Eugenie Clark
Overview
 
Eugenie Clark popularly known as The Shark Lady, is an American ichthyologist known for her research on poisonous fish of the tropical seas and on the behaviour of shark
Shark
Sharks are a type of fish with a full cartilaginous skeleton and a highly streamlined body. The earliest known sharks date from more than 420 million years ago....

s.

She received her Bachelor of Arts degree from Hunter College and Master of Arts and doctoral degrees from New York University. In 1968, she joined the faculty at the University of Maryland College Park, where she is currently a professor of zoology
Zoology
Zoology |zoölogy]]), is the branch of biology that relates to the animal kingdom, including the structure, embryology, evolution, classification, habits, and distribution of all animals, both living and extinct...

.
Encyclopedia
Eugenie Clark popularly known as The Shark Lady, is an American ichthyologist known for her research on poisonous fish of the tropical seas and on the behaviour of shark
Shark
Sharks are a type of fish with a full cartilaginous skeleton and a highly streamlined body. The earliest known sharks date from more than 420 million years ago....

s.

Academic life


She received her Bachelor of Arts degree from Hunter College and Master of Arts and doctoral degrees from New York University. In 1968, she joined the faculty at the University of Maryland College Park, where she is currently a professor of zoology
Zoology
Zoology |zoölogy]]), is the branch of biology that relates to the animal kingdom, including the structure, embryology, evolution, classification, habits, and distribution of all animals, both living and extinct...

. She has given lectures at over 60 colleges and universities in the United States. She also has given lectures in 19 foreign countries, and conducted summer science training programs at the high school and college levels. http://www.msa.md.gov/msa/educ/exhibits/womenshall/html/clark.html Her Ph.D. from New York University
New York University
New York University is a private, nonsectarian research university based in New York City. NYU's main campus is situated in the Greenwich Village section of Manhattan...

 in 1950 involved her work on the reproduction of species of platys
Xiphophorus
Xiphophorus is a genus of euryhaline and freshwater fishes in the family Poeciliidae of order Cyprinodontiformes. The many Xiphophorus species are all called either platyfish or swordtails. The type species is X. hellerii, the Green swordtail. Platyfish and swordtails are Live-bearers, meaning...

 and swordtail fish http://www.diveglobal.com/photography_film/the_greats/clarke.asp.

She is the founding director (1955 to 1967) of the former Cape Haze Marine Laboratory, now known as the Mote Marine Laboratory
Mote Marine Laboratory
Mote Marine Laboratory is an independent not-for-profit marine research organization based on City Island in Sarasota, FL. The laboratory aims to advance the science of the sea, both through its marine and estuarine research labs and through the public Mote Aquarium and its affiliated educational...

 in Sarasota, Florida
Florida
Florida is a state in the southeastern United States, located on the nation's Atlantic and Gulf coasts. It is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the north by Alabama and Georgia and to the east by the Atlantic Ocean. With a population of 18,801,310 as measured by the 2010 census, it...

http://www.sharklady.com/. She joined the Department of Zoology at the University of Maryland, College Park
University of Maryland, College Park
The University of Maryland, College Park is a top-ranked public research university located in the city of College Park in Prince George's County, Maryland, just outside Washington, D.C...

 in 1968, she still holds the title of Senior Research Scientist and Professor Emerita even though she has retired from teaching. She has studied the behavior
Behavior
Behavior or behaviour refers to the actions and mannerisms made by organisms, systems, or artificial entities in conjunction with its environment, which includes the other systems or organisms around as well as the physical environment...

, ecology
Ecology
Ecology is the scientific study of the relations that living organisms have with respect to each other and their natural environment. Variables of interest to ecologists include the composition, distribution, amount , number, and changing states of organisms within and among ecosystems...

 and taxonomy
Taxonomy
Taxonomy is the science of identifying and naming species, and arranging them into a classification. The field of taxonomy, sometimes referred to as "biological taxonomy", revolves around the description and use of taxonomic units, known as taxa...

 of fishes for over 50 years, especially that of shark
Shark
Sharks are a type of fish with a full cartilaginous skeleton and a highly streamlined body. The earliest known sharks date from more than 420 million years ago....

s. She has received three honorary D.Sc. degrees and awards from the National Geographic Society
National Geographic Society
The National Geographic Society , headquartered in Washington, D.C. in the United States, is one of the largest non-profit scientific and educational institutions in the world. Its interests include geography, archaeology and natural science, the promotion of environmental and historical...

