Finger Lakes
Overview
 
The Finger Lakes are a pattern of lakes in the west-central section of Upstate New York
Upstate New York
Upstate New York is the region of the U.S. state of New York that is located north of the core of the New York metropolitan area.-Definition:There is no clear or official boundary between Upstate New York and Downstate New York...

 in the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

. They are a popular tourist destination. The lakes are long and thin (resembling fingers), each oriented roughly on a north-south axis. The two longest, Cayuga Lake
Cayuga Lake
Cayuga Lake   is the longest of central New York's glacial Finger Lakes, and is the second largest in surface area and second largest in volume. It is just under 40 miles long. Its average width is 1.7 miles , and it is at its widest point near Aurora...

 and Seneca Lake, are among the deepest in America. Both are close to 40 miles (64 km) from end to end, and never more than 3.5 miles (5.6 km) wide.
Encyclopedia
The Finger Lakes are a pattern of lakes in the west-central section of Upstate New York
Upstate New York
Upstate New York is the region of the U.S. state of New York that is located north of the core of the New York metropolitan area.-Definition:There is no clear or official boundary between Upstate New York and Downstate New York...

 in the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

. They are a popular tourist destination. The lakes are long and thin (resembling fingers), each oriented roughly on a north-south axis. The two longest, Cayuga Lake
Cayuga Lake
Cayuga Lake   is the longest of central New York's glacial Finger Lakes, and is the second largest in surface area and second largest in volume. It is just under 40 miles long. Its average width is 1.7 miles , and it is at its widest point near Aurora...

 and Seneca Lake, are among the deepest in America. Both are close to 40 miles (64 km) from end to end, and never more than 3.5 miles (5.6 km) wide. Cayuga is the longest (38.1 miles, 61 km) and Seneca the largest in total area. Seneca is the deepest (618 feet, 188 m), followed by Cayuga (435 feet, 133 m), with their bottoms well below sea level. These largest lakes resemble the others in shape, which collectively reminded early map-makers of the fingers of a hand. Oneida Lake
Oneida Lake
Oneida Lake is the largest lake entirely within New York State . The lake is located northeast of Syracuse and near the Great Lakes. It serves as one of the links in the Erie Canal. It empties into the Oneida River which flows into the Oswego River which in turn flows into Lake Ontario...

 is generally not considered one of the Finger Lakes, but it is sometimes called the "thumb
Thumb
The thumb is the first digit of the hand. When a person is standing in the medical anatomical position , the thumb is the lateral-most digit...

".

Lakes

The eleven Finger Lakes from east to west are: Otisco Lake
Otisco Lake
Otisco Lake is one of the minor Finger Lakes, located at the eastern end of the Finger Lake District, southwest of Syracuse, New York.Otisco Lake is approximately six miles long. The outflow enters first Onondaga Lake via Nine Mile Creek and then Lake Ontario via the Seneca and Oswego Rivers...

 • Skaneateles Lake
Skaneateles Lake
Skaneateles Lake is one of the Finger Lakes in central New York in the United States. The name Skaneateles means long lake in one of the local Iroquoian languages. The lake is sometimes referred to as "The Roof Garden of the Lakes" because its altitude is higher than the other Finger Lakes. It...

 • Owasco Lake
Owasco Lake
Owasco Lake is the sixth largest and third easternmost of the Finger Lakes of New York in the United States of America . The name Owasco can be roughly translated from a Mohawk and Iroquois term meaning "crossing"....

 • Cayuga Lake
Cayuga Lake
Cayuga Lake   is the longest of central New York's glacial Finger Lakes, and is the second largest in surface area and second largest in volume. It is just under 40 miles long. Its average width is 1.7 miles , and it is at its widest point near Aurora...

 • Seneca Lake • Keuka Lake
Keuka Lake
Keuka Lake is an unusual member of New York's Finger Lakes because it is Y-shaped, instead of long and narrow. Because of its shape, it was referred to in the past as Crooked Lake...

 • Canandaigua Lake
Canandaigua Lake
Canandaigua Lake is the fourth largest of the Finger Lakes, in the U.S. state of New York. The city of Canandaigua is located at the northern shore of the lake and the village of Naples is just a few miles south of the southern end...

