Eye surgery
Overview
Eye surgery, also known as orogolomistician surgery or ocular surgery, is surgery
Surgery
Surgery is an ancient medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental techniques on a patient to investigate and/or treat a pathological condition such as disease or injury, or to help improve bodily function or appearance.An act of performing surgery may be called a surgical...

 performed on the eye
Human eye
The human eye is an organ which reacts to light for several purposes. As a conscious sense organ, the eye allows vision. Rod and cone cells in the retina allow conscious light perception and vision including color differentiation and the perception of depth...

 or its adnexa
Adnexa
In anatomy, adnexa refers to the appendages of an organ. The term adnexa stems from a Latin word meaning appendages.More specifically, it can refer to:* Adnexa of eye * Adnexa of uterus...

, typically by an ophthalmologist.
The eye is a fragile organ, requiring extreme care before, during and after a surgical procedure. An expert eye surgeon must identify the need for specific procedure and be responsible for conducting the procedure safely. Many university programmes allow patients to specify if they want to be operated upon by the consultant or the resident / fellow.

Anesthesia is essential for any eye surgery.
Encyclopedia
Eye surgery, also known as orogolomistician surgery or ocular surgery, is surgery
Surgery
Surgery is an ancient medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental techniques on a patient to investigate and/or treat a pathological condition such as disease or injury, or to help improve bodily function or appearance.An act of performing surgery may be called a surgical...

 performed on the eye
Human eye
The human eye is an organ which reacts to light for several purposes. As a conscious sense organ, the eye allows vision. Rod and cone cells in the retina allow conscious light perception and vision including color differentiation and the perception of depth...

 or its adnexa
Adnexa
In anatomy, adnexa refers to the appendages of an organ. The term adnexa stems from a Latin word meaning appendages.More specifically, it can refer to:* Adnexa of eye * Adnexa of uterus...

, typically by an ophthalmologist.

Preparation and precautions

The eye is a fragile organ, requiring extreme care before, during and after a surgical procedure. An expert eye surgeon must identify the need for specific procedure and be responsible for conducting the procedure safely. Many university programmes allow patients to specify if they want to be operated upon by the consultant or the resident / fellow.

Anesthesia is essential for any eye surgery. Local anesthesia is most commonly used. Retrobulbar and peribulbar techniques for infiltrating the local area surrounding the eye muscle cone are used to immobilize the extraocular muscles and eliminate pain sensation. Topical anesthesia
Anesthesia
Anesthesia, or anaesthesia , traditionally meant the condition of having sensation blocked or temporarily taken away...

 using lidocaine topical gel is preferred for quick procedures. In topical anesthesia, patient cooperation is a must for a smooth procedure. General anesthesia is recommended for children, traumatic eye injuries, major orbitotomies and for apprehensive patients. Cardiovascular monitoring is preferable in local anesthesia
Local anesthesia
Local anesthesia is any technique to induce the absence of sensation in part of the body, generally for the aim of inducing local analgesia, that is, local insensitivity to pain, although other local senses may be affected as well. It allows patients to undergo surgical and dental procedures with...

 and is mandatory in general anesthesia. Proper sterile precautions are taken to prepare the area for surgery, including use of antiseptics like povidone-iodine. Sterile drapes, gowns and gloves are a must. A plastic sheet with a receptacle helps collect the fluids during phacoemulsification. An eye speculum is inserted to keep the eyes wide open.

Laser eye surgery

Although the terms laser eye surgery and refractive surgery
Refractive surgery
Refractive eye surgery is any eye surgery used to improve the refractive state of the eye and decrease or eliminate dependency on glasses or contact lenses. This can include various methods of surgical remodeling of the cornea or cataract surgery. The most common methods today use excimer lasers to...

 are commonly used as if they were interchangeable, this is not the case. Lasers may be used to treat nonrefractive conditions (e.g. to seal a retinal tear), while radial keratotomy
Radial keratotomy
Radial keratotomy is a refractive surgical procedure to correct myopia.- Discovery :The procedure was discovered by Svyatoslav Fyodorov who removed glass from the eye of one of his patients who had been in an accident. A boy, who wore eyeglasses, fell off his bicycle and his glasses shattered on...

 is an example of refractive surgery without the use of a laser.

