style had a strong influence on 20th-century fiction, while his life of adventure and his public image influenced later generations. Hemingway produced most of his work between the mid-1920s and the mid-1950s, and won the Nobel Prize in Literature
in 1954. He published seven novels, including six short story collections and two non-fiction works.
Switzerland is a small, steep country, much more up and down than sideways, and is all stuck over with large brown hotels built on the cuckoo clock style of architecture.
Somebody just back of you while you are fishing is as bad as someone looking over your shoulder while you write a letter to your girl.
A man's got to take a lot of punishment to write a really funny book.
The age demanded that we danceAnd jammed us into iron pants.And in the end the age was handedThe sort of shit that it demanded.
My attitude toward punctuation is that it ought to be as conventional as possible. The game of golf would lose a good deal if croquet mallets and billiard cues were allowed on the putting green. You ought to be able to show that you can do it a good deal better than anyone else with the regular tools before you have a license to bring in your own improvements.
God knows, people who are paid to have attitudes toward things, professional critics, make me sick; camp-following eunuchs of literature. They won't even whore. They're all virtuous and sterile. And how well meaning and high minded. But they're all camp-followers.
I wonder what your idea of heaven would be — A beautiful vacuum filled with wealthy monogamists. All powerful and members of the best families all drinking themselves to death. And hell would probably an ugly vacuum full of poor polygamists unable to obtain booze or with chronic stomach disorders that they called secret sorrows.
Write me at the Hotel Quintana, Pamplona, Spain. Or don't you like to write letters. I do because it's such a swell way to keep from working and yet feel you've done something
I've tried to reduce profanity but I reduced so much profanity when writing the book that I'm afraid not much could come out. Perhaps we will have to consider it simply as a profane book and hope that the next book will be less profane or perhaps more sacred.
style had a strong influence on 20th-century fiction, while his life of adventure and his public image influenced later generations. Hemingway produced most of his work between the mid-1920s and the mid-1950s, and won the Nobel Prize in Literature
in 1954. He published seven novels, including six short story collections and two non-fiction works. Three novels, four collections of short stories and three non-fiction works were published posthumously. Many of these are considered classics of American literature
Hemingway was raised in Oak Park, Illinois
. After high school he reported for a few months for The Kansas City Star
, before leaving for the Italian front
to enlist with the World War I ambulance drivers. In 1918, he was seriously wounded and returned home. His wartime experiences formed the basis for his novel A Farewell to Arms
. In 1922, he married Hadley Richardson
, the first of his four wives. The couple moved to Paris, where he worked as a foreign correspondent
, and fell under the influence of the modernist
writers and artists of the 1920s "Lost Generation
" expatriate community. The Sun Also Rises
, Hemingway's first novel, was published in 1926.
After his 1927 divorce from Hadley Richardson, Hemingway married Pauline Pfeiffer
. They divorced after he returned from Spanish Civil War
where he had acted as a journalist, and after which he wrote For Whom the Bell Tolls
. Martha Gellhorn
became his third wife in 1940. They separated when he met Mary Welsh
in London during World War II
; during which he was present at the Normandy Landings and liberation of Paris
Shortly after the publication of The Old Man and the Sea
in 1952, Hemingway went on safari to Africa, where he was almost killed in a plane crash that left him in pain or ill-health for much of the rest of his life. Hemingway had permanent residences in Key West, Florida
, and Cuba
during the 1930s and '40s, but in 1959 he moved from Cuba to Ketchum, Idaho
, where he committed suicide
in the summer of 1961.
Early lifeErnest Miller Hemingway was born on July 21, 1899, in Oak Park, Illinois
, a suburb of Chicago. His father, Clarence Edmonds Hemingway was a physician, and his mother, Grace Hall-Hemingway, was a musician. Both were well-educated and well-respected in the conservative community of Oak Park, a community about which resident Frank Lloyd Wright
said ,"So many churches for so many good people to go to". For a short period after their marriage, Clarence and Grace Hemingway lived with Grace's father, Ernest Hall, for whom they named their first son.Hemingway had five siblings: Marcelline (1898); Ursula (1902); Madelaine (1904); Carol (1911); and Leicester (1915). See Reynolds (2000), 17–18 Later Hemingway would say he disliked his name, which he "associated with the naive, even foolish hero of Oscar Wilde
's play The Importance of Being Earnest
". The family eventually moved into a seven-bedroom home in a respectable neighborhood with a music studio for Grace and a medical office for Clarence.
Hemingway's mother frequently performed in concerts around the village. As an adult Hemingway professed to hate his mother, although biographer Michael Reynolds
points out that Hemingway mirrored her energy and enthusiasm. Her insistence that he learn to play the cello became a "source of conflict", but he later admitted the music lessons were useful to his writing, as is evident in the "contrapuntal
structure" of For Whom the Bell Tolls
. The family owned a summer home called Windemere
on Walloon Lake
, near Petoskey, Michigan, where as a boy Hemingway learned to hunt, fish and camp in the woods and lakes of Northern Michigan. His early experiences in nature instilled a passion for outdoor adventure, and living in remote or isolated areas.