 • Honeoye Lake
Honeoye Lake
Honeoye Lake is one of the Finger Lakes of New York State in the USA. The lake is in Ontario County. Honeoye is an Iroquois word translated as "a lying finger," or "where the finger lies." Most of the lake is within the town of Richmond but a smaller southwestern part is in the town of Canadice...

 • Canadice Lake
Canadice Lake
Canadice Lake is one of the minor Finger Lakes of western New York in the USA.Canadice Lake has a shoreline 6.5 miles long and a maximum depth of 95 feet . Because the lake is a water source of Rochester, New York, no houses are permitted on its shore and boats are limited to 16 feet in length...

 • Hemlock Lake
Hemlock Lake
Hemlock Lake is one of the minor Finger Lakes. It is mostly located in Livingston County, New York, south of Rochester, with a portion overlapping into Ontario County....

 • Conesus Lake
Conesus Lake
Conesus Lake is one of the minor Finger Lakes in western New York. It is western-most of eleven total Finger Lakes. The lake's outlet is in Lakeville, New York a hamlet in the Town of Livonia, New York in Livingston County, south of Rochester, New York. The lake's inlet is in the Town of Conesus,...



Cazenovia Lake
Cazenovia Lake
Cazenovia Lake is a lake in New York, United States. It is located 20 miles from Syracuse, New York. Cazenovia, New York is located southeast of the lake. The lake is roughly 4 miles long and 0.5 mile wide...

 to the east, although smaller, is sometimes called "the twelfth Finger Lake," because it is similar in shape, located in Appalachian hill terrain, with a historic village linked to other Finger Lakes by US 20
U.S. Route 20 in New York
U.S. Route 20 is a part of the U.S. Highway System that runs from Newport, Oregon, to Boston, Massachusetts. In the U.S. state of New York, US 20 extends from the Pennsylvania state line at Ripley to the Massachusetts state line in the Berkshire Mountains. US 20 is the longest...

. It may have been formed in the same manner as the Finger Lakes, as satellite photos show three valleys similar in character and spacing to the Finger Lakes east of Otisco Lake. The first is the Tully
Tully, New York
Tully, New York may refer to:* Tully , New York* Tully , New York...

 Valley, which includes a chain of small lakes at the south end that could be a "Finger Lake" that never formed because of a terminal moraine
Terminal moraine
A terminal moraine, also called end moraine, is a moraine that forms at the end of the glacier called the snout.Terminal moraines mark the maximum advance of the glacier. An end moraine is at the present boundary of the glacier....

. The moraine caused the Tioughnioga River
Tioughnioga River
The Tioughnioga River is a tributary of the Chenango River in central New York in the United States. It drains a dissected plateau area east of the Finger Lakes at the northernmost edge of the watershed of the Susquehanna River....

 to flow south instead of north, the opposite of the other waters of the Finger Lakes. The next two valleys to the east contain Butternut Creek, which flows north, and the East Branch of the Tioughnioga River, which flows south. The next valley contains Limestone Creek, which flows north. The next valley after that contains Cazenovia Lake.
Oneida Lake
Oneida Lake
Oneida Lake is the largest lake entirely within New York State . The lake is located northeast of Syracuse and near the Great Lakes. It serves as one of the links in the Erie Canal. It empties into the Oneida River which flows into the Oswego River which in turn flows into Lake Ontario...

, to the northeast of Syracuse, New York
Syracuse, New York
Syracuse is a city in and the county seat of Onondaga County, New York, United States, the largest U.S. city with the name "Syracuse", and the fifth most populous city in the state. At the 2010 census, the city population was 145,170, and its metropolitan area had a population of 742,603...

, is sometimes included as the "thumb," although it is shallow and somewhat different in character from the rest. Onondaga Lake
Onondaga Lake
Onondaga Lake is a lake in Central New York located northwest of Syracuse, New York. The southeastern end of the lake and the southwestern shore abut industrial areas and expressways; the northeastern shore and northwestern end border a series of parks and museums. Although it is near the Finger...