Cataract surgery

A cataract
Cataract
A cataract is a clouding that develops in the crystalline lens of the eye or in its envelope, varying in degree from slight to complete opacity and obstructing the passage of light...

 is an opacification or cloudiness of the eye's crystalline lens
Lens (anatomy)
The crystalline lens is a transparent, biconvex structure in the eye that, along with the cornea, helps to refract light to be focused on the retina. The lens, by changing shape, functions to change the focal distance of the eye so that it can focus on objects at various distances, thus allowing a...

 due to aging, disease, or trauma that typically prevents light from forming a clear image on the retina
Retina
The vertebrate retina is a light-sensitive tissue lining the inner surface of the eye. The optics of the eye create an image of the visual world on the retina, which serves much the same function as the film in a camera. Light striking the retina initiates a cascade of chemical and electrical...

. If visual loss is significant, surgical removal of the lens may be warranted, with lost optical power
Optical power
Optical power is the degree to which a lens, mirror, or other optical system converges or diverges light. It is equal to the reciprocal of the focal length of the device. The dioptre is the most common unit of measurement of optical power...

 usually replaced with a plastic intraocular lens
Intraocular lens
An intraocular lens is an implanted lens in the eye, usually replacing the existing crystalline lens because it has been clouded over by a cataract, or as a form of refractive surgery to change the eye's optical power. It usually consists of a small plastic lens with plastic side struts, called...

 (IOL). Owing to the high prevalence of cataracts, cataract extraction is the most common eye surgery. Rest after surgery is recommended.

Glaucoma surgery

Glaucoma
Glaucoma
Glaucoma is an eye disorder in which the optic nerve suffers damage, permanently damaging vision in the affected eye and progressing to complete blindness if untreated. It is often, but not always, associated with increased pressure of the fluid in the eye...

 is a group of diseases affecting the optic nerve
Optic nerve
The optic nerve, also called cranial nerve 2, transmits visual information from the retina to the brain. Derived from the embryonic retinal ganglion cell, a diverticulum located in the diencephalon, the optic nerve doesn't regenerate after transection.-Anatomy:The optic nerve is the second of...

 that results in vision loss
Vision loss
Vision loss or visual loss is the absence of vision where it existed before, which can happen either acutely or chronically .-Ranges of vision loss:...

 and is frequently characterized by raised intraocular pressure
Intraocular pressure
Intraocular pressure is the fluid pressure inside the eye. Tonometry is the method eye care professionals use to determine this. IOP is an important aspect in the evaluation of patients at risk from glaucoma...

 (IOP). There are many types of glaucoma surgery, and variations or combinations of those types, that facilitate the escape of excess aqueous humor from the eye to lower intraocular pressure, and a few that lower IOP by decreasing the production of aqueous humor.

Canaloplasty

Canaloplasty is an advanced, nonpenetrating procedure designed to enhance drainage through the eye’s natural drainage system to provide sustained reduction of IOP. Canaloplasty utilizes microcatheter technology in a simple and minimally invasive procedure.
To perform a canaloplasty, an Ophthalmologist creates a tiny incision to gain access to a canal in the eye. A microcatheter circumnavigates the canal around the iris, enlarging the main drainage channel and its smaller collector channels through the injection of a sterile, gel-like material called viscoelastic. The catheter is then removed and a suture is placed within the canal and tightened. By opening up the canal, the pressure inside the eye can be reduced. Long-term results are available, published in the Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery.https://mediamillinc.com/vjo.php?display=video&id=013 http://www.jcrsjournal.org/article/S0886-3350(08)00004-7/abstract,http://www.jcrsjournal.org/article/S0886-3350(07)00697-9/abstracthttp://www.jcrsjournal.org/article/S0886-3350(09)00139-4/abstract

Refractive surgery

Refractive surgery aims to correct errors of refraction in the eye, reducing or eliminating the need for corrective lenses
  • Keratomilleusis is a method of reshaping the cornea surface to change its optical power
    Optical power
    Optical power is the degree to which a lens, mirror, or other optical system converges or diverges light. It is equal to the reciprocal of the focal length of the device. The dioptre is the most common unit of measurement of optical power...