From 1913 until 1917, Hemingway attended Oak Park and River Forest High School
where he took part in a number of sports—boxing, track and field, water polo, and football—had good grades in English classes, and with his sister Marcelline performed in the school orchestra for two years. In his junior year, he took a journalism class, taught by Fannie Biggs, which was structured "as though the classroom were a newspaper office". The better writers in class submitted pieces to the The Trapeze, the school newspaper. Hemingway and Marcelline both had pieces submitted to The Trapeze; Hemingway's first piece, published in January 1916, was about a local performance by the Chicago Symphony Orchestra
. He continued to contribute to and to edit the Trapeze and the Tabula (the school's newspaper and yearbook), for which he imitated the language of sportswriters, and used the pen name Ring Lardner, Jr.—a nod to Ring Lardner
of the Chicago Tribune
whose byline was "Line O'Type". Like Mark Twain
, Stephen Crane
, Theodore Dreiser
and Sinclair Lewis
, Hemingway was a journalist before becoming a novelist; after leaving high school he went to work for The Kansas City Star
as a cub reporter. Although he stayed there for only six months he relied on the Stars style guide
as a foundation for his writing: "Use short sentences. Use short first paragraphs. Use vigorous English. Be positive, not negative."
World War IEarly in 1918 Hemingway responded to a Red Cross recruitment effort and signed on to be an ambulance driver in Italy. He left New York in May, and arrived in Paris as the city was under bombardment from German artillery. By June he was stationed at the Italian Front
, and on his first day in Milan was sent to the scene of a munitions factory explosion where rescuers retrieved the shredded remains of female workers. He described the incident in his non-fiction book Death in the Afternoon
: "I remember that after we searched quite thoroughly for the complete dead we collected fragments". A few days later he was stationed at Fossalta di Piave
. On July 8 he was seriously wounded by mortar fire, having just returned from the canteen to deliver chocolate and cigarettes to the men at the front line. Despite his wounds, Hemingway carried an Italian soldier to safety, for which he received the Italian Silver Medal of Bravery
. Still only 18, Hemingway said of the incident: "When you go to war as a boy you have a great illusion of immortality. Other people get killed; not you ... Then when you are badly wounded the first time you lose that illusion and you know it can happen to you." He sustained shrapnel wounds to both legs; underwent an operation at a distribution center; spent five days at a field hospital; and was transferred to the Red Cross hospital in Milan for recuperation. Hemingway spent six months in the hospital, where he met and fell in love with Agnes von Kurowsky
, a Red Cross nurse seven years his senior. Agnes and Hemingway planned to marry, but she became engaged to an Italian officer in March 1919, an incident that provided material for the short and bitter work "A Very Short Story
". Biographer Jeffrey Meyers claims Hemingway was devastated by Agnes' rejection, and that he followed a pattern of abandoning a wife before she abandoned him in future relationships. During his six months in recuperation Hemingway met and formed a strong friendship with "Chink" Dorman-Smith
that lasted for decades.
Toronto and ChicagoHemingway returned home early in 1919 to a time of readjustment. At not yet 20 years old, the war had created in him a maturity at odds with living at home without a job and the need for recuperation. As Reynolds explains, "Hemingway could not really tell his parents what he thought when he saw his bloody knee. He could not say how scared he was in another country with surgeons who could not tell him in English if his leg was coming off or not." That summer he spent time in Michigan with high school friends, fishing and camping; and in September he spent a week in the back-country. The trip became the inspiration for his short story "Big Two-Hearted River
", in which the semi-autobiographical character Nick Adams
takes to the country to find solitude after returning from war. A family friend offered him a job in Toronto; having nothing else to do he accepted. Late that year he began as a freelancer, staff writer and foreign correspondent for the Toronto Star Weekly. However he returned to Michigan the following June, and then moved to Chicago in September 1920 to live with friends, while still filing stories for the Toronto Star.
In Chicago he worked as an associate editor of the monthly journal Cooperative Commonwealth, where he met novelist Sherwood Anderson
. When St. Louis native Hadley Richardson
came to Chicago to visit the sister of Hemingway's roommate, he became infatuated and later claimed, "I knew she was the girl I was going to marry". Hadley was red-haired, with a "nurturing instinct", and eight years older than Hemingway. Despite the difference in age, Hadley, who had grown up with an overprotective mother, seemed less mature than usual for a young woman her age. Bernice Kert, author of The Hemingway Women, claims Hadley was "evocative" of Agnes, but that Hadley had a childishness that Agnes lacked. The two corresponded for a few months, and then decided to marry and travel to Europe. They wanted to visit Rome, but Sherwood Anderson convinced them to visit Paris instead. They were married on September 3, 1921; two months later Hemingway was hired as foreign correspondent for the Toronto Star and the couple left for Paris. Of Hemingway's marriage to Hadley, Meyers claims: "With Hadley, Hemingway achieved everything he had hoped for with Agnes: the love of a beautiful woman, a comfortable income, a life in Europe."
, Hemingway's first biographer, believes that while Anderson suggested Paris because "the monetary exchange rate" made it an inexpensive place to live, more importantly it was where "the most interesting people in the world" lived. In Paris Hemingway met writers such as Gertrude Stein
, James Joyce
and Ezra Pound
who "could help a young writer up the rungs of a career". The Hemingway of the early Paris years was a "tall, handsome, muscular, broad-shouldered, brown-eyed, rosy-cheeked, square-jawed, soft-voiced young man." He and Hadley lived in a small walk-up at 74 Rue du Cardinal Lemoine in the Latin Quarter
, and he worked in a rented room in a nearby building. Stein, who was the bastion of modernism
in Paris, became Hemingway's mentor; she introduced him to the expatriate artists and writers of the Montparnasse Quarter, whom she referred to as the "Lost Generation
"—a term Hemingway popularized with the publication of The Sun Also Rises
. A regular at Stein's salon
, Hemingway met influential painters such as Pablo Picasso
, Joan Miró
, and Juan Gris
. He eventually withdrew from Stein's influence and their relationship deteriorated into a literary quarrel that spanned decades. The American poet Ezra Pound met Hemingway by chance at Sylvia Beach's bookshop Shakespeare and Company
in 1922. The two toured Italy in 1923 and lived on the same street in 1924. They forged a strong friendship and in Hemingway, Pound recognized and fostered a young talent. Pound introduced Hemingway to the Irish writer James Joyce, with whom Hemingway frequently embarked on "alcoholic sprees".