, though located just north of the Finger Lakes region, is not considered one of the Finger Lakes. As with Oneida and Cazenovia Lakes, it drains into Lake Ontario and the St. Lawrence River. Likewise, Chautauqua Lake
Chautauqua Lake
Chautauqua Lake is located entirely within Chautauqua County, New York, USA. The lake is approximately long and wide at its greatest width. The surface area is approximately 13,000 acres . The maximum depth is about 78 feet...

 to the west is not considered a Finger Lake; it drains into the Allegheny River
Allegheny River
The Allegheny River is a principal tributary of the Ohio River; it is located in the Eastern United States. The Allegheny River joins with the Monongahela River to form the Ohio River at the "Point" of Point State Park in Downtown Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania...

 and eventually into the Gulf of Mexico
Gulf of Mexico
The Gulf of Mexico is a partially landlocked ocean basin largely surrounded by the North American continent and the island of Cuba. It is bounded on the northeast, north and northwest by the Gulf Coast of the United States, on the southwest and south by Mexico, and on the southeast by Cuba. In...

.

Conesus, Hemlock, Canadice, Honeoye, and Otisco are considered the minor Finger Lakes. Other, smaller lakes, including Silver, Waneta
Waneta Lake
Waneta Lake is a small lake in the Finger Lakes region of the state of New York in the United States. The lake straddles the border of Schuyler County and Steuben County, and is within the towns of Tyrone and Wayne. Waneta Lake is 3.5 miles long and half a mile wide , and lies just east of the...

, and Lamoka
Lamoka Lake
Lamoka Lake is a small crescent-shaped lake in the western part of New York, USA. The lake is located at the border of Schuyler County and Steuben County. Most of the lake is in Schuyler County with only a small part, called "Mill Pond," at the southwest corner in Steuben County...

 lakes, dot this region. However, Waneta and Lamoka lakes are part of the Susquehanna River
Susquehanna River
The Susquehanna River is a river located in the northeastern United States. At long, it is the longest river on the American east coast that drains into the Atlantic Ocean, and with its watershed it is the 16th largest river in the United States, and the longest river in the continental United...

 watershed
Drainage basin
A drainage basin is an extent or an area of land where surface water from rain and melting snow or ice converges to a single point, usually the exit of the basin, where the waters join another waterbody, such as a river, lake, reservoir, estuary, wetland, sea, or ocean...

 as they drain into a tributary of the Chemung River
Chemung River
The Chemung River is a tributary of the Susquehanna River, approximately long, in south central New York and northern Pennsylvania in the United States. It drains a mountainous region of the northern Allegheny Plateau in the Southern Tier of New York...

.
East of Oneida and Cazenovia Lakes are the headwaters of the Susquehanna River
Susquehanna River
The Susquehanna River is a river located in the northeastern United States. At long, it is the longest river on the American east coast that drains into the Atlantic Ocean, and with its watershed it is the 16th largest river in the United States, and the longest river in the continental United...

 and Hudson River
Hudson River
The Hudson is a river that flows from north to south through eastern New York. The highest official source is at Lake Tear of the Clouds, on the slopes of Mount Marcy in the Adirondack Mountains. The river itself officially begins in Henderson Lake in Newcomb, New York...

 watersheds (the former in the foothills of the Catskills, the latter through the Mohawk Valley
Mohawk Valley
The Mohawk Valley region of the U.S. state of New York is the area surrounding the Mohawk River, sandwiched between the Adirondack Mountains and Catskill Mountains....

 and southern Adirondacks).

The 2000 acres (8.1 km²) muckland of a valley located in Potter, New York
Potter, New York
Potter is a town in Yates County, New York, in the United States. The Town of Potter is located in the northwest part of the county and is south of Canandaigua, NY. The population was 1,830 at the 2000 census.- History :...

, which is part of Torrey Farms
Torrey Farms
Torrey Farms is the name of a large, 11-generation family farm located in Elba , New York, with another farm located in Potter, New York. It is one of the largest vegetable-crop farms in New York. The land itself, which is over 10,000 acres, is primarily muckland, which is drained swampland...

, is considered to be almost a twelfth Finger Lake, as the waterline is just below the surface. It used to be a swamp.

Geology

The lakes originated as a series of northward-flowing rivers. Around two million years ago the first of many continental glaciers moved southward from the Hudson Bay
Hudson Bay
Hudson Bay , sometimes called Hudson's Bay, is a large body of saltwater in northeastern Canada. It drains a very large area, about , that includes parts of Ontario, Quebec, Saskatchewan, Alberta, most of Manitoba, southeastern Nunavut, as well as parts of North Dakota, South Dakota, Minnesota,...

 area, initiating the Pleistocene
Pleistocene
The Pleistocene is the epoch from 2,588,000 to 11,700 years BP that spans the world's recent period of repeated glaciations. The name pleistocene is derived from the Greek and ....

 glaciation.
These glaciers rode in and accentuated the existing river valleys.
Evidence of their action can be seen in the terminal moraine
Terminal moraine
A terminal moraine, also called end moraine, is a moraine that forms at the end of the glacier called the snout.Terminal moraines mark the maximum advance of the glacier. An end moraine is at the present boundary of the glacier....

s at the southern ends of these lakes.

