Abu Ishaq Ibrahim ibn Muhammad al-Farisi al Istakhri (aka Estakhri, Persian: استخری, i.e. from the city of Estakhr, b. - d. 957 AD [346AH]) was a medieval Persian geographer in the 10th century.
CareerIt was Estakhri who created the earliest known account of windmill
A windmill is a machine which converts the energy of wind into rotational energy by means of vanes called sails or blades. Originally windmills were developed for milling grain for food production. In the course of history the windmill was adapted to many other industrial uses. An important...
s. His Arabic language works included Al-masaalik al-mamaalik (المسالك الممالك, "Traditions of Countries") and Suwar al-Aqaaleem ( صور الاقاليم, "Shapes of the Climes").
- "Estakhri" in the Great Encyclopedia of Islam: http://www.cgie.org.ir/shavad.asp?id=123&avaid=3609 (in Persian)
- List of Iranian scientists
- World Map of al-Istakhri
- Encyclopaedia of IslamEncyclopaedia of IslamThe Encyclopaedia of Islam is an encyclopaedia of the academic discipline of Islamic studies. It embraces articles on distinguished Muslims of every age and land, on tribes and dynasties, on the crafts and sciences, on political and religious institutions, on the geography, ethnography, flora and...
, Artikel al-Masalik wa`l-Mamalik