Fastener
Overview
 
A fastener is a hardware
Hardware
Hardware is a general term for equipment such as keys, locks, hinges, latches, handles, wire, chains, plumbing supplies, tools, utensils, cutlery and machine parts. Household hardware is typically sold in hardware stores....

 device that mechanically joins or affixes two or more objects together.

Fasteners can also be used to close a container such as a bag, a box, or an envelope; or they may involve keeping together the sides of an opening of flexible material, attaching a lid
Lid (container)
A lid, also known as a cap, is part of a container, and serves as the cover or seal, usually one that completely closes the object.-History:...

 to a container, etc. There are also special-purpose closing devices, e.g. a bread clip
Bread clip
A bread clip is a device used to hold plastic bags closed. They are also commonly called bread tags, bread tabs, bread ties, bread crimps, bread-bag clips, or bread climps...

. Fasteners used in these manners are often temporary, in that they may be fastened and unfastened repeatedly.

Some types of woodworking joints
Woodworking joints
Joinery is a part of woodworking that involves joining together pieces of wood, to create furniture, structures, toys, and other items. Some wood joints employ fasteners, bindings, or adhesives, while others use only wood elements. The characteristics of wooden joints - strength, flexibility,...

 make use of separate internal reinforcements, such as dowels or biscuits, which in a sense can be considered fasteners within the scope of the joint system, although on their own they are not general purpose fasteners.

Furniture supplied in flat-pack form often uses cam dowels locked by cam locks, also known as conformat fasteners.

Items like a rope
Rope
A rope is a length of fibres, twisted or braided together to improve strength for pulling and connecting. It has tensile strength but is too flexible to provide compressive strength...

, string, wire
Wire
A wire is a single, usually cylindrical, flexible strand or rod of metal. Wires are used to bear mechanical loads and to carry electricity and telecommunications signals. Wire is commonly formed by drawing the metal through a hole in a die or draw plate. Standard sizes are determined by various...

 (e.g.
Encyclopedia
A fastener is a hardware
Hardware
Hardware is a general term for equipment such as keys, locks, hinges, latches, handles, wire, chains, plumbing supplies, tools, utensils, cutlery and machine parts. Household hardware is typically sold in hardware stores....

 device that mechanically joins or affixes two or more objects together.

Fasteners can also be used to close a container such as a bag, a box, or an envelope; or they may involve keeping together the sides of an opening of flexible material, attaching a lid
Lid (container)
A lid, also known as a cap, is part of a container, and serves as the cover or seal, usually one that completely closes the object.-History:...

 to a container, etc. There are also special-purpose closing devices, e.g. a bread clip
Bread clip
A bread clip is a device used to hold plastic bags closed. They are also commonly called bread tags, bread tabs, bread ties, bread crimps, bread-bag clips, or bread climps...

. Fasteners used in these manners are often temporary, in that they may be fastened and unfastened repeatedly.

Some types of woodworking joints
Woodworking joints
Joinery is a part of woodworking that involves joining together pieces of wood, to create furniture, structures, toys, and other items. Some wood joints employ fasteners, bindings, or adhesives, while others use only wood elements. The characteristics of wooden joints - strength, flexibility,...

 make use of separate internal reinforcements, such as dowels or biscuits, which in a sense can be considered fasteners within the scope of the joint system, although on their own they are not general purpose fasteners.

Furniture supplied in flat-pack form often uses cam dowels locked by cam locks, also known as conformat fasteners.

Items like a rope
Rope
A rope is a length of fibres, twisted or braided together to improve strength for pulling and connecting. It has tensile strength but is too flexible to provide compressive strength...

, string, wire
Wire
A wire is a single, usually cylindrical, flexible strand or rod of metal. Wires are used to bear mechanical loads and to carry electricity and telecommunications signals. Wire is commonly formed by drawing the metal through a hole in a die or draw plate. Standard sizes are determined by various...

 (e.g. metal wire, possibly coated with plastic, or multiple parallel wires kept together by a plastic strip coating), cable
Cable
A cable is two or more wires running side by side and bonded, twisted or braided together to form a single assembly. In mechanics cables, otherwise known as wire ropes, are used for lifting, hauling and towing or conveying force through tension. In electrical engineering cables are used to carry...