During his first 20 months in Paris, Hemingway filed 88 stories for the Toronto Star. He covered the Greco-Turkish War, where he witnessed the burning of Smyrna
; wrote travel pieces such as "Tuna Fishing in Spain" and "Trout Fishing All Across Europe: Spain Has the Best, Then Germany"; and an article dedicated to bullfighting
—"Pamplona in July; World's Series of Bull Fighting a Mad, Whirling Carnival". Hemingway was devastated on learning that Hadley had lost a suitcase filled with his manuscripts at the Gare de Lyon
as she was traveling to Geneva
to meet him in December 1922. The following September, the couple returned to Toronto, where their son John Hadley Nicanor
was born on October 10, 1923. During their absence Hemingway's first book, Three Stories and Ten Poems, was published. Two of the stories it contained were all that remained after the loss of the suitcase, and the third had been written the previous spring in Italy. Within months a second volume, in our time (without capitals), was published. The small volume included six vignettes
and a dozen stories Hemingway had written the previous summer during his first visit to Spain where he discovered the thrill of the corrida. He missed Paris, considered Toronto boring, and wanted to return to the life of a writer, rather than live the life of a journalist.
Hemingway, Hadley and their son (nicknamed Bumby) returned to Paris in January 1924 and moved into a new apartment on the rue Notre-Dame-des-Champs. Hemingway helped Ford Madox Ford
edit the transatlantic review
, which published works by Pound, John Dos Passos
and Stein, as well as some of Hemingway's own early stories such as "Indian Camp
". When In Our Time
(with capital letters) was published in 1925, the dust jacket bore comments from Ford. "Indian Camp" received considerable praise; Ford saw it as an important early story by a young writer, and critics in the United States praised Hemingway for reinvigorating the short story genre with his crisp style and use of declarative sentences. Six months earlier, Hemingway had met F. Scott Fitzgerald
, and the pair formed a friendship of "admiration and hostility". Fitzgerald had published The Great Gatsby
the same year: Hemingway read it, liked it, and decided his next work had to be a novel.
Since his first visit to see the bullfighting at the Festival of San Fermín
in 1923, Hemingway had been fascinated by the sport; he saw in it the brutality of war juxtaposed against a sort of cruel beauty. In June 1925, Hemingway and Hadley left Paris for their third visit to Pamplona accompanied by a group of American and British expatriates. The trip inspired Hemingway's first novel, The Sun Also Rises
, which he began to write immediately after the fiesta, finishing in September. The novel presents the culture of bullfighting with the concept of afición, depicted as an authentic way of life, contrasted against Parisian bohemians, depicted as inauthentic. He decided to slow the pace of writing and devoted six months to the novel's rewrite. The manuscript arrived in New York in April, he corrected the final proof in Paris in August 1926, and Scribner's
published the novel in October. The Sun Also Rises epitomized the post-war expatriate generation, received good reviews and is "recognized as Hemingway's greatest work". Hemingway himself later wrote to his editor Max Perkins that the "point of the book" was not so much about a generation being lost, but that "the earth abideth forever"; he believed the characters in The Sun Also Rises may have been "battered" but were not lost.
Hemingway's marriage to Hadley deteriorated as he was working on The Sun Also Rises. In the spring of 1926, Hadley became aware of his affair with Pauline Pfeiffer, who came to Pamplona with them that July. On their return to Paris, Hadley asked for a separation; in November she formally requested a divorce. They split their possessions while Hadley accepted Hemingway's offer of the proceeds from The Sun Also Rises. The couple were divorced in January 1927, and Hemingway married Pauline Pfeiffer in May.
Pfeiffer, who was from a wealthy Catholic Arkansas
family, was in Paris working for Vogue
. Before their marriage Hemingway converted to Catholicism. They honeymooned in Le Grau-du-Roi
, where he contracted anthrax
, and he planned his next collection of short stories, Men Without Women, published in October 1927. By the end of the year Pauline, who was pregnant, wanted to move back to America. John Dos Passos recommended Key West
, and they left Paris in March 1928. That spring Hemingway suffered a severe injury in their Paris bathroom, when he pulled a skylight down on his head thinking he was pulling on a toilet chain. This left him with a prominent forehead scar, which he carried for the rest of his life. When Hemingway was asked about the scar he was reluctant to answer. After his departure from Paris, Hemingway "never again lived in a big city".
Key West and the Caribbean
was born on June 28, 1928. Pauline had a difficult delivery, which Hemingway fictionalized in A Farewell to Arms
. After Patrick's birth, Pauline and Hemingway traveled to Wyoming, Massachusetts and New York. In the fall he was in New York with Bumby, about to board a train to Florida, when he received a cable telling him that his father had committed suicide.Clarence Hemingway used his father's Civil War pistol to shoot himself. See Meyers (1985), 2 Hemingway was devastated, having earlier sent a letter to his father telling him not to worry about financial difficulties; the letter arrived minutes after the suicide. He realized how Hadley must have felt after her own father's suicide in 1903, and he commented, "I'll probably go the same way."
Upon his return to Key West in December, Hemingway worked on the draft of A Farewell to Arms before leaving for France in January. He had finished it in August but delayed the revision. The serialization in Scribner's Magazine
was scheduled to begin in May, but as late as April, Hemingway was still working on the ending, which he may have rewritten as many as seventeen times. The completed novel was published on September 27. Biographer James Mellow believes A Farewell to Arms established Hemingway's stature as a major American writer and displayed a level of complexity not apparent in The Sun Also Rises. In Spain during the summer of 1929, Hemingway researched his next work, Death in the Afternoon
. He wanted to write a comprehensive treatise
on bullfighting, explaining the toreros and corridas and complete with glossaries and appendices, because he believed bullfighting was "of great tragic interest, being literally of life and death."
