near Dallas/Fort Worth Metroplex in Bedford, Texas...

    , JCTV
    JCTV
    JCTV is a young adult television network devoted to music videos, owned by the Trinity Broadcasting Network. It is similar to MTV, but with a Christian focus....

    , Trinity Broadcasting Network
    Trinity Broadcasting Network
    The Trinity Broadcasting Network is a major American Christian television network. TBN is based in Costa Mesa, California, with auxiliary studio facilities in Irving, Texas; Hendersonville, Tennessee; Gadsden, Alabama; Decatur, Georgia; Miami, Florida; Tulsa, Oklahoma; Orlando, Florida; and New...

    , The Church Channel
    The Church Channel
    The Church Channel is a Christian television network owned by Trinity Broadcasting Network . It broadcasts church service programs 24 hours per day, seven days a week from several of America’s leading churches, representing several Christian denominations, as well as independent and...

    , 3ABN
    3ABN
    Three Angels Broadcasting Network, or 3ABN for short, is a nonprofit, 24-hour television and radio network that primarily focuses on Christian and health-oriented programming...

    , The Hope Channel
    The Hope Channel
    Hope Channel is an international Seventh-day Adventist TV network and the flagship station of the Adventist Television Network . Hope Channel features programming produced by Adventist churches, colleges, hospitals and institutions, covering religious, health, educational and family life topics...

    , Amazing Facts
    Amazing Facts
    Amazing Facts is an American Christian ministry. Beginning as a single radio program in 1966 it has expanded into television programming, training, health, prophecy seminars and online Bible study ministries. Its theology is largely that of the Seventh-day Adventist Church.-History:Amazing Facts...

     Television, God's Learning Channel
    God's Learning Channel
    God's Learning Channel is a Judeo-Christian television network which is based in the Southwestern United States. Based on the Messianic Judaism movement, it describes itself as "teaching the Torah and the true roots of Christianity", and its programming features a mixture of Christian and Jewish...

     and more promoted by Glorystar
    Glorystar
    GloryStar Satellite Systems is a Direct to Home religious based satellite service. They provide ministry support services by partnering with Christian broadcasters and a vendor of satellite television equipment oriented towards viewers of satellite-delivered Christian broadcast ministries.-...

     & Spiritcast
    Spiritcast
    Spiritcast is a direct to home satellite satellite equipment reseller that provides Christian satellite television and audio programming to households and businesses in the United States.It is owned by WS International...

     Satellite Systems TV on Galaxy 19
    Galaxy 19
    Galaxy 19 is a communications satellite owned by Intelsat located at 97° West longitude, serving the North American market. Galaxy 19 replaced Galaxy 25 which is nearing the end of its design life and has been moved to 93.1°W longitude. It was built by Space Systems/Loral, as part of its FS-1300...

     (97°W)
  • Pentagon Channel
    Pentagon Channel
    The Pentagon Channel is a TV channel broadcasting military news and information for the 2.6 million members of the U.S. Armed Forces. It is widely available on US Public, educational, and government access cable tv channels, can be viewed FTA in most Central and Western European countries ,...

     on AMC 1
    Amc 1
    AMC 1 is a geosynchronous satellite used for communications. It is a hybrid C Band/Ku band spacecraft. It is currently operated by SES Americom.Spacecraft design: Lockheed Martin A2100Orbital location: 103° WDesign life: 15 years...

     (103°W)
  • Jewish Life Television
    Jewish Life Television
    Jewish Life Television is the world’s only 24-hour, full-time TV network delivering Jewish-themed programming.  Launched in 2007, JLTV offers news, sports, lifestyle and entertainment programming including films, documentaries, music, reviews, interviews and special events...

     and University of Washington TV on Galaxy 18
    Galaxy 18
    Galaxy 18 is a Space Systems/Loral 1300-series hybrid communications satellite owned by Intelsat and located in geosynchronous orbit at 123° W longitude, serving the continental United States, Alaska, Hawaii, Mexico, and Canada with 24 C-band, and 24 Ku band transponders...

     (123°W)
  • Montana Public Broadcasting Service
    KUSM
    Montana PBS is the Public Broadcasting Service member Public television state network for Montana. It is a joint venture between Montana State University and the University of Montana-Missoula...

     and other PBS Satellite Services on AMC 21 (125°W)
  • Classic Arts Showcase
    Classic Arts Showcase
    Classic Arts Showcase is a television channel in the United States promoting the fine arts. The television program content includes prepared media and recorded live performances...

     on Galaxy 17
    Galaxy 17
    Galaxy 17 is a communications satellite owned by Intelsat to be located at 91° West longitude, serving the North American market. Galaxy 17 was intended to replace SBS 6...

     (91°W) and Eternal Word Television Network
    Eternal Word Television Network
    The Eternal Word Television Network is an American cable television network which presents Catholic-themed programming. It was founded in 1980 by Mother Mary Angelica of the Annunciation, PCPA...

     HD on Galaxy 15
    Galaxy 15
    Galaxy 15 is an American telecommunications satellite which is owned by Intelsat. It was launched for and originally operated by PanAmSat, and was subsequently transferred to Intelsat when the two companies merged in 2006. It was originally positioned in geostationary orbit at a longitude of 133°...