, the Explorers Club
The Explorers Club
The Explorers Club is a professional society dedicated to scientific exploration of Earth, its oceans, and outer space. Founded in 1904 in New York City, it currently has 30 branches world wide...

, the Underwater Society of America and the American Littoral Society.

As a world-famous scientist and pioneer in the field of scuba diving for research purposes, Dr. Clark's search for answers has taken her around the world and below the waters of the seven seas. She carried the flag of the Society of Women Geographers to Ethiopia, carried it underwater off Japan and Egypt and carried the flag of the National Geographic Society to Egypt
Egypt
Egypt , officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, Arabic: , is a country mainly in North Africa, with the Sinai Peninsula forming a land bridge in Southwest Asia. Egypt is thus a transcontinental country, and a major power in Africa, the Mediterranean Basin, the Middle East and the Muslim world...

, Israel
Israel
The State of Israel is a parliamentary republic located in the Middle East, along the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea...

, Australia
Australia
Australia , officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country in the Southern Hemisphere comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area...

, Japan
Japan
Japan is an island nation in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies to the east of the Sea of Japan, China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia, stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south...

 and Mexico
Mexico
The United Mexican States , commonly known as Mexico , is a federal constitutional republic in North America. It is bordered on the north by the United States; on the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; on the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and on the east by the Gulf of...

.http://www.msa.md.gov/msa/educ/exhibits/womenshall/html/clark.html

Clark has been diving with sharks for more than 30 years. She is active in the scuba-diving based field research on fish and submarine dives. An accomplished and prolific writer, she has shared the adventures and excitement of her scientific research through her articles in scientific journals, lectures and television specials, and articles in such popular magazines as National Geographic and Science Digest. She is the author of two books: Lady with a Spear, 1953 (book -of-the-Month Club Selection) and The Lady and the Sharks, 1969.

Bite investigation

While working at the Marine Experiment Station in Sarasota, Florida
Florida
Florida is a state in the southeastern United States, located on the nation's Atlantic and Gulf coasts. It is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the north by Alabama and Georgia and to the east by the Atlantic Ocean. With a population of 18,801,310 as measured by the 2010 census, it...

, Dr. Clark investigated a shark bite incident. Douglas Lawton was attacked by a shark while playing with his brother who was twelve at the time.

Douglas screamed and was almost dragged beneath the water while his brother grabbed him and his parents, an aunt, and an uncle raced to rescue him. The water quickly turned red with blood and Douglas' relatives saw the shark distinctly. It was gripping the boy's left thigh. The shark was described as being five feet in length, a blue-gray color, with a slender and streamlined physique.

The shark refused to let go of the boy in his jaws even when the four adults dragged the boy to the very shallow water of the beach. Becoming quite agitated Douglas' father pulled the shark by the tail while the uncle pounded on its head. The shark finally released its jaws and disappeared in the shallow water of swash channel close by the beach. The boy was quickly transported to a local hospital. Here his leg was amputated close to the hip.

Dr. Eugenie Clark conducted thorough questioning of the witnesses and a close inspection of Douglas's amputated leg. She believed the attack was made by a young tiger shark
Tiger shark
The tiger sharks, Galeocerdo cuvier, is a species of requiem shark and the only member of the genus Galeocerdo. Commonly known as sea tigers, tiger sharks are relatively large macropredators, capable of attaining a length of over . It is found in many tropical and temperate waters, and is...

. Her conclusion was confirmed by comparing the wounds with preserved jaws of tiger sharks. It was clear that the teeth had been strongly asymmetrical.
People often asked if she has ever been attacked by a shark.
"Only Once," she said.
Once the teeth of a 12-foot* tiger shark sank into her arm and made it bleed. But the accident didn't happen in the water! She was driving to school to talk to some children about sharks. Beside her, on the front seat, was a dried mounted jaw of a tiger shark.
The traffic light turned from green to red. She stopped short and slammed on the brakes. She stretched out her arm to keep the mounted jaw from falling off the seat and the jaw fell against her arm! It was the only time a shark's teeth ever bit Eugenie.

The Shark Repellent

She once saw that if one touches a flatfish called a Moses sole, milky white liquid would ooze out and it felt tingly on the fingers. When she discovered this she started testing the liquid with other types of fish.

After many tests she decided to test it with sharks. She found a Moses sole that still had some liquid. She tied it with string and lowered it into the water. She watched as the shark swam towards the fish but stopped abruptly in front of it and looking as if its mouth were frozen. After a moment, the shark swam away from the poisonous fish. As a result she performed more experiments with fish and sharks and finally confirmed that the poisonous substance would "repel" sharks.

