Flame structure
A flame structure is a type of soft-sediment deformation that forms in unlithified sediments. The weight of an overlying bed
In geology and related fields, a stratum is a layer of sedimentary rock or soil with internally consistent characteristics that distinguish it from other layers...

 forces an underlying bed to push up through the overlying bed, generally when both strata are saturated with water. The resulting pattern (in cross section) may resemble flame
A flame is the visible , gaseous part of a fire. It is caused by a highly exothermic reaction taking place in a thin zone...


The structures occur under pressure; they are often triggered by earthquakes of magnitude
Seismic scale
A seismic scale is used to calculate and compare the severity of earthquakes....

> 6, which can initiate flaming in large (hundreds to thousands of square kilometres) areas, but can also be caused by the repeated pounding of waves.
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