    . A disc of cornea is shaved off, quickly frozen, lathe-ground, then returned to its original power.
  • Automated lamellar keratoplasty
    Automated lamellar keratoplasty
    Automated Lamellar Keratoplasty, commonly abbreviated to ALK uses a device called a microkeratome to separate a thin layer of the cornea and create a flap. The flap is then folded back, and the microkeratome removes a thin disc of corneal stroma below. The thickness and diameter of this disc...

    (ALK)
  • Laser assisted in-situ keratomileusis (LASIK
    LASIK
    LASIK or Lasik , commonly referred to simply as laser eye surgery, is a type of refractive surgery for correcting myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism...

    )
    • IntraLASIK
      IntraLASIK
      IntraLASIK, also known as Femto-LASIK or All-Laser LASIK, is a form of refractive eye surgery similar to LASIK that creates a corneal flap with a femtosecond laser microkeratome rather than with a mechanical microkeratome, which uses a steel blade. The only difference between LASIK and IntraLASIK...

  • Laser assisted sub-epithelial keratomileusis (LASEK
    Lasek
    Lasek may refer to:*LASEK or photorefractive keratectomy, a laser eye surgery technique*Lasek, Lower Silesian Voivodeship *Lasek, Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship *Lasek, Łódź Voivodeship...

    ), aka Epi-LASIK
  • Photorefractive keratectomy
    Photorefractive keratectomy
    Photorefractive keratectomy and Laser-Assisted Sub-Epithelial Keratectomy are laser eye surgery procedures intended to correct a person's vision, reducing dependency on glasses or contact lenses. The first PRK procedure was performed in 1987 by Dr. Theo Seiler, then at the Free University...

    (PRK)
  • Laser thermal keratoplasty
    Laser thermal keratoplasty
    -Procedure:The procedure employs a holmium laser to place a ring of concentric laser burns on the cornea between 6mm and 7mm in diameter. These burns cause a ring of constriction on the peripheral cornea causing the cornea to steepen making the eye focus better at near. This procedure may regress...

    (LTK)
  • Conductive keratoplasty
    Conductive keratoplasty
    Conductive keratoplasty is a type of refractive surgery that uses radio waves to adjust the contour of the cornea by shrinking the corneal collagen around it. It is used to treat mild to moderate hyperopia. It is a non-invasive alternative to other types of eye surgery....

    (CK) uses radio frequency waves to shrink corneal collagen. It is used to treat mild to moderate hyperopia.
  • Limbal relaxing incisions
    Limbal relaxing incisions
    Limbal Relaxing Incisions are a refractive surgical procedure to correct minor astigmatism in the eye. Incisions are made at the opposite edges of the cornea, following the curve of the iris, causing a slight flattening in that direction...

     (LRI) to correct minor astigmatism
  • Astigmatic keratotomy (AK), aka Arcuate keratotomy or Transverse keratotomy
  • Radial keratotomy
    Radial keratotomy
    Radial keratotomy is a refractive surgical procedure to correct myopia.- Discovery :The procedure was discovered by Svyatoslav Fyodorov who removed glass from the eye of one of his patients who had been in an accident. A boy, who wore eyeglasses, fell off his bicycle and his glasses shattered on...

    (RK)
  • Hexagonal keratotomy (HK)
  • Epikeratophakia
    Epikeratophakia
    Epikeratophakia is a refractive surgical procedure in which a donor cornea is transplanted to the anterior surface of the patient's cornea. A lamellar disc from a donor cornea is placed over the de-epithelialized host cornea and sutured into a prepared groove on the host cornea. Indications include...