During the early 1930s Hemingway spent his winters in Key West and summers in Wyoming, where he found "the most beautiful country he had seen in the American West" and hunting that included deer, elk and grizzly bear. His third son, Gregory Hancock Hemingway
, was born on November 12, 1931 in Kansas City.Gregory Hemingway underwent sex reassignment surgery
in the mid-1990s and thereafter was known as Gloria Hemingway
. See Hemingway legacy feud 'resolved'. BBC News. October 3, 2003. Accessed April 26, 2011. Pauline's uncle bought the couple a house
in Key West with the second floor of the carriage house converted to a writing den. While in Key West Hemingway invited friends—including Waldo Peirce
, John Dos Passos
, and Max Perkins—to join him on fishing trips and on an all-male expedition to the Dry Tortugas
, where he frequented the local bar Sloppy Joe's. Meanwhile he continued to travel to Europe and to Cuba
, and although he wrote of Key West in 1933, "We have a fine house here, and kids are all well," Mellow believes he "was plainly restless."
In 1933 Hemingway and Pauline went on safari to East Africa. The 10-week trip provided material for Green Hills of Africa
, as well as for the short stories "The Snows of Kilimanjaro
" and "The Short Happy Life of Francis Macomber
". The couple visited Mombasa
, and Machakos
, then moved on to Tanganyika
, where they hunted in the Serengeti
, around Lake Manyara
, and west and southeast of present-day Tarangire National Park
. Their guide was the noted "white hunter" Philip Hope Percival, who had guided Theodore Roosevelt
on his 1909 safari. During these travels Hemingway contracted amoebic dysentery
that caused a prolapsed intestine, and he was evacuated by plane to Nairobi, an experience reflected in "The Snows of Kilimanjaro". On Hemingway’s return to Key West in early 1934, he began work on Green Hills of Africa, which he published in 1935 to mixed reviews.
Hemingway bought a boat in 1934, named it the Pilar, and began sailing the Caribbean
. In 1935 he first arrived at Bimini
, where he spent a considerable amount of time. During this period he also worked on To Have and Have Not
, published in 1937 while he was in Spain, the only novel he wrote during the 1930s.
Spanish Civil War and World War IIIn 1937 Hemingway agreed to report on the Spanish Civil War
for the North American Newspaper Alliance
(NANA), arriving in Spain in March with Dutch filmmaker Joris Ivens
. Ivens, who was filming The Spanish Earth
, wanted Hemingway to replace John Dos Passos as screenwriter, since Dos Passos had left the project when his friend José Robles
was arrested and later executed. The incident changed Dos Passos' opinion of the leftist republicans, creating a rift between him and Hemingway, who later spread a rumor that Dos Passos left Spain out of cowardice.
Journalist and writer Martha Gellhorn
, whom Hemingway had met in Key West the previous Christmas (1936), joined him in Spain. Like Hadley, Martha was a native of St. Louis, and like Pauline, she had worked for Vogue in Paris. Of Martha, Kert explains, "she never catered to him the way other women did." Late in 1937, while in Madrid with Martha, Hemingway wrote his only play, The Fifth Column
, as the city was being bombarded. He returned to Key West for a few months, then back to Spain twice in 1938 where he was present at the Battle of the Ebro
, the last republican stand, and was among fellow British and American journalists who were some of the last to leave the battle as they crossed the river.
In the spring of 1939, Hemingway crossed to Cuba in his boat to live in the Hotel Ambos Mundos in Havana. This was the separation phase of a slow and painful split from Pauline, which had begun when Hemingway met Martha. Martha soon joined him in Cuba, and they almost immediately rented "Finca Vigia
" ("Lookout Farm"), a 15 acres (60,702.9 m²) property 15 miles (24.1 km) from Havana. Pauline and the children left Hemingway that summer, after the family was re-united during a visit to Wyoming. After Hemingway's divorce from Pauline was finalized, he and Martha were married November 20, 1940, in Cheyenne, Wyoming. As he had after his divorce from Hadley, he changed locations; moving his primary summer residence to Ketchum, Idaho
, just outside the newly built resort of Sun Valley
, and his winter residence to Cuba. Hemingway, who had been disgusted when a Parisian friend allowed his cats to eat from the table, "developed a passion for cats" in Cuba, keeping dozens of them on the property.
Gellhorn inspired him to write his most famous novel, For Whom the Bell Tolls
, which he started in March 1939, finished in July 1940, and which was published in October 1940. Consistent with his pattern of moving around while working on a manuscript, he wrote For Whom the Bell Tolls in Cuba, Wyoming, and Sun Valley. For Whom the Bell Tolls became a book-of-the-month choice, sold half a million copies within months, was nominated for a Pulitzer Prize
, and as Meyers describes it, "triumphantly re-established Hemingway's literary reputation".
In January 1941 Martha was sent to China on assignment for Collier's magazine. Hemingway went with her, sending in dispatches for the newspaper PM
, but in general he disliked China. They returned to Cuba before the declaration of war by the United States
that December when he convinced the Cuban government to help him refit the Pilar, which he intended to use to ambush German submarines off the coast of Cuba.
outside of Paris. Of Hemingway's exploits, World War II historian Paul Fussell remarks: "Hemingway got into considerable trouble playing infantry captain to a group of Resistance people that he gathered because a correspondent is not supposed to lead troops, even if he does it well". This was in fact in contravention of the Geneva Convention, and Hemingway was brought up on formal charges; he said he "beat the rap" by claiming that his entire participation was to give advice.