, chain, or plastic wrap
Plastic wrap
Plastic wrap, cling film , cling wrap or food wrap, is a thin plastic film typically used for sealing food items in containers to keep them fresh over a longer period of time...

 may be used to mechanically join objects; but are not generally categorized as fasteners because they have additional common uses. Likewise, hinge
Hinge
A hinge is a type of bearing that connects two solid objects, typically allowing only a limited angle of rotation between them. Two objects connected by an ideal hinge rotate relative to each other about a fixed axis of rotation. Hinges may be made of flexible material or of moving components...

s and springs
Spring (device)
A spring is an elastic object used to store mechanical energy. Springs are usually made out of spring steel. Small springs can be wound from pre-hardened stock, while larger ones are made from annealed steel and hardened after fabrication...

 may join objects together, but are ordinarily not considered fasteners because their primary purpose is to allow articulation rather than rigid affixment.

Other alternative methods of joining materials include
crimping
Crimp (joining)
Crimping is joining two pieces of metal or other malleable material by deforming one or both of them to hold the other. The bend or deformity is called the crimp.- Uses :...

, welding
Welding
Welding is a fabrication or sculptural process that joins materials, usually metals or thermoplastics, by causing coalescence. This is often done by melting the workpieces and adding a filler material to form a pool of molten material that cools to become a strong joint, with pressure sometimes...

, soldering
Soldering
Soldering is a process in which two or more metal items are joined together by melting and flowing a filler metal into the joint, the filler metal having a lower melting point than the workpiece...

, brazing
Brazing
Brazing is a metal-joining process whereby a filler metal is heated above and distributed between two or more close-fitting parts by capillary action. The filler metal is brought slightly above its melting temperature while protected by a suitable atmosphere, usually a flux...

, taping
Adhesive tape
Adhesive tape is one of many varieties of backing materials coated with an adhesive. Several types of adhesives can be used.-Types:Pressure sensitive tape...

, gluing
Glue
This is a list of various types of glue. Historically, the term "glue" only referred to protein colloids prepared from animal flesh. The meaning has been extended to refer to any fluid adhesive....

, cement
Cement
In the most general sense of the word, a cement is a binder, a substance that sets and hardens independently, and can bind other materials together. The word "cement" traces to the Romans, who used the term opus caementicium to describe masonry resembling modern concrete that was made from crushed...

ing, or the use of other adhesive
Adhesive
An adhesive, or glue, is a mixture in a liquid or semi-liquid state that adheres or bonds items together. Adhesives may come from either natural or synthetic sources. The types of materials that can be bonded are vast but they are especially useful for bonding thin materials...

s. The use of force
Force
In physics, a force is any influence that causes an object to undergo a change in speed, a change in direction, or a change in shape. In other words, a force is that which can cause an object with mass to change its velocity , i.e., to accelerate, or which can cause a flexible object to deform...

 may also be used, such as with magnet
Magnet
A magnet is a material or object that produces a magnetic field. This magnetic field is invisible but is responsible for the most notable property of a magnet: a force that pulls on other ferromagnetic materials, such as iron, and attracts or repels other magnets.A permanent magnet is an object...

s, vacuum
Vacuum
In everyday usage, vacuum is a volume of space that is essentially empty of matter, such that its gaseous pressure is much less than atmospheric pressure. The word comes from the Latin term for "empty". A perfect vacuum would be one with no particles in it at all, which is impossible to achieve in...

 (like suction cups), or even friction
Friction
Friction is the force resisting the relative motion of solid surfaces, fluid layers, and/or material elements sliding against each other. There are several types of friction:...

.

Industry

In 2005, it is estimated that the United States fastener industry runs 350 manufacturing plants and employs 40,000. The industry is strongly tied to the production of automobiles, aircraft, appliances, agricultural machinery, commercial construction, and infrastructure. More than 200 billion fasteners are used per year in the U.S., with 26 billion by the automotive industry.

Types

  • batten
    Batten
    A batten is a thin strip of solid material, typically made from wood, plastic or metal. Battens are used in building construction and various other fields as both structural and purely cosmetic elements...

  • brass fastener
    Brass fastener
    A brass fastener, brad, or split pin is a stationery item used for securing multiple sheets of paper together.The fastener is inserted into punched holes in the stack of paper and the leaves, or tines, of the legs are separated and bent over to secure the paper. This holds the pin in place and the...

  • buckle
    Buckle
    The buckle or clasp is a device used for fastening two loose ends, with one end attached to it and the other held by a catch in a secure but adjustable manner. Usually overlooked and taken for granted, the invention of the buckle has been indispensable in securing two ends before the invention of...