Wine


The Finger Lakes area is New York's largest wine
Wine
Wine is an alcoholic beverage, made of fermented fruit juice, usually from grapes. The natural chemical balance of grapes lets them ferment without the addition of sugars, acids, enzymes, or other nutrients. Grape wine is produced by fermenting crushed grapes using various types of yeast. Yeast...

 producing region. Over 100 wineries and vineyards are located around Seneca, Cayuga, Canandaigua, Keuka, Conesus and Hemlock lakes. Because of the lakes' great depth, they provide a lake effect to the lush vineyards that flank their shores. Retaining residual summer warmth in the winter, and winter's cold in the spring, the grapes are protected from disastrous spring frost during shoot growth, and early frost before the harvest. The main grape varieties grown are Chardonnay
Chardonnay
Chardonnay is a green-skinned grape variety used to make white wine. It is originated from the Burgundy wine region of eastern France but is now grown wherever wine is produced, from England to New Zealand...

, Riesling
Riesling
Riesling is a white grape variety which originated in the Rhine region of Germany. Riesling is an aromatic grape variety displaying flowery, almost perfumed, aromas as well as high acidity. It is used to make dry, semi-sweet, sweet and sparkling white wines. Riesling wines are usually varietally...

 from Alsace
Alsace
Alsace is the fifth-smallest of the 27 regions of France in land area , and the smallest in metropolitan France. It is also the seventh-most densely populated region in France and third most densely populated region in metropolitan France, with ca. 220 inhabitants per km²...

 region in France
France
The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

, Gewürztraminer
Gewürztraminer
Gewürztraminer is an aromatic wine grape variety that performs best in cooler climates. It is sometimes referred to colloquially as Gewürz, and in French it is written '...

 (idem), Pinot Noir
Pinot Noir
Pinot noir is a black wine grape variety of the species Vitis vinifera. The name may also refer to wines created predominantly from Pinot noir grapes...

 (idem), Cabernet Franc
Cabernet Franc
Cabernet Franc is one of the major black grape varieties worldwide. It is principally grown for blending with Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot in the Bordeaux style, but can also be vinified alone - as in the Loire's Chinon...

, Vidal Blanc
Vidal Blanc
Vidal Blanc is an inter-specific hybrid variety of white wine grape, a cross of Ugni Blanc and Rayon d'Or . It manages to produce high sugar levels in cold climates while maintaining good acid levels....

, Seyval Blanc
Seyval Blanc
Seyval Blanc is a hybrid wine grape variety used to make white wines. Its vines ripen early, are productive and are suited to fairly cool climates.Seyval Blanc is grown mainly in England, and the Finger Lakes region of upstate New York, as well as to a lesser extent in Canada...

 and many Vitis labrusca
Vitis labrusca
Vitis labrusca is a species of grapevines belonging to the Vitis genus in the flowering plant family Vitaceae. The vines are native to the eastern United States and are the source of many grape cultivars, including Catawba and Concord grapes, and many hybrid grape varieties such as Agawam,...

(American native) varieties or cultivars. With the passage of the Farm Winery Act in 1976, numerous wineries have opened their doors to visitors from all over the world. Wineries are a major growth industry of the region, not merely contributing to the economy through production, but increasingly because they attract large numbers of visitors who support other components of tourism.

History

The Finger Lakes region contains evidence of pre-Iroquois
Iroquois
The Iroquois , also known as the Haudenosaunee or the "People of the Longhouse", are an association of several tribes of indigenous people of North America...

 habitation, such as The Bluff Point Stoneworks
The Bluff Point Stoneworks
The Bluff Point Stoneworks are a prehistoric structure located in the town of Jerusalem, New York, at the crux of Keuka Lake in the Finger Lakes Region of western New York State...

, but little is known about who may have constructed these enigmatic works.