     (133°W)
  • Football, Basketball, Baseball, Soccer, and Hockey wildfeed
    Wildfeed
    Wildfeed refers to an unannounced transmission of a television program via C band or Ku band satellite. These programs include sporting events, news, and syndicated shows and are often unedited....

    s on various satellites


Most of these signals are carried by US
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 satellites. There is little or no free Canadian DVB-S content available to users of medium-size dishes as much of the available Ku-band satellite bandwidth is occupied by pay-TV operators Shaw Direct and Bell TV, although the large style dish (over 3 feet/90 cm) does have a few choices. FTA signals may be scattered across multiple satellites, requiring a motor or multiple LNB
Low-noise block converter
A low-noise block downconverter is the receiving device of a parabolic satellite dish antenna of the type commonly used for satellite TV reception...

s to receive everything.

The largest groups of end-users for Ku-band free-to-air signals were initially the ethnic-language communities, as often free ethnic-language programming would be sponsored by Multilingual American Communities and their broadcasters. Depending on language and origin of the individual signals, North American ethnic-language TV is a mix of pay-TV, free-to-air and DBS operations. Today, many American broadcasters send a multitude of programming channels in many languages, spanning many new channels, so they can get National support, which ultimately leads to carriage by cable systems, to additionally support the high costs of broadcasting signals in this way.

Nonetheless, free-to-air satellite TV is a viable addition to any home video system, not only for the reception of specialized content but also for use in locations where terrestrial ATSC
ATSC
ATSC standards are a set of standards developed by the Advanced Television Systems Committee for digital television transmission over terrestrial, cable, and satellite networks....

 over-the-air reception is incomplete and additional channels are desired.

South Asia

Around 50 FTA television channels are broadcast from three transponders on the INSAT-4B satellite covering India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Nepal, Sri Lanka and parts of Afghanistan, China, and Myanmar. In India, the channels are marketed as DD Direct Plus
DD Direct Plus
DD Direct+ is an Indian free-to-air digital satellite television owned by Doordarshan. Which provides digital video and audio programming to households and businesses in India. It offers a satellite alternative to the free-view service on digital terrestrial television, with a broadly similar...

 by Doordarshan
DoorDarshan
Doordarshan is an Indian public service broadcaster, a division of Prasar Bharati. It is one of the largest broadcasting organizations in India in terms of the infrastructure of studios and transmitters. Recently, it has also started Digital Terrestrial Transmitters. On September 15, 2009,...

, India's national broadcaster. In Hong Kong, the largest and dominant television channel Television Broadcasts Limited
Television Broadcasts Limited
Television Broadcasts Limited, commonly known as TVB, is the second over-the-air commercial television station in Hong Kong. It commenced broadcasting on 19 November 1967...

, was the first free-to-air commercial television channel when it commenced broadcasting on 19 November 1967. It may also well be the among the oldest and first station to broadcast over-the-air in Southeast Asia.

South Korea

In Korea, KBS, MBC
Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation
Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC (Hangul : 문화방송주식회사, Munhwa Bangsong Jushikoesa) is one of four major national South Korean television and radio networks. Munhwa is the Korean word for "culture". Its flagship terrestrial television...

 (2 main public broadcaster, such as the ARD
ARD (broadcaster)
ARD is a joint organization of Germany's regional public-service broadcasters...

 and ZDF
ZDF
Zweites Deutsches Fernsehen , ZDF, is a public-service German television broadcaster based in Mainz . It is run as an independent non-profit institution, which was founded by the German federal states . The ZDF is financed by television licence fees called GEZ and advertising revenues...

 of Germany
Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

), SBS (privately owned, but for free to viewers), and EBS
Educational Broadcasting System
Educational Broadcasting System or EBS is the only educational television and radio network covering South Korean territory. Established as KBS 3TV in the 1980's, and became an independent corporation in 2000...

 (including both TV and Radio
Radio
Radio is the transmission of signals through free space by modulation of electromagnetic waves with frequencies below those of visible light. Electromagnetic radiation travels by means of oscillating electromagnetic fields that pass through the air and the vacuum of space...

) are the free-to-air broadcasting stations.
They dominate more than 80% of advertisement profits, according to the recent survey from the agency.
Due to the recent government's decision, Digital TV service for all free-to-air network will be scheduled before the year 2012, following at the end of analogue-based current broadcast.

See also

  • Satellite dish
    Satellite dish
    A satellite dish is a dish-shaped type of parabolic antenna designed to receive microwaves from communications satellites, which transmit data transmissions or broadcasts, such as satellite television.-Principle of operation:...

  • Satellite television
    Satellite television
    Satellite television is television programming delivered by the means of communications satellite and received by an outdoor antenna, usually a parabolic mirror generally referred to as a satellite dish, and as far as household usage is concerned, a satellite receiver either in the form of an...

  • Set-top box
    Set-top box
    A set-top box or set-top unit is an information appliance device that generally contains a tuner and connects to a television set and an external source of signal, turning the signal into content which is then displayed on the television screen or other display device.-History:Before the...

  • Freeview
  • FTA receiver
    FTA Receiver
    A free-to-air or FTA Receiver is a satellite television receiver designed to receive unencrypted broadcasts. Modern decoders are typically compliant with the MPEG-2/DVB-S and more recently the MPEG-4/DVB-S2 standard for digital television, while older FTA receivers relied on analog satellite...


External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
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