Exact science

Encyclopedia

An

capable of accurate quantitative

expression or precise predictions and rigorous

methods of testing hypotheses

, especially reproducible experiment

s involving quantifiable prediction

s and measurement

s. Mathematics

and Physics

can be considered

as exact sciences in this sense.

The term implies a dichotomy between these fields and others, such as the humanities

. Related but not equivalent terms are hard science, pure science, and fundamental science

.

**exact science**is any field of scienceScience

Science is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe...

capable of accurate quantitative

Quantitative research

In the social sciences, quantitative research refers to the systematic empirical investigation of social phenomena via statistical, mathematical or computational techniques. The objective of quantitative research is to develop and employ mathematical models, theories and/or hypotheses pertaining to...

expression or precise predictions and rigorous

Rigour

Rigour or rigor has a number of meanings in relation to intellectual life and discourse. These are separate from public and political applications with their suggestion of laws enforced to the letter, or political absolutism...

methods of testing hypotheses

Hypothesis

A hypothesis is a proposed explanation for a phenomenon. The term derives from the Greek, ὑποτιθέναι – hypotithenai meaning "to put under" or "to suppose". For a hypothesis to be put forward as a scientific hypothesis, the scientific method requires that one can test it...

, especially reproducible experiment

Experiment

An experiment is a methodical procedure carried out with the goal of verifying, falsifying, or establishing the validity of a hypothesis. Experiments vary greatly in their goal and scale, but always rely on repeatable procedure and logical analysis of the results...

s involving quantifiable prediction

Prediction

A prediction or forecast is a statement about the way things will happen in the future, often but not always based on experience or knowledge...

s and measurement

Measurement

Measurement is the process or the result of determining the ratio of a physical quantity, such as a length, time, temperature etc., to a unit of measurement, such as the metre, second or degree Celsius...

s. Mathematics

Mathematics

Mathematics is the study of quantity, space, structure, and change. Mathematicians seek out patterns and formulate new conjectures. Mathematicians resolve the truth or falsity of conjectures by mathematical proofs, which are arguments sufficient to convince other mathematicians of their validity...

and Physics

Physics

Physics is a natural science that involves the study of matter and its motion through spacetime, along with related concepts such as energy and force. More broadly, it is the general analysis of nature, conducted in order to understand how the universe behaves.Physics is one of the oldest academic...

can be considered

as exact sciences in this sense.

The term implies a dichotomy between these fields and others, such as the humanities

Humanities

The humanities are academic disciplines that study the human condition, using methods that are primarily analytical, critical, or speculative, as distinguished from the mainly empirical approaches of the natural sciences....

. Related but not equivalent terms are hard science, pure science, and fundamental science

Fundamental science

Fundamental science is science that describes the most basic objects, forces, relations between them and laws governing them, such that all other phenomena may be in principle derived from them following the logic of scientific reductionism. Biology, chemistry and physics are fundamental sciences;...

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