The Finger Lakes region is a central part of the Iroquois
Iroquois
The Iroquois , also known as the Haudenosaunee or the "People of the Longhouse", are an association of several tribes of indigenous people of North America...

 homeland. The Iroquois tribes include the Seneca
Seneca nation
The Seneca are a group of indigenous people native to North America. They were the nation located farthest to the west within the Six Nations or Iroquois League in New York before the American Revolution. While exact population figures are unknown, approximately 15,000 to 25,000 Seneca live in...

 and Cayuga
Cayuga nation
The Cayuga people was one of the five original constituents of the Haudenosaunee , a confederacy of American Indians in New York. The Cayuga homeland lay in the Finger Lakes region along Cayuga Lake, between their league neighbors, the Onondaga to the east and the Seneca to the west...

 tribes, for which the two largest Finger Lakes are named. The Tuscarora
Tuscarora (tribe)
The Tuscarora are a Native American people of the Iroquoian-language family, with members in New York, Canada, and North Carolina...

 tribe lived in the Finger Lakes region as well, from ca. 1720. The Onondaga
Onondaga (tribe)
The Onondaga are one of the original five constituent nations of the Iroquois Confederacy. Their traditional homeland is in and around Onondaga County, New York...

 and Oneida
Oneida tribe
The Oneida are a Native American/First Nations people and are one of the five founding nations of the Iroquois Confederacy in the area of upstate New York...

 tribes lived at the eastern edge of the region, closer to their namesake lakes, Lake Oneida and Onondaga Lake
Onondaga Lake
Onondaga Lake is a lake in Central New York located northwest of Syracuse, New York. The southeastern end of the lake and the southwestern shore abut industrial areas and expressways; the northeastern shore and northwestern end border a series of parks and museums. Although it is near the Finger...

. The easternmost Iroquois tribe were the Mohawk
Mohawk nation
Mohawk are the most easterly tribe of the Iroquois confederation. They call themselves Kanien'gehaga, people of the place of the flint...

. During colonial times, many other tribes moved to the Finger Lakes region, seeking the protection of the Iroquois. For example, in 1753 remnants of several Virginia Siouan tribes, collectively called the Tutelo
Tutelo
The Tutelo were Native people living above the Fall Line in present-day Virginia and West Virginia, speaking a Siouan dialect of the Tutelo language thought to be similar to that of their neighbors, the Monacan and Manahoac nations...

-Saponi
Saponi
Saponi is one of the eastern Siouan-language tribes, related to the Tutelo, Occaneechi, Monacan, Manahoac and other eastern Siouan peoples. Its ancestral homeland was in North Carolina and Virginia. The tribe was long believed extinct, as its members migrated north to merge with other tribes...

, moved to the town of Coreorgonel at the south end of Cayuga Lake near present-day Ithaca, until 1779 when their village was destroyed. Major Iroquois towns in the Finger Lakes region included the Seneca town of Gen-nis-he-yo (present-day Geneseo), Kanadaseaga
Kanadaseaga
Kanadaseaga , was a major village of the Seneca nation of the Iroquois Confederacy in west-central New York State, United States. It was located between the northern ends of Seneca Lake and Canandaigua Lake, west of the present-day city of Geneva, New York, in the township of Seneca...

 (Seneca Castle, near present-day Geneva), Goiogouen
Goiogouen
Goiogouen , was a major village of the Cayuga nation of Iroquois Indians in west-central New York State...

 (Cayuga Castle, east of Cayuga Lake), Chonodote
Chonodote
Chonodote was an 18th-century village of the Cayuga nation of Iroquois Indians in what is now upstate New York, USA. It was located about four and a half miles south of Goiogouen, on the east side of Cayuga Lake...

 (Cayuga town, present-day Aurora), and Catherine's Town
Catherine's Town (Seneca town)
Catherine's Town was an Iroquois town named for the Seneca leader Catherine Montour. It was located at the south end of Seneca Lake, near present-day Watkins Glen...

 (near present-day Watkins Glen).