    is the removal of the corneal epithelium and replacement with a lathe cut corneal button.
  • Intracorneal rings (ICRs), or corneal ring segments (Intacs)
  • Implantable contact lenses
  • Presbyopia reversal
  • Anterior ciliary sclerotomy (ACS)
  • Laser reversal of presbyopia (LRP)
  • Scleral expansion bands
  • The Karmra inlay The Karmra inlay received the 2005 European CE mark. The 1.6 mm inlay is placed inside the cornea and has a small aperture that gives clearer vision at intermediate and near distances. Dr.Rick Wolfe, a pioneer of laser eye surgery, is investigating its use in Australia. TGA registration is expected sometime in 2011.
  • Scleral reinforcement surgery
    Scleral reinforcement surgery
    Scleral reinforcement is a surgical procedure used to reduce or stop further macular damage caused by high myopia, which often can be degenerative.-High Myopia:Myopia is one of the leading causes of blindness in the world...

    for the mitigation of degenerative myopia

Corneal surgery

Corneal surgery
Cornea
The cornea is the transparent front part of the eye that covers the iris, pupil, and anterior chamber. Together with the lens, the cornea refracts light, with the cornea accounting for approximately two-thirds of the eye's total optical power. In humans, the refractive power of the cornea is...

 includes most refractive surgery as well as the following:
  • Corneal transplant surgery
    Cornea transplant
    Corneal transplantation, also known as corneal grafting, is a surgical procedure where a damaged or diseased cornea is replaced by donated corneal tissue in its entirety or in part...

    , is used to remove a cloudy/diseased cornea and replace it with a clear donor cornea.
  • Penetrating keratoplasty (PK)
  • Keratoprosthesis
    Keratoprosthesis
    Keratoprosthesis is a surgical procedure where a severely damaged or diseased cornea is replaced with an artificial cornea. While conventional cornea transplant uses donor tissue for transplant, an artificial cornea is used in the Keratoprosthesis procedure...

    (KPro)
  • Phototherapeutic keratectomy
    Phototherapeutic keratectomy
    Phototherapeutic keratectomy is a type of eye surgery that uses a laser to treat various ocular disorders by removing tissue from the cornea. PTK allows the removal of superficial corneal opacities and surface irregularities...

    (PTK)
  • Pterygium
    Pterygium
    Pterygium most often refers to a benign growth of the conjunctiva. A pterygium commonly grows from the nasal side of the sclera. It is usually present in the palpebral fissure. It is associated with, and thought to be caused by ultraviolet-light exposure , low humidity, and dust...

     excision
  • Corneal tattooing
    Corneal tattooing
    Corneal tattooing is the practice of tattooing the cornea of the human eye. Reasons for this practice include the improvement of cosmetic appearance and the improvement of sight...

  • Osteo-Odonto-Keratoprosthesis
    Osteo-Odonto-Keratoprosthesis
    Osteo-odonto-keratoprosthesis is a medical procedure to restore vision in the most severe cases of corneal and ocular surface patients. It includes removal of a tooth from the patient or a donor. After this, a lamina of tissue cut from the tooth is drilled and the hole is fitted with optics...

     (OOKP), in which support for an artificial cornea is created from a tooth and its surrounding jawbone. This is a still-experimental procedure used for patients with severely damaged eyes, generally from burns.

Vitreo-retinal surgery

Vitreo-retinal surgery includes the following
  • Vitrectomy
    Vitrectomy
    Vitrectomy is a surgery to remove some or all of the vitreous humor from the eye. Anterior vitrectomy entails removing small portions of the vitreous from the front structures of the eye—often because these are tangled in an intraocular lens or other structures...

    • Anterior vitrectomy is the removal of the front portion of vitreous tissue. It is used for preventing or treating vitreous loss during cataract or corneal surgery, or to remove misplaced vitreous in conditions such as aphakia pupillary block glaucoma.
    • Pars plana vitrectomy (PPV), or trans pars plana vitrectomy (TPPV), is a procedure to remove vitreous opacities and membranes through a pars plana incision. It is frequently combined with other intraocular procedures for the treatment of giant retinal tears, tractional retinal detachments, and posterior vitreous detachments http://www.vrmny.com/vitrectomy.htm.
  • Pan retinal photocoagulation (PRP) is a type of photocoagulation therapy used in the treatment of diabetic retinopathy
    Diabetic retinopathy
    Diabetic retinopathy is retinopathy caused by complications of diabetes mellitus, which can eventually lead to blindness....