  • button
    Button
    In modern clothing and fashion design, a button is a small fastener, most commonly made of plastic, but also frequently of seashell, which secures two pieces of fabric together. In archaeology, a button can be a significant artifact. In the applied arts and in craft, a button can be an example of...

  • Captive fastener
    Captive fastener
    Captive fasteners are an engineered class of fastener designed for a permanent hold within a target assembly or housing, including upon servicing...

  • clamp
    Clamp (tool)
    A clamp is a fastening device to hold or secure objects tightly together to prevent movement or separation through the application of inward pressure...

     (or cramp)
  • clasp
    Clasp
    Clasp, clasper or CLASP may refer to:* Medal bar, an element in military decoration* Fastener, a hardware device that mechanically joins objects together* "Clasp", a track from Jethro Tull's album Broadsword and the Beast...

    • Bocklebee clasp
      Bocklebee Clasp
      The Bocklebee Clasp, more commonly known as a spring ring clasp or ring clamp, is found almost exclusively on jewelry. It was invented by American Steven Bocklebee in 1898...

  • Cleko
    Cleko
    A cleko, also spelled cleco, is a fastener developed by the Cleveland Pneumatic Tool Company. Widely used in the manufacture and repair of aluminum-skinned aircraft, it is used to temporarily fasten multiple sheets of material together before the pieces are permanently joined.The basic type...

  • clip
    • circlip
      Circlip
      A circlip , also known as a C-Clip, snap ring or Jesus clip, is a type of fastener consisting of a semi-flexible metal ring with open ends which can be snapped into place, into a machined groove on a dowel pin or other part to permit rotation but to prevent lateral movement...

    • paper clip
      Paper Clip
      "Paper Clip" is a 1995 episode of The X-Files television series. It was the second episode broadcast in the show's third season. Paper Clip concludes the story regarding the agents' possession of a digital tape containing government secrets on extraterrestrials.- Plot :Continuing from the previous...

  • clutch (pin fastener)
    Clutch (pin fastener)
    A butterfly clutch is a device that attaches to the back of a pin to secure an accessory to clothing....

  • flange
    Flange
    A flange is an external or internal ridge, or rim , for strength, as the flange of an iron beam such as an I-beam or a T-beam; or for attachment to another object, as the flange on the end of a pipe, steam cylinder, etc., or on the lens mount of a camera; or for a flange of a rail car or tram wheel...

  • frog
  • grommet
    Grommet
    thumb|right|250px|Some rubber grommets.A grommet is a ring inserted into a hole through thin material, such as fabric. Grommets are generally flared or collared on each side to keep them in place, and are often made of metal, plastic, or rubber. They may be used to prevent tearing or abrasion of...

  • masonry anchor
  • nail
    Nail (engineering)
    In woodworking and construction, a nail is a pin-shaped, sharp object of hard metal or alloy used as a fastener. Formerly wrought iron, today's nails are typically made of steel, often dipped or coated to prevent corrosion in harsh conditions or improve adhesion...

  • peg
    PEG
    PEG or Peg may refer to:Devices* Clothes peg* Tent peg* Tuning peg, on a musical instrument* Piton, in climbing* Part of a flatland BMX bicycleScience, medicince and computing...

  • pin
    Pin (device)
    A pin is a device used for fastening objects or material together. It is usually made of steel, or on occasion copper or brass. It is formed by drawing out a thin wire, sharpening the tip, and adding a head. Nails are related, but are typically larger....

    • clevis pin
      Clevis pin
      A clevis fastener is a three piece fastener system consisting of a clevis, clevis pin, and tang. The clevis is a U-shaped piece that has holes at the end of the prongs to accept the clevis pin. The clevis pin is similar to a bolt, but is only partially threaded or unthreaded with a cross-hole for a...

    • clothes-pin
      Clothes-pin
      A clothespin is a fastener used to hang up clothes for drying, usually on a clothes line. Clothespins often come in many different designs.-Design:...

    • cotter pin
      Cotter pin
      A split pin, also known in U.S. usage as a cotter pin or cotter key, is a metal fastener with two tines that are bent during installation, similar to a staple or rivet. Typically made of thick wire with a half-circular cross section, split pins come in multiple sizes and types.The British...

    • Dowel pin
    • linchpin
      Linchpin
      A linchpin, also spelled linch pin, lynchpin, or lynch pin, is a fastener used to prevent a wheel or other rotating part from sliding off the axle it is riding on. The word is first attested in the 14th century and derives from Middle English elements meaning "axletree pin".Securing implements onto...