As one of the most powerful Indian nations during colonial times, the Iroquois were able to prevent European colonization of the Finger Lakes region for nearly two centuries after first contact. By the late 18th century Iroquois power had weakened, relative to the European-Americans, and internal strife eroded the political unity of the Iroquois Confederacy. During the American Revolutionary War
American Revolutionary War
The American Revolutionary War , the American War of Independence, or simply the Revolutionary War, began as a war between the Kingdom of Great Britain and thirteen British colonies in North America, and ended in a global war between several European great powers.The war was the result of the...

 some of the Iroquois sided with the British and some with the Americans, resulting in civil war among the Iroquois. In the late 1770s, British-allied Iroquois attacked various American frontier settlements, prompting counter-attacks, culminating in the Sullivan Expedition
Sullivan Expedition
The Sullivan Expedition, also known as the Sullivan-Clinton Expedition, was an American campaign led by Major General John Sullivan and Brigadier General James Clinton against Loyalists and the four nations of the Iroquois who had sided with the British in the American Revolutionary War.The...

 of 1779, which destroyed most of the Iroquois towns and effectively broke Iroquois power.

After the Revolutionary War, the Iroquois and other Indians of the region were assigned reservations. Most of their land, including the Finger Lakes region, was opened up to purchase and settlement.

Roughly the western half of the Finger Lakes region comprised the Phelps and Gorham Purchase
Phelps and Gorham Purchase
The Phelps and Gorham Purchase was the purchase in 1788 of the pre-emptive right to some 6,000,000 acres of land in western New York State for $1,000,000 . This was all land in western New York west of Seneca Lake between Lake Ontario and the Pennsylvania border...

 of 1790. The region was rapidly settled at the turn of the nineteenth century, largely by a westward migration from New England, but to a lesser degree by northward influx from Pennsylvania. The regional architecture reflects these area traditions of the Federal and Greek Revival periods.

The Finger Lakes region, together with the Genesee Country of Western New York, has been referred to as the Burned-Over District
Burned-over district
"Burned-over district" refers to the religious scene in western and central region of New York, in the early 19th century, where religious revivals and Pentecostal movements of the Second Great Awakening took place....

, where, in the 19th century, the Second Great Awakening
Second Great Awakening
The Second Great Awakening was a Christian revival movement during the early 19th century in the United States. The movement began around 1800, had begun to gain momentum by 1820, and was in decline by 1870. The Second Great Awakening expressed Arminian theology, by which every person could be...

 was a revival of Christianity
Christianity
Christianity is a monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus as presented in canonical gospels and other New Testament writings...

, and some new religion
Religion
Religion is a collection of cultural systems, belief systems, and worldviews that establishes symbols that relate humanity to spirituality and, sometimes, to moral values. Many religions have narratives, symbols, traditions and sacred histories that are intended to give meaning to life or to...

s were also formed. The region was active in reform and utopian movements. Many Underground Railroad
Underground Railroad
The Underground Railroad was an informal network of secret routes and safe houses used by 19th-century black slaves in the United States to escape to free states and Canada with the aid of abolitionists and allies who were sympathetic to their cause. The term is also applied to the abolitionists,...

 sites have been documented. The Harriet Tubman
Harriet Tubman
Harriet Tubman Harriet Tubman Harriet Tubman (born Araminta Harriet Ross; (1820 – 1913) was an African-American abolitionist, humanitarian, and Union spy during the American Civil War. After escaping from slavery, into which she was born, she made thirteen missions to rescue more than 70 slaves...

 Home at Auburn recalls the life and work of the African-American "Moses of her people."

On the northern end of the Finger Lakes are also Seneca Falls
Seneca Falls (village), New York
Seneca Falls is a village in Seneca County, New York, United States. The population was 6,861 at the 2000 census. The village is in the Town of Seneca Falls, east of Geneva, New York. On March 16, 2010, village residents voted to dissolve the village, a move that would take effect at the end of 2011...

, the birthplace of the Women's suffrage
Women's suffrage
Women's suffrage or woman suffrage is the right of women to vote and to run for office. The expression is also used for the economic and political reform movement aimed at extending these rights to women and without any restrictions or qualifications such as property ownership, payment of tax, or...

 movement; Waterloo
Waterloo (village), New York
Waterloo is a village in and the county seat of Seneca County, New York, United States. The population was 5,111 at the 2000 census. The village is named after the Waterloo in Belgium, where Napoleon was defeated...

, the birthplace of Memorial Day
Memorial Day
Memorial Day is a United States federal holiday observed on the last Monday of May. Formerly known as Decoration Day, it originated after the American Civil War to commemorate the fallen Union soldiers of the Civil War...