    .
  • Retinal detachment
    Retinal detachment
    Retinal detachment is a disorder of the eye in which the retina peels away from its underlying layer of support tissue. Initial detachment may be localized, but without rapid treatment the entire retina may detach, leading to vision loss and blindness. It is a medical emergency.The retina is a...

     repair
    • Ignipuncture
      Ignipuncture
      Ignipuncture is the original procedure of closing a retina break in retinal separation by transfixation of the break with cautery. The procedure was pioneered and named by Jules Gonin in the early 1900s...

      is an obsolete procedure that involves cauterization
      Cauterization
      The medical practice or technique of cauterization is the burning of part of a body to remove or close off a part of it in a process called cautery, which destroys some tissue, in an attempt to mitigate damage, remove an undesired growth, or minimize other potential medical harmful possibilities...

       of the retina with a very hot pointed instrument.
    • A scleral buckle
      Scleral buckle
      A scleral buckle is one of several ophthalmologic procedures that can be used to repair a retinal detachment. Retinal detachments are usually caused by retinal tears, and a scleral buckle can be used to close the retinal break....

       is used in the repair of a retinal detachment to indent or "buckle" the sclera inward, usually by sewing a piece of preserved sclera or silicone rubber to its surface.
    • Laser photocoagulation
      Laser photocoagulation
      Laser coagulation or laser photocoagulation surgery is used to treat a number of eye diseases and has become widely used in recent decades...

      , or photocoagulation therapy, is the use of a laser to seal a retinal tear.
    • Pneumatic retinopexy
    • Retinal cryopexy, or retinal cryotherapy, is a procedure that uses intense cold to induce a chorioretinal scar and to destroy retinal or choroidal tissue.
  • Macular hole repair
  • Partial lamellar sclerouvectomy
  • Partial lamellar sclerocyclochoroidectomy
  • Partial lamellar sclerochoroidectomy
  • Posterior sclerotomy is an opening made into the vitreous through the sclera, as for detached retina or the removal of a foreign body http://www.merckmedicus.com/pp/us/hcp/thcp_dorlands_content.jsp?pg=/ppdocs/us/common/dorlands/dorland/dmd_s_05.htm.
  • Radial optic neurotomy
  • macular translocation surgery
    • through 360 degree retinotomy
    • through scleral imbrication technique

Eye muscle surgery


With approximately 1.2 million procedures each year, extraocular muscle surgery is the third most common eye surgery in the United States
http://www.nystagmus.org/doc/conf2005/Hertle%20Presentation%20Handout.doc.
  • Eye muscle surgery typically corrects strabismus
    Strabismus
    Strabismus is a condition in which the eyes are not properly aligned with each other. It typically involves a lack of coordination between the extraocular muscles, which prevents bringing the gaze of each eye to the same point in space and preventing proper binocular vision, which may adversely...

     and includes the following http://webeye.ophth.uiowa.edu/asorn/CE/2002-09Strabismus.pdf:
    • Loosening / weakening procedures
      • Recession involves moving the insertion of a muscle posteriorly towards its origin.
      • Myectomy
      • Myotomy
      • Tenectomy
      • Tenotomy
    • Tightening / strengthening procedures
      • Resection
      • Tucking
      • Advancement is the movement of an eye muscle from its original place of attachment on the eyeball to a more forward position.
    • Transposition / repositioning procedures
    • Adjustable suture surgery is a method of reattaching an extraocular muscle by means of a stitch that can be shortened or lengthened within the first post-operative day, to obtain better ocular alignment http://www.eyemdlink.com/EyeProcedure.asp?EyeProcedureID=61.

Oculoplastic surgery

Oculoplastic surgery, or oculoplastics, is the subspecialty of ophthalmology that deals with the reconstruction of the eye and associated structures. Oculoplastic surgeons perform procedures such as the repair of droopy eyelids (blepharoplasty
Blepharoplasty
Blepharoplasty is surgical modification of the eyelid. Excess tissue such as skin and fat are removed or repositioned, and surrounding muscles and tendons may be reinforced. It can be both a functional and cosmetic surgery.-Indications:...