On August 25 he was present at the liberation of Paris
, although contrary to the Hemingway legend, he was not the first into the city, not did he liberate the Ritz. In Paris he did, however, attend a reunion hosted by Sylvia Beach, where he "made peace with" Gertrude Stein. Later that year he was present at heavy fighting in the Hürtgenwald
near the end of 1944. On December 17, a feverish and ill Hemingway had himself driven to Luxembourg
to cover what would later be called The Battle of the Bulge. However, as soon as he arrived, Lanham handed him to the doctors, who hospitalized him with pneumonia, and by the time he recovered a week later, the main fighting was over.
In 1947 Hemingway was awarded a Bronze Star for his bravery during World War II. He was recognized for his valor in having been "under fire in combat areas in order to obtain an accurate picture of conditions", with the commendation that "through his talent of expression, Mr. Hemingway enabled readers to obtain a vivid picture of the difficulties and triumphs of the front-line soldier and his organization in combat".
When Hemingway initially arrived in London, England, he met Time
magazine correspondent Mary Welsh, with whom he became infatuated; on their third meeting he asked her to marry him. Martha—who had been forced to cross the Atlantic in a ship filled with explosives because he refused to help her get a press pass on a plane—arrived in London to find Hemingway hospitalized with a concussion from a car accident. Unsympathetic to his plight, she accused him of being a bully, and told him she was "through, absolutely finished." The last time he saw her was in March 1945 as he was preparing to return to Cuba.
Cuba and the Nobel PrizeHemingway said he "was out of business as a writer" from 1942 to 1945. In 1946 he married Mary, who had an ectopic pregnancy
five months later. The Hemingway family suffered a series of accidents and health problems in the years following the war: in a 1945 car accident he "smashed his knee" and sustained another "deep wound on his forehead"; Mary broke first her right ankle and then her left in successive skiing accidents. In 1947 his sons Patrick and Gregory were in a car accident, leaving Patrick with a head wound and severely ill. Hemingway became depressed as his literary friends died: in 1939 Yeats
and Ford Madox Ford; in 1940 Scott Fitzgerald; in 1941 Sherwood Anderson and James Joyce; in 1946 Gertrude Stein; and the following year in 1947, Max Perkins, Hemingway's long time Scribner's editor and friend. During this period he had severe headaches, high blood pressure, weight problems, and eventually diabetes—much of which was the result of previous accidents and heavy drinking. Nonetheless, early in 1946 he began work on The Garden of Eden
, finishing 800 pages by June.The Garden of Eden was published posthumously in 1986. See Meyers (1985), 436 During the post–war years he also began work on a trilogy to be called "The Land", "The Sea" and "The Air" which he intended to combine in one novel titled The Sea Book. Both projects stalled however, and Mellow considers Hemingway's inability to continue "a symptom of his troubles" during these years.The manuscript for The Sea Book was published posthumously as Islands in the Stream in 1970. See Mellow (1992), 552
In 1948, Hemingway and Mary traveled to Europe, staying in Venice
for several months. While there, Hemingway fell in love with the then 19-year-old Adriana Ivancich. The platonic love
affair inspired the novel Across the River and Into the Trees
, published in 1950 to negative reviews. In 1951, Hemingway wrote the draft of The Old Man and the Sea
in eight weeks, considering it "the best I can write ever for all of my life". The Old Man and the Sea became a book-of-the month selection, made Hemingway an international celebrity, and won the Pulitzer Prize
in May 1952, a month before he left for his second trip to Africa.
In 1954, while in Africa, Hemingway was seriously injured in two successive plane crashes. He chartered a sightseeing flight of the Belgian Congo
as a Christmas present to Mary. On their way to photograph Murchison Falls
from the air, the plane struck an abandoned utility pole and "crash landed in heavy brush." Hemingway's injuries included a head wound, while Mary broke two ribs. The next day, attempting to reach medical care in Entebbe
, they boarded a second plane that exploded at take-off, with Hemingway suffering burns and another concussion, this one serious enough to cause leaking of cerebral fluid. They eventually arrived in Entebbe to find reporters covering the story of Hemingway's death. He briefed the reporters and spent the next few weeks recuperating and reading his erroneous obituaries. Despite his injuries, Hemingway accompanied Patrick and his wife on a planned fishing expedition in February, but pain caused him to be irascible and difficult to get along with. When a bushfire broke out he was again injured, sustaining second degree burns on his legs, front torso, lips, left hand and right forearm. Months later in Venice
, "according to Mary they learned the full extent of Hemingway's injuries". She reported to friends that he had two cracked discs
, a kidney and liver rupture, a dislocated shoulder
and a broken skull. The accidents may have precipitated the physical deterioration that was to follow. After the plane crashes, Hemingway, who had been "a thinly controlled alcoholic throughout much of his life, drank more heavily than usual to combat the pain of his injuries."
. He modestly told the press that Carl Sandburg
, Isak Dinesen and Bernard Berenson
deserved the prize, but the prize money would be welcome. Mellow claims Hemingway "had coveted the Nobel Prize", but when he won it, months after his plane accidents and the ensuing world-wide press coverage, "there must have been a lingering suspicion in Hemingway's mind that his obituary notices had played a part in the academy's decision." Because he was suffering pain from the African accidents, he decided against traveling to Stockholm
. Instead he sent a speech to be read, defining the writer's life: "Writing, at its best, is a lonely life. Organizations for writers palliate the writer's loneliness but I doubt if they improve his writing. He grows in public stature as he sheds his loneliness and often his work deteriorates. For he does his work alone and if he is a good enough writer he must face eternity, or the lack of it, each day."The full speech is available at The Nobel Foundation
From the end of the year in 1955 to early 1956, Hemingway was bedridden. He was told to stop drinking to mitigate liver damage, advice he initially followed but then disregarded. In October 1956 he returned to Europe and met Basque
writer Pio Baroja
, who was seriously ill and died weeks later. During the trip Hemingway became sick again and was treated for "high blood pressure, liver disease, and arteriosclerosis".