; and Palmyra
Palmyra (village), New York
Palmyra is a village in Wayne County, New York, United States. The population was 3,490 at the 2000 census. The village, along with the town, is named after Palmyra in present-day Syria.The Village of Palmyra is in the Town of Palmyra...

, the birthplace of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church). An annual outdoor drama, The Hill Cumorah
Cumorah
Cumorah is a drumlin in Manchester, New York, where Joseph Smith, Jr...

 Pageant
, produced by the Mormons, draws thousands of visitors each year.

Hammondsport
Hammondsport, New York
Hammondsport is a village in Steuben County, New York, United States. The population was 731 at the 2000 census. The village is named after its founding father.The Village of Hammondsport is in the Town of Urbana and is northeast of Bath, New York....

 was the home of aviation pioneer Glenn Curtiss
Glenn Curtiss
Glenn Hammond Curtiss was an American aviation pioneer and a founder of the U.S. aircraft industry. He began his career as a bicycle then motorcycle builder and racer, later also manufacturing engines for airships as early as 1906...

, and the favorable air currents make the area a popular spot for glider
Glider aircraft
Glider aircraft are heavier-than-air craft that are supported in flight by the dynamic reaction of the air against their lifting surfaces, and whose free flight does not depend on an engine. Mostly these types of aircraft are intended for routine operation without engines, though engine failure can...

 pilots. Elmira
Elmira, New York
Elmira is a city in Chemung County, New York, USA. It is the principal city of the 'Elmira, New York Metropolitan Statistical Area' which encompasses Chemung County, New York. The population was 29,200 at the 2010 census. It is the county seat of Chemung County.The City of Elmira is located in...

, just to the south, was the home of Mark Twain
Mark Twain
Samuel Langhorne Clemens , better known by his pen name Mark Twain, was an American author and humorist...

 in his later life, and the site of an infamous Civil War prison. Corning
Corning (city), New York
Corning is a city in Steuben County, New York, United States, on the Chemung River. The population was 10,842 at the 2000 census. It is named for Erastus Corning, an Albany financier and railroad executive who was an investor in the company that developed the community.- Overview :The city of...

 is most noted as the home of Corning Glass Works and the Corning Museum of Glass
Corning Museum of Glass
The Corning Museum of Glass, in Corning, New York, explores every facet of glass, including art, history, culture, science and technology, craft, and design....

. Hornell
Hornell, New York
Hornell is a city in Steuben County, New York, United States. The population was 9,019 at the 2000 census. The city is named after the Hornell family, early settlers. Its current population has not yet been released by the new census....

, just southwest of the Finger Lakes was a major railroad center. Locomotive
Locomotive
A locomotive is a railway vehicle that provides the motive power for a train. The word originates from the Latin loco – "from a place", ablative of locus, "place" + Medieval Latin motivus, "causing motion", and is a shortened form of the term locomotive engine, first used in the early 19th...

s were repaired there until recently. Conesus, New York remains the home of the oldest producer of pure grape sacramental wine in the Western hemisphere.

Notable among the historic buildings of the region (most linked below) is the Granger Homestead
Granger Homestead
The Granger Homestead and Carriage Museum offers an important 1816 mansion in the Federal style in the city of Canandaigua, New York. The property remained in the Granger family for four generations. A carriage house contains a carriage museum...

 (1816), a large village house in Federal Style at Canandaigua, New York. Another example of the Federal Style is the Prouty-Chew House (1829) at Geneva, portions of which were altered at various times in new fashions. Three Greek Revival mansions are situated near three lakes: The Richard DeZeng House, Skaneateles (1839), Rose Hill, Geneva (1839), and Esperanza, Penn Yan (1838). The latter two are open to the public. The Seward House in Auburn, a National Historic Landmark, is a mansion more characteristic of the Civil War era, virtually unchanged from the nineteenth century. Belhurst Castle
Belhurst Castle
Belhurst Castle is a former private residence on the shores of Seneca Lake in Geneva, New York.Architect Albert W. Fuller designed the imposing stone mansion in the Romanesque Revival style, popular in the last two decades of the nineteenth century....