    • R-clip
      R-clip
      An R-clip, also known as an R-pin, R-key, hairpin cotter pin, hairpin cotter, bridge pin, hitch pin or spring cotter pin, is a fastener made of a springy material, commonly hardened metal wire, resembling the shape of the letter "R".R-clips are commonly used to secure the ends of round shafts such...

    • Spring pin
      Spring pin
      A spring pin is a mechanical fastener that secures the position of two or more parts of a machine relative to each other...

  • retaining ring
    Retaining ring
    A retaining ring is a fastener that holds components or assemblies onto a shaft or in a housing/bore when installed in a groove. Once installed, the exposed portion acts as a shoulder which retains the specific component or assembly....

    • circlip
      Circlip
      A circlip , also known as a C-Clip, snap ring or Jesus clip, is a type of fastener consisting of a semi-flexible metal ring with open ends which can be snapped into place, into a machined groove on a dowel pin or other part to permit rotation but to prevent lateral movement...

    • e-ring
  • rivet
    Rivet
    A rivet is a permanent mechanical fastener. Before being installed a rivet consists of a smooth cylindrical shaft with a head on one end. The end opposite the head is called the buck-tail. On installation the rivet is placed in a punched or pre-drilled hole, and the tail is upset, or bucked A rivet...

  • rubber band
    Rubber band
    A rubber band is a short length of rubber and latex formed in the shape of a loop and is commonly used to hold multiple objects together...

     (or bands of other materials)
  • screw anchor
    Screw anchor
    A screw anchor or wall plug is a fastener that can attach one object to another in situations where screws, nails, adhesives, or other simple fasteners are either impractical or ineffective...

  • Self-clinching
  • snap
    Snap fastener
    A snap fastener is a pair of interlocking discs commonly used in place of buttons to fasten clothing. A circular lip under one disc fits into a groove on the top of the other, holding them fast until a certain amount of force is applied...

  • staple
    Staple (fastener)
    A staple is a type of two-pronged fastener, usually metal, used for joining or binding materials together. Large staples might be used with a hammer or staple gun for masonry, roofing, corrugated boxes and other heavy-duty uses...

  • stitches
    Sewing
    Sewing is the craft of fastening or attaching objects using stitches made with a needle and thread. Sewing is one of the oldest of the textile arts, arising in the Paleolithic era...

  • strap
  • tack
    Thumbtack
    A drawing pin , thumbtack , or push pin is a short nail or pin with a circular, sometimes domed, head, used to fasten items such as documents to a wall or board for display. Various designs and names are used. They are inserted and removed by hand, hence the terms "thumbtack" and "push pin"...

  • threaded fastener
    Threaded fastener
    A threaded fastener is a discrete piece of hardware that has internal or external screw threads. They are usually used for the assembly of multiple parts and facilitate disassembly.The most common types are the screw and nut...

    • captive threaded fasteners
    • nut
      Nut (hardware)
      A nut is a type of hardware fastener with a threaded hole. Nuts are almost always used opposite a mating bolt to fasten a stack of parts together. The two partners are kept together by a combination of their threads' friction, a slight stretch of the bolt, and compression of the parts...

    • screw
      Screw
      A screw, or bolt, is a type of fastener characterized by a helical ridge, known as an external thread or just thread, wrapped around a cylinder. Some screw threads are designed to mate with a complementary thread, known as an internal thread, often in the form of a nut or an object that has the...

    • stud
    • threaded insert
    • threaded rod
      Threaded rod
      A threaded rod, also known as a stud, is a relatively long rod that is threaded on both ends; the thread may extend along the complete length of the rod. They are designed to be used in tension...

  • tie
    Tie (engineering)
    A tie, structural tie, connector, or structural connector is a structural component designed to resist tension. It is the opposite of a strut, which is designed to resist compression. Ties are generally made of galvanized steel...

  • toggle
    Toggle
    Toggle may refer to:*Toggle mechanism*Toggle switch*Toggling harpoon*A type of textile closure, like an elongated button*Toggle , a character in the comic strip Doonesbury...

  • velcro
    Velcro
    Velcro is the brand name of the first commercially marketed fabric hook-and-loop fastener, invented in 1948 by the Swiss electrical engineer George de Mestral...

     brand hook-and-loop strips
  • wedge anchor
  • zipper
    Zipper
    A zipper is a commonly used device for temporarily joining two edges of fabric...


External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
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