)http://www.plasticsurgery.org/public_education/procedures/Blepharoplasty.cfm, repair of tear duct obstructions, orbital fracture repairs, removal of tumors in and around the eyes, and facial rejuvenation procedures including laser skin resurfacing, eye lifts, brow lifts, and even facelifts. Common procedures are:

Eyelid surgery

  • Blepharoplasty (Eyelift)
    • Blepharoplasty
      Blepharoplasty
      Blepharoplasty is surgical modification of the eyelid. Excess tissue such as skin and fat are removed or repositioned, and surrounding muscles and tendons may be reinforced. It can be both a functional and cosmetic surgery.-Indications:...

      is plastic surgery
      Plastic surgery
      Plastic surgery is a medical specialty concerned with the correction or restoration of form and function. Though cosmetic or aesthetic surgery is the best-known kind of plastic surgery, most plastic surgery is not cosmetic: plastic surgery includes many types of reconstructive surgery, hand...

       of the eyelid
      Eyelid
      An eyelid is a thin fold of skin that covers and protects an eye. With the exception of the prepuce and the labia minora, it has the thinnest skin of the whole body. The levator palpebrae superioris muscle retracts the eyelid to "open" the eye. This can be either voluntarily or involuntarily...

      s to remove excessive skin or subcutaneous fat.
      • Asian blepharoplasty
        Asian blepharoplasty
        Asian blepharoplasty, also known as "double eyelid surgery", is a type of cosmetic surgery where the skin around the eye is reshaped . The purpose of the procedure is to create an upper eyelid with a crease from an eyelid that is naturally without a crease...

  • Ptosis
    Ptosis (eyelid)
    Ptosis is a drooping of the upper or lower eyelid. The drooping may be worse after being awake longer, when the individual's muscles are tired. This condition is sometimes called "lazy eye", but that term normally refers to amblyopia...

     repair for droopy eyelid
    • Ectropion
      Ectropion
      Ectropion is a medical condition in which the lower eyelid turns outwards. It is one of the notable aspects of newborns exhibiting congenital Harlequin type ichthyosis, but ectropion can occur due to any weakening of tissue of the lower eyelid. The condition can be repaired surgically...

       repair http://www.stlukeseye.com/Conditions/Ectropion.asp
  • Entropion
    Entropion
    Entropion is a medical condition in which the eyelid folds inward. It is very uncomfortable, as the eyelashes constantly rub against the cornea. Entropion is usually caused by genetic factors and may be congenital...

     repair
  • Canthal resection
    • A canthectomy is the surgical removal of tissue at the junction of the upper and lower eyelids.
    • Cantholysis is the surgical division of the canthus.
    • Canthopexy
    • A canthoplasty is plastic surgery at the canthus.
    • A canthorrhaphy is suturing of the outer canthus to shorten the palpebral fissure
      Palpebral fissure
      Palpebral fissure is the anatomic name for the separation between the upper and lower eyelids. In adults, this measures about 10mm vertically and 30mm horizontally.It can be reduced in horizontal size by fetal alcohol syndrome and in Williams Syndrome...

      .
    • A canthotomy is the surgical division of the canthus, usually the outer canthus.
      • A lateral canthotomy is the surgical division of the outer canthus.
  • Epicanthoplasty
    Epicanthoplasty
    Epicanthoplasty is eye surgery to remove the epicanthal folds. It can be a challenging procedure because the epicanthal folds overlay the lacrimal canaliculi ....

  • Tarsorrhaphy
    Tarsorrhaphy
    Tarsorrhaphy is a surgical procedure in which the eyelids are partially sewn together to narrow the opening .It may be done to protect the cornea in cases of corneal exposure or after corneal graft surgery.-External links:*...

    is a procedure in which the eyelid
    Eyelid
    An eyelid is a thin fold of skin that covers and protects an eye. With the exception of the prepuce and the labia minora, it has the thinnest skin of the whole body. The levator palpebrae superioris muscle retracts the eyelid to "open" the eye. This can be either voluntarily or involuntarily...

    s are partially sewn together to narrow the opening (i.e. palpebral fissure
    Palpebral fissure
    Palpebral fissure is the anatomic name for the separation between the upper and lower eyelids. In adults, this measures about 10mm vertically and 30mm horizontally.It can be reduced in horizontal size by fetal alcohol syndrome and in Williams Syndrome...