She then decided to test this with sharks out in the ocean
Ocean
An ocean is a major body of saline water, and a principal component of the hydrosphere. Approximately 71% of the Earth's surface is covered by ocean, a continuous body of water that is customarily divided into several principal oceans and smaller seas.More than half of this area is over 3,000...

. She tied many types of fish each to a line and cast them into the water. One by one, the fish were eaten but the sharks kept avoiding the Moses sole fish. The Moses sole is safe to eat if it has been washed in red wine, an alcohol
Alcohol
In chemistry, an alcohol is an organic compound in which the hydroxy functional group is bound to a carbon atom. In particular, this carbon center should be saturated, having single bonds to three other atoms....

. Otherwise, it is poisonous.

Honorary Degrees

  • 1992 Doctor of Science, University of Massachusetts, Dartmouth
  • 1995 Honorary Doctor of Science, University of Guelph, Ontario
  • 1995 Honorary Doctor of Science, Long Island University, New York

Grants and Contracts

  • 1950-51 Smithsonian Institution
    Smithsonian Institution
    The Smithsonian Institution is an educational and research institute and associated museum complex, administered and funded by the government of the United States and by funds from its endowment, contributions, and profits from its retail operations, concessions, licensing activities, and magazines...

     (India a new state)
  • 1958-70 National Science Foundation
  • 1969-98 National Geographic Society, Committee for Research & Exploration (13 grants)
  • 1977 NOAA Sea Grant
  • 1984-85 U.S. - Israel Binational Science Foundation (Extramural support for field work managed through the Univedgdfs of Maryland Foundation), CoPI:Elia Zlotkin

Scholarships and Fellowship

  • 1949 Pacific Science Board Scholarship (Micronesia)
  • 1949 Atomic Energy Commission Fellowship
  • 1950 Fulbright Scholarship (Egypt)
  • 1952 Eugene Saxton Memorial Fellowship
  • 1952 Breadloaf Writers' Fellowship
  • 1959 Scholarship of the Finger Lakes University

Honors and Awards and trophies

  • 1952 Hunter College Alumni Award
  • 1953 Mademoiselle Merit Award in Science
  • 1964 Hadassah Myrtle Wreath Award in Science
  • 1965 Marquis Who's Who Citation, outstanding women in science
  • 1965 Underwater Society of America, NOGI Award in Arts
  • 1965 American Academy of Achievement, Golden Plate Award, Science
  • 1969 American Littoral Society, Dugan Award in Aquatic Sciences
  • 1972 Hunter College, Hall of Fame Award
  • 1973 Boston Sea Rovers, Cousteau Award, underwater science
  • 1974 Mayor Rizzo, Liberty Bell Award, Philadelphia
  • 1975 University of Maryland Honors Convocation
  • 1976 Fellow, American Association for the Advancement of Science
  • 1978 Diver of the Year Award, Boston Sea Rovers
  • 1982 John Stoneman Marine Environmental Award
  • 1982 University of Maryland Outstanding Woman Award
  • 1986 Lowell Thomas Award for Undersea Exploration, Explorers Club
  • 1986 Best Nature Film Award, Wildscreen International Film Festival For NATUREWATCH - EC Râs Mohammed
  • 1986 Ocean Hero, Year of the Ocean (1984–85)
  • 1988 Underwater Society of America, NOGI Award in Science
  • 1989 Maryland Women's Hall of Fame
  • 1990 NASPA, Woman of Distinction Award
  • 1990 Honorary Citizen and Key to the City of Sarasota, FL.
  • 1991 Phi Kappa Phi
    Phi Kappa Phi
    The Honor Society of Phi Kappa Phi is an honor society established 1897 to recognize and encourage superior scholarship without restriction as to area of study and to promote the "unity and democracy of education"...

    , Faculty Award
  • 1991 Alpha Lambda Delta
    Alpha Lambda Delta
    Alpha Lambda Delta is an honor society for students who have achieved a 3.5 GPA or higher and are in the top 20% of their class during their first year or term of higher education.-History:...