In November, while in Paris, he was reminded of trunks he had stored in the Ritz Hotel in 1928 and never retrieved. The trunks were filled with notebooks and writing from his Paris years. Excited about the discovery, when he returned to Cuba in 1957 he began to shape the recovered work into his memoir A Moveable Feast
. By 1959 he ended a period of intense activity: he finished A Moveable Feast (scheduled to be released the following year); brought True at First Light to 200,000 words; added chapters to The Garden of Eden; and worked on Islands in the Stream. The latter three were stored in a safe deposit box in Havana, as he focused on the finishing touches for A Moveable Feast. Reynolds claims that it was during this period he slid into depression, from which he was unable to recover.
The Finca Vigia became crowded with guests and tourists, as Hemingway, beginning to become unhappy with life there, considered a permanent move to Idaho. In 1959 he bought a home overlooking the Big Wood River
, outside of Ketchum, and left Cuba—although he apparently remained on easy terms with the Castro
government, telling the New York Times he was "delighted" with Castro's overthrow of Batista
. He was in Cuba in November 1959, between returning from Pamplona and traveling west to Idaho, and the following year for his birthday; however, that year he and Mary decided to leave after hearing the news that Castro wanted to nationalize property owned by Americans and other foreign nationals. In July 1960 the Hemingways left Cuba for the last time, leaving art and manuscripts in a bank vault in Havana. After the 1961 Bay of Pigs Invasion
, the Finca Vigia was expropriated by the Cuban government, complete with Hemingway's collection of "four to six thousand books".
Idaho and suicideHemingway continued to rework the material that would be published as A Moveable Feast through the end of the 1950s. In the summer of 1959 he visited Spain to research a series of bullfighting articles commissioned by Life Magazine, returning to Cuba in January of 1960 to work on the manuscript. Life only wanted 10,000 words, but the manuscript grew out of control. For the first time in his life, unable to organize his writing, he asked A. E. Hotchner
to travel to Cuba to help. Hotchner helped him trim the Life piece to 40,000 words, and Scribner's agreed to a full-length book version (The Dangerous Summer
) of almost 130,000 words. Hotchner found Hemingway to be "unusually hesitant, disorganized, and confused", and he was suffering badly from failing eyesight.
On July 25, Hemingway and Mary left Cuba; alone, he went to Spain in to be photographed for the Life piece. A few days later he was reported in the news to be seriously ill and on the verge of dying, which panicked Mary until she received a cable from him telling her, "Reports false. Enroute Madrid. Love Papa." However, he was seriously ill and believed himself to be on the verge of a breakdown. He was lonely and took to his bed for days, retreating into silence, despite the first installments of The Dangerous Summer published in Life in September 1960 to good reviews. In October he left Spain for New York, where he refused to leave Mary's apartment on the pretext that he was being watched. She quickly took him out to Idaho, where George Saviers (a Sun Valley physician) met them at the train.
At this time Hemingway was worried about money and about his safety. He worried about his taxes, and that he would never return to Cuba to retrieve the manuscripts he had left there in a bank-vault. He also became paranoid, and thought the FBI was actively monitoring his movements. The FBI had opened a file on him during WWII, when he used the Pilar to patrol the waters off Cuba, and J. Edgar Hoover
had the agent in Havana watch Hemingway during the 1950s. See (Mellow (1992), 597–598. The FBI knew Hemingway was at the Mayo, as an agent documented in a letter written in January 1961. See (Meyers (1985), 543–544 By the end of November Mary was at wit's end and Saviers suggested Hemingway go to the Mayo Clinic
in Minnesota, where he may have believed he was to be treated for hypertension
. At an attempt at anonymity he was checked in under Saviers' name. Meyers writes that "an aura of secrecy surrounds Hemingway's treatment at the Mayo", but confirms he was treated with electroconvulsive therapy
as many as 15 times in December 1960, then in January 1961 he was "released in ruins". Reynolds accessed Hemingway's records at the Mayo which indicate the combination of Ritalin with Serpasil (hyper-tension medication) may have created a depressive state, for which he was treated.
|The world breaks everyone and afterward many are strong in the broken places. But those that will not break it kills. It kills the very good and the very gentle and the very brave impartially. If you are none of these you can be sure it will kill you too but there will be no special hurry.|
|—Ernest Hemingway in A Farewell to Arms
A Farewell to Arms
A Farewell to Arms is a semi-autobiographical novel written by Ernest Hemingway concerning events during the Italian campaigns during the First World War. The book, which was first published in 1929, is a first-person account of American Frederic Henry, serving as a Lieutenant in the ambulance...
During his final years, Hemingway's behavior was similar to his father's before he himself committed suicide; his father may have had the genetic disease hemochromatosis, in which the inability to metabolize iron culminates in mental and physical deterioration. Medical records made available in 1991 confirm that Hemingway's hemochromatosis had been diagnosed in early 1961. His sister Ursula and his brother Leicester also committed suicide. Added to Hemingway's physical ailments was the additional problem that he had been a heavy drinker for most of his life. Writing in "Ernest Hemingway: A Psychological Autopsy of a Suicide", Christopher Martin evaluates the causes of the suicide: "Careful reading of Hemingway's major biographies and his personal and public writings reveals evidence suggesting the presence of the following conditions during his lifetime: bipolar disorder
, alcohol dependence
, traumatic brain injury
, and probable borderline
personality traits". Martin claims suicide was inevitable because Hemingway "suffered from an enormous burden of psychiatric comorbidities and risk factors for suicide", although without a clinical evaluation of the patient, Martin concedes a diagnosis is difficult.