    ).

Orbital surgery

  • Orbital reconstruction / Ocular prosthetics (False Eyes)
  • Orbital decompression for Grave's Disease. Grave's Disease is a condition (often associated with over-active thyroid problems) in which the eye muscles swell. Because the eye socket is bone, there is nowhere for the swelling to be accommodated and as a result the eye is pushed forward into a protruded position. In some patients this is very pronounced. Orbitial decompression involves removing some bone from the eye socket to open up one or more sinus
    Sinus
    - Anatomy :In anatomy, where a sinus is a sac or cavity in any organ or tissue:*Sinus , description of the general term*Paranasal sinuses, air cavities in the cranial bones, especially those near the nose, including:...

    es and so make space for the swollen tissue and allowing the eye to move back into normal position.

Other oculoplastic surgery

  • Botox injections
  • Ultrapeel Microdermabrasion
  • Endoscopic forehead and browlift
  • Face lift (Rhytidectomy
    Rhytidectomy
    A facelift, technically known as a rhytidectomy , is a type of cosmetic surgery procedure used to give a more youthful appearance...

    )
  • Liposuction
    Liposuction
    Liposuction, also known as lipoplasty , liposculpture suction lipectomy or simply lipo is a cosmetic surgery operation that removes fat from many different sites on the human body...

     of the face and neck
  • Browplasty http://www.emedicine.com/ent/topic100.htm

Surgery involving the lacrimal apparatus

  • A dacryocystorhinostomy
    Dacryocystorhinostomy
    Dacryocystorhinostomy is a surgical procedure to restore the flow of tears into the nose from the lacrimal sac when the nasolacrimal duct does not function.-Traditional:...

    (DCR) or dacryocystorhinotomy is a procedure to restore the flow of tears into the nose from the lacrimal sac when the nasolacrimal duct does not function.
  • Canaliculodacryocystostomy is a surgical correction for a congenitally blocked tear duct
    Lacrimal canaliculi
    The lacrimal canaliculi, also known as the lacrimal canals or lacrimal ducts, are the small channels in each eyelid that commence at minute orifices, termed puncta lacrimalia, on the summits of the papillae lacrimales, seen on the margins of the lids at the lateral extremity of the lacus...

     in which the closed segment is excised and the open end is joined to the lacrimal sac
    Lacrimal sac
    The lacrimal sac is the upper dilated end of the nasolacrimal duct, and is lodged in a deep groove formed by the lacrimal bone and frontal process of the maxilla...

    .
  • Canaliculotomy involves slitting of the lacrimal punctum and canaliculus
    Lacrimal canaliculi
    The lacrimal canaliculi, also known as the lacrimal canals or lacrimal ducts, are the small channels in each eyelid that commence at minute orifices, termed puncta lacrimalia, on the summits of the papillae lacrimales, seen on the margins of the lids at the lateral extremity of the lacus...

     for the relief of epiphora
  • A dacryoadenectomy is the surgical removal of a lacrimal gland.
  • A dacryocystectomy is the surgical removal of a part of the lacrimal sac.
  • A dacryocystostomy is an incision into the lacrimal sac, usually to promote drainage.
  • A dacryocystotomy is an incision into the lacrimal sac.

Eye removal

  • An enucleation is the removal of the eye leaving the eye muscles and remaining orbital contents intact.
  • An evisceration is the removal of the eye's contents, leaving the scleral shell intact. Usually performed to reduce pain in a blind eye.
  • An exenteration is the removal of the entire orbital contents, including the eye, extraocular muscles, fat, and connective tissues; usually for malignant orbital tumors.