    , Honorary Member
  • 1991 NAUI Award for Outstanding Contribution to Diving
  • 1992 Bryant High School, Hall of Fame
  • 1993 DEMA (Diving Equipment Manufacturers Assoc.), Hall of Fame Award
  • 1993 National Geographic Society, Franklin L. Burr Award
  • 1994 Honorary President of 27th Festival Mondial de l'Image Sous Marine at Antibes, France
  • 1995 Honored as Founding Director, Mote Marine Laboratory (at 40th Anniversary)
  • 1995 Honorary Director, Explorers Club
  • 1996 Emmy Award, Maryland Public Television, Capital Region
  • 1999 American Elasmobranch Society, Distinguished Fellow Award

Medals

  • 1970 Mademoiselle, Silver Medal
  • 1975 Society of Women Geographers, Gold Medal
  • 1981 David B. Stone Medal for distinguished service to environment and community
  • 1984 Governor of South Sinai, Egypt, Medal
  • 1988 Governor of Red Sea, Egypt, Medal
  • 1993 President's Medal, University of Maryland at College Park
  • 1994 Medal of Excellence, American Society of Oceanographers

Flag-Carrying Honors

  • 1962 Carried flag of Society of Woman Geographers to Ethiopia
  • 1980 Carried flag of National Geographic Society to Egypt, Israel, Australia, Japan, and Mexico
  • 1982 Carried flag of Society of Woman Geographers underwater off Japan and Egypt
  • 1986 Carried flag of the Explorers Club on the "First American Diving Expedition to South China"
  • 1988 Carried flags of Society of Women Geographers, Explorers' Club and the National Geographic Society to the bottom of Monterey Canyon (12,000 ft)

Fishes Named for E. Clark

  • 1978 Callogobius clarki (Goren) - Family Gobiidae
  • 1980 Sticharium clarkae George and Springer - Family Clinidae
  • 1982 Enneapterygius clarkae Holleman - Family Tripterygiidae
  • 1987 Atrobucca geniae Ben-Tuvia and Trewavas - Family Scienidae

Building Named for E. Clark

  • 1988 Home Room building, Pine View Elementary School, Sarasota, FL.

Books Dedicated to E. Clark

  • 1966 The Insane World of Adolf Hitler, Chandler Brossard.
  • 1978 The Man Who Rode Sharks, Bill Royal, Dodd, Mead and Co., NY.
  • 1994 ET, Ro, and Genie: An Anthology in Honour of Women Ichthyologists, Environmenal Biology of Fishes, Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Profiles on E. Clark as Chapters in Books

  • 1967 Your Future In Oceanography by N. Garber, Rosen Press, New York.
  • 1976 The Shark Book by R. Ellis, Grosset and Dunlap, New York.
  • 1976 Women in Sports by H. Hauser, Harvey House, New York.
  • 1977 Contributions of Women in Science by D. Emberlin, Dillon Press.
  • 1977 Minority Americans in the Agricultural and Life Sciences, U. of Md.
  • 1979 Great Shark Stories by V. Taylor, Harper and Row, New York.
  • 1978 Wild Animals, Gentle Women by Margery Facklam, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
  • 1980 Women and Wilderness by Ann LaBastille, Sierra Club.
  • 1985 The Nature-Watchers by R. Brown & J. Pettifer. Collins, London, pp. 17–22 and 37-45.
  • 1987 Call to Adventure by H. Hauser. Bookmaker Guild Inc. Longmont, CA. pp. 137–145.
  • 1990 The Adventurous Aquanaunt by H. Hauswer, pp. 201–216.
  • 1991 Living Dangerously by D. Rappaport. Harper & Collins, pp. 71–86.
  • 1973-91 Clark, E., 21 short profiles with excerpts from E. Clark's writings as chapters in textbooks for school children.
  • 1994 Contemporary Women Scientists by Lisa Yount, Facts on File, NY, pp. 54–71.
  • 1994 Environmental Biology of Fishes by Eugene K. Balon, Vol. 41, pp. 89–114.
  • 1998 Sea of Dreamers by Phil Trupp, Fulcrum Publishing, Colorado, pp. 164–187
  • 1999 Oceanographers and Explorers of the Sea by Kirk Polking, Enslow Publishers, pp.
  • 2010 Courageous Women of Maryland by Katherine Kenny and Eleanor Randrup, Schiffer Publishing, pp. 27-31, 103-104

Biographies

  • 1998 McGovern, Ann. Adventures of the Shark Lady: Eugenie Clark Around the World, Scholastic Book Services, New York. (paperback)
  • 1978 McGovern, Ann. Shark Lady, True Adventures of Eugenie Clark, Scholastic Book Services, New York. (paperback)
  • 1979 McGovern, Ann. Shark Lady, True Adventures of Eugenie Clark, Four Winds Press, New York. (hardback)
  • 1981 McGovern, Ann. 1981. French ed. La femme aux requins, les veritables aventures d' Eugenie Clark, Scholastic-Tab Inc., Ontario, Canada. (paperback)


External links


The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
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