Hemingway's family and friends flew to Ketchum for the funeral, which was officiated by the local Catholic priest, who believed the death accidental. Of the funeral (during which an altar boy fainted at the head of the casket), his brother Leicester wrote: "It seemed to me Ernest would have approved of it all."
In a press interview five years later Mary Hemingway admitted that her husband had committed suicide.
Writing styleThe New York Times wrote in 1926 of Hemingway's first novel, "No amount of analysis can convey the quality of The Sun Also Rises. It is a truly gripping story, told in a lean, hard, athletic narrative prose that puts more literary English to shame." The Sun Also Rises is written in spare, tightly written prose, for which Hemingway became famous; a style that has influenced countless crime and pulp fiction novels. In 1954, when Hemingway was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature, it was for "his mastery of the art of narrative, most recently demonstrated in The Old Man and the Sea, and for the influence that he has exerted on contemporary style."
|If a writer of prose knows enough of what he is writing about he may omit things that he knows and the reader, if the writer is writing truly enough, will have a feeling of those things as strongly as though the writer had stated them. The dignity of movement of an ice-berg is due to only one-eighth of it being above water. A writer who omits things because he does not know them only makes hollow places in his writing.|
|—Ernest Hemingway in Death in the Afternoon
Death in the Afternoon
Death in the Afternoon is a non-fiction book by Ernest Hemingway about the ceremony and traditions of Spanish bullfighting. It was originally published in 1932. The book provides a look at the history and what Hemingway considers the magnificence of bullfighting...
Henry Louis Gates believes Hemingway's style was fundamentally shaped "in reaction to [his] experience of world war". After World War I, he and other modernists "lost faith in the central institutions of Western civilization," by reacting against the elaborate style of 19th century writers and by creating a style "in which meaning is established through dialogue, through action, and silences—a fiction in which nothing crucial—or at least very little—is stated explicitly."
Because he began as a writer of short stories, Baker believes Hemingway learned to "get the most from the least, how to prune language, how to multiply intensities and how to tell nothing but the truth in a way that allowed for telling more than the truth." Hemingway called his style the iceberg theory
: the facts float above water; the supporting structure and symbolism operate out of sight. The concept of the iceberg theory is sometimes referred to as the "theory of omission." Hemingway believed the writer could describe one thing (such as Nick Adams fishing in "The Big Two-Hearted River") though an entirely different thing occurs below the surface (Nick Adams concentrating on fishing to the extent that he does not have to think about anything else).
Jackson Benson believes Hemingway used autobiographical details as framing devices about life in general—not only about his life. For example, Benson postulates that Hemingway used his experiences and drew them out with "what if" scenarios: "what if I were wounded in such a way that I could not sleep at night? What if I were wounded and made crazy, what would happen if I were sent back to the front?" Writing in "The Art of the Short Story," he explains: "A few things I have found to be true. If you leave out important things or events that you know about, the story is strengthened. If you leave or skip something because you do not know it, the story will be worthless. The test of any story is how very good the stuff that you, not your editors, omit."
|In the late summer that year we lived in a house in a village that looked across the river and the plain to the mountains. In the bed of the river there were pebbles and boulders, dry and white in the sun, and the water was clear and swiftly moving and blue in the channels. Troops went by the house and down the road and the dust they raised powdered the trees.|
|—Opening passage of A Farewell to Arms
A Farewell to Arms
A Farewell to Arms is a semi-autobiographical novel written by Ernest Hemingway concerning events during the Italian campaigns during the First World War. The book, which was first published in 1929, is a first-person account of American Frederic Henry, serving as a Lieutenant in the ambulance...
showing Hemingway's use of the word and
The simplicity of the prose is deceptive. Zoe Trodd believes Hemingway crafted skeletal sentences in response to Henry James
's observation that World War I had "used up words." Hemingway offers a "multi-focal" photographic reality. His iceberg theory of omission is the foundation on which he builds. The syntax, which lacks subordinating conjunctions
, creates static sentences. The photographic "snapshot
" style creates a collage
of images. Many types of internal punctuation (colons, semicolons, dashes, parentheses) are omitted in favor of short declarative sentences. The sentences build on each other, as events build to create a sense of the whole. Multiple strands exist in one story; an "embedded text" bridges to a different angle. He also uses other cinematic techniques of "cutting" quickly from one scene to the next; or of "splicing" a scene into another. Intentional omissions allow the reader to fill the gap, as though responding to instructions from the author, and create three-dimensional prose.
In his literature, and in his personal writing, Hemingway habitually used the word "and" in place of commas. This use of polysyndeton
may serve to convey immediacy. Hemingway's polysyndetonic sentence—or in later works his use of subordinate clauses—uses conjunctions to juxtapose startling visions and images; Jackson Benson compares them to haiku
s. Many of Hemingway's followers misinterpreted his lead and frowned upon all expression of emotion; Saul Bellow
satirized this style as "Do you have emotions? Strangle them." However, Hemingway's intent was not to eliminate emotion, but to portray it more scientifically. Hemingway thought it would be easy, and pointless, to describe emotions; he sculpted collages of images in order to grasp "the real thing, the sequence of motion and fact which made the emotion and which would be as valid in a year or in ten years or, with luck and if you stated it purely enough, always". This use of an image as an objective correlative
is characteristic of Ezra Pound, T. S. Eliot, James Joyce, and Proust. Hemingway's letters refer to Proust's Remembrance of Things Past
several times over the years, and indicate he read the book at least twice. His writing was likely also influenced by the Japanese poetic canon
.Starrs draws a correlation between the "Imagist
" influences of Ezra Pound, who mentored Hemingway in the 1920s. See Starrs (1998), 77
ThemesThe recurring themes of American literature
are clearly evident in Hemingway's work. Critic Leslie Fiedler
sees the theme he defines as "The Sacred Land"—the American West
—extended in Hemingway's work to include mountains in Spain, Switzerland and Africa, and to the streams of Michigan. The American West is given a symbolic nod with the naming of the "Hotel Montana" in The Sun Also Rises and For Whom the Bell Tolls. Although Hemingway writes about sports, Carlos Baker believes the emphasis is more on the athlete than the sport. According to Stoltzfus and Fiedler, Hemingway's nature is a place for rebirth, for therapy, and the hunter or fisherman has a moment of transcendence when the prey is killed. Nature is where men are without women: men fish; men hunt; men find redemption in nature.