Other surgery

Many of these described procedures are historical and are not recommended due to a risk of complications. Particularly, these include operations done on ciliary body in an attempt to control glaucoma, since highly safer surgeries for glaucoma, including lasers, non-penetrating surgery, guarded filtration surgery and seton valve implants have been invented.
  • A ciliarotomy is a surgical division of the ciliary zone in the treatment of glaucoma.
  • A ciliectomy is 1) the surgical removal of part of the ciliary body, or 2) the surgical removal of part of a margin of an eyelid containing the roots of the eyelashes.
  • A ciliotomy is a surgical section of the ciliary nerves.
  • A conjunctivoanstrostomy is an opening made form the inferior conjuctival cul-de-sac into the maxillary sinus for the treatment of epiphora.
  • Conjuctivoplasty is plastic surgery of the conjunctiva.
  • A conjunctivorhinostomy is a surgical correction of the total obstruction of a lacrimal canaliculus by which the conjuctiva is anastomosed with the nasal cavity to improve tear flow.
  • A corectomedialysis, or coretomedialysis, is an excision of a small portion of the iris at its junction with the ciliary body to form an artificial pupil.
  • A corectomy, or coretomy, is any surgical cutting operation on the iris at the pupil.
  • A corelysis is a surgical detachment of adhesions of the iris
    Synechia
    A synechia is an eye condition where the iris adheres to either the cornea or lens . Synechiae can be caused by ocular trauma, iritis or iridocyclitis and may lead to certain types of glaucoma...

     to the capsule of the crystalline lens or cornea.
  • A coremorphosis is the surgical formation of an artificial pupil.
  • A coreplasty, or coreoplasty, is plastic surgery of the iris, usually for the formation of an artificial pupil.
  • A coreoplasy, or laser pupillomydriasis, is any procedure that changes the size or shape of the pupil.
  • A cyclectomy is an excision of portion of the ciliary body.
  • A cyclotomy, or cyclicotomy, is a surgical incision of the ciliary body, usually for the relief of glaucoma.
  • A cycloanemization is a surgical obliteration of the long ciliary arteries in the treatment of glaucoma.
  • An iridectomesodialsys is the formation of an artificial pupil by detaching and excising a portion of the iris at its periphery.
  • An iridodialysis
    Iridodialysis
    Iridodialysis, sometimes known as a coredialysis, is a localized separation or tearing away of the iris from its attachment to the ciliary body.-Causes:...

    , sometimes known as a coredialysis, is a localized separation or tearing away of the iris from its attachment to the ciliary body.
  • An iridencleisis, or corenclisis, is a surgical procedure for glaucoma in which a portion of the iris is incised and incarcerated in a limbal incision. (Subdivided into basal iridencleisis and total iridencleisis.)
  • An iridesis is a surgical procedure in which a portion of the iris is brought through and incarcerated in a corneal incision in order to reposition the pupil.http://www.merckmedicus.com/pp/us/hcp/thcp_dorlands_content.jsp?pg=/ppdocs/us/common/dorlands/dorland/dmd_i_12.htm
  • An iridocorneosclerectomy is the surgical removal of a portion of the iris, the cornea, and the sclera.
  • An iridocyclectomy is the surgical removal of the iris and the ciliary body.
  • An iridocystectomy is the surgical removal of a portion of the iris to form an artificial pupil.
  • An iridosclerectomy is the surgical removal of a portion of the sclera and a portion of the iris in the region of the limbus for the treatment of glaucoma.
  • An iridosclerotomy is the surgical puncture of the sclera and the margin of the iris for the treatment of glaucoma.
  • A rhinommectomy is the surgical removal of a portion of the internal canthus.
  • A trepanotrabeculectomy is used in the treatment of chronic open and chronic closed angle glaucoma.

See also

  • LASIK
    LASIK
    LASIK or Lasik , commonly referred to simply as laser eye surgery, is a type of refractive surgery for correcting myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism...

  • Ophthalmology
    Ophthalmology
    Ophthalmology is the branch of medicine that deals with the anatomy, physiology and diseases of the eye. An ophthalmologist is a specialist in medical and surgical eye problems...

  • Topical anesthetic
    Topical anesthetic
    A topical anesthetic is a local anesthetic that is used to numb the surface of a body part. They can be used to numb any area of the skin as well as the front of the eyeball, the inside of the nose, ear or throat, the anus and the genital area. Topical anesthetics are available in creams,...

  • SEE-KID-Computer-assisted Simulation and Treatment of Eye Motility Disorders
The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
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