, Geneva, a stone mansion in the Romanesque Revival style, now serves as an inn. Sonnenberg
Sonnenberg Gardens and Mansion State Historic Park
Sonnenberg Gardens, also known as Sonnenberg Gardens and Mansion State Historic Park, is a state park located at 151 Charlotte Street, Canandaigua, New York, USA, at the north end of Canandaigua Lake, in the Finger Lakes region of Upstate New York...

 mansion at Canandaigua is later nineteenth-century residence in the Queen Anne style, known for its restored period gardens. Geneva on the Lake is a villa (1910–14) that recalls those on Italian lakes. Now an inn, it has exceptional gardens in the European manner. Many buildings and historic districts of the Finger Lakes region are notable, other than these historic houses.

Implemented in August 2010, the Hemlock-Canadice State Forest covers 6684 acres (27 km²) that encompass the two western Finger Lakes, Hemlock
Hemlock Lake
Hemlock Lake is one of the minor Finger Lakes. It is mostly located in Livingston County, New York, south of Rochester, with a portion overlapping into Ontario County....

 and Canadice
Canadice Lake
Canadice Lake is one of the minor Finger Lakes of western New York in the USA.Canadice Lake has a shoreline 6.5 miles long and a maximum depth of 95 feet . Because the lake is a water source of Rochester, New York, no houses are permitted on its shore and boats are limited to 16 feet in length...

 Lakes. These lakes have provided drinking water for the City of Rochester for more than 100 years. To protect water quality, the city acquired much of the property around the lakes. Over the decades, the land reforested, but a few traces of its past, such as stone walls or cottage foundations, remain. Today these two lakes, with their steep, forested, largely undeveloped shorelines and deep, clear water, show visitors a glimpse of the past when all of the Finger Lakes were in their natural state. The Department of Environmental Conservation (DEC) manages this State Forest for compatible public access for recreation, including fishing, hunting
New York State Wildlife Management Areas
New York State owns and maintains more than 85 Wildlife Management Areas , with a total area of more than .The Wildlife Management Areas Program is administered by the Division of Fish, Wildlife and Marine Resources of the Department of Environmental Conservation...

, nature study, boating and hiking
Finger Lakes Trail
The Finger Lakes Trail System consists of a network of trails in New York. The trail system is administered by the , a non-profit, volunteer organization....

. Activities in Hemlock-Canadice State Forest are subject the DEC’s Rules and Regulations for the Use of State Lands, 6 NYCRR Part 190, as well as any other applicable state statutes, rules and regulations. These are very sensitive areas because they protect public drinking water.

Educational institutions

The area is also known for education, with the largest institution being Cornell University
Cornell University
Cornell University is an Ivy League university located in Ithaca, New York, United States. It is a private land-grant university, receiving annual funding from the State of New York for certain educational missions...

 in Ithaca, the state university of the finger Lakes region.

Museums

The Finger Lakes region is also home to a number of museums. These include the Corning Museum of Glass
Corning Museum of Glass
The Corning Museum of Glass, in Corning, New York, explores every facet of glass, including art, history, culture, science and technology, craft, and design....

, the Johnson Museum of Art at Cornell University
Cornell University
Cornell University is an Ivy League university located in Ithaca, New York, United States. It is a private land-grant university, receiving annual funding from the State of New York for certain educational missions...

, the Strong National Museum of Play, Glenn H. Curtiss Museum
Glenn H. Curtiss Museum
The Glenn H. Curtiss Museum is a museum of local history with a focus on Glenn Curtiss. Located in Hammondsport, New York, the museum boasts a large collection of Curtiss' airplanes, motorcycles and many other items pertaining to the local Finger Lakes area such as boats and wine culture...

, Wings of Eagles Discovery Center, Museum of the Earth
Museum of the Earth
The Museum of the Earth is a public natural history museum. It is located in Ithaca, New York, on the campus of the PRI, its parent organization.-Paleontological Research Institution:...

, National Soaring Museum
National Soaring Museum
The National Soaring Museum is an aviation museum whose stated aim is to preserve the history of motorless flight. It is located on top of Harris Hill near Elmira, New York, USA.The NSM is the Soaring Society of America's official repository...

 the Rockwell Museum of Western Art, the Genesee Country Museum in Mumford and the Samuel Warren Homestead of the York Historical Society, birthplace of NYS' first successful commercial winery. The Women's Rights National Historic Park http://www.nps.gov/wori/ is located in Seneca Falls. The park includes the home of Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Elizabeth Cady Stanton was an American social activist, abolitionist, and leading figure of the early woman's movement...

and the Wesleyan Chapel where she held the first convention on women's rights in 1848.

External links

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