Fiedler believes Hemingway inverts the American literary theme of the evil "Dark Woman" versus the good "Light Woman". The dark woman—Brett Ashley of The Sun Also Rises
—is a goddess; the light woman—Margot Macomber of "The Short Happy Life of Francis Macomber
"—is a murderess. Robert Scholes
admits that early Hemingway stories, such as "A Very Short Story
", present "a male character favorably and a female unfavorably." According to Rena Sanderson, early Hemingway critics lauded his male-centric world of masculine pursuits, and the fiction divided women into "castrators or love-slaves." Feminist critics attacked Hemingway as "public enemy number one", although more recent re-evaluations of his work "have given new visibility to Hemingway's female characters (and their strengths) and have revealed his own sensitivity to gender issues, thus casting doubts on the old assumption that his writings were one-sidedly masculine." Nina Baym believes that Brett Ashley and Margot Macomber "are the two outstanding examples of Hemingway's 'bitch women.'"
The theme of women and death is evident in stories as early as "Indian Camp
". The theme of death permeates Hemingway's work. Young believes the emphasis in "Indian Camp" was not so much on the woman who gives birth or the father who commits suicide, but on Nick Adams who witnesses these events as a child, and becomes a "badly scarred and nervous young man." Hemingway sets the events in "Indian Camp" that shape the Adams persona. Young believes "Indian Camp" holds the "master key" to "what its author was up to for some thirty-five years of his writing career." Stoltzfus considers Hemingway's work to be more complex with a representation of the truth inherent in existentialism
: if "nothingness" is embraced, then redemption is achieved at the moment of death. Those who face death with dignity and courage live an authentic life. Francis Macomber dies happy because the last hours of his life are authentic; the bullfighter in the corrida
represents the pinnacle of a life lived with authenticity. In his paper The Uses of Authenticity: Hemingway and the Literary Field, Timo Müller writes that Hemingway's fiction is successful because the characters live an "authentic life", and the "soldiers, fishers, boxers and backwoodsmen are among the archetypes of authenticity in modern literature".
The theme of emasculation is prevalent in Hemingway's work, most notably in The Sun Also Rises. Emasculation, according to Fiedler, is a result of a generation of wounded soldiers; and of a generation in which women such as Brett gained emancipation
. This also applies to the minor character, Frances Clyne, Cohn's girlfriend in the beginning in the book. Her character supports the theme not only because the idea was presented early on in the novel but also the impact she had on Cohn in the start of the book while only appearing a small number of times. Baker believes Hemingway's work emphasizes the "natural" versus the "unnatural". In "Alpine Idyll" the "unnaturalness" of skiing in the high country late spring snow is juxtaposed against the "unnaturalness" of the peasant who allowed his wife's dead body to linger too long in the shed during the winter. The skiers and peasant retreat to the valley to the "natural" spring for redemption.
Some critics have characterized Hemingway's work as misogynistic and homophobic. Susan Beegel analyzed four decades of Hemingway criticism, published in her essay "Critical Reception". She found, particularly in the 1980s, "critics interested in multiculturalism" simply ignored Hemingway; although some "apologetics" have been written. Typical is this analysis of The Sun Also Rises: "Hemingway never lets the reader forget that Cohn is a Jew, not an unattractive character who happens to be a Jew but a character who is unattractive because he is a Jew." During the same decade, according to Beegel, criticism was published that investigated the "horror of homosexuality", and racism in Hemingway's fiction.
Influence and legacyHemingway's legacy to American literature is his style: writers who came after him emulated it or avoided it. After his reputation was established with the publication of The Sun Also Rises, he became the spokesperson for the post–World War I generation, having established a style to follow. His books were burned in Berlin in 1933, "as being a monument of modern decadence", and disavowed by his parents as "filth". Reynolds asserts the legacy is that "he left stories and novels so starkly moving that some have become part of our cultural heritage." In a 2004 speech at the John F. Kennedy Library
, Russell Banks
declared that he, like many male writers of his generation, was influenced by Hemingway's writing philosophy, style, and public image. Müller reports that Hemingway "has the highest recognition value of all writers worldwide".
Benson believes the details of Hemingway's life have become a "prime vehicle for exploitation", resulting in a Hemingway industry. Hemingway scholar Hallengren believes the "hard boiled style" and the machismo must be separated from the author himself. Benson agrees, describing him as introverted and private as J. D. Salinger
, although Hemingway masked his nature with braggadocio. In fact, during World War II, Salinger met and corresponded with Hemingway, whom he acknowledged as an influence. In a letter to Hemingway, Salinger claimed their talks "had given him his only hopeful minutes of the entire war" and jokingly "named himself national chairman of the Hemingway Fan Clubs."
The extent of Hemingway's influence is seen in the tributes and echoes of his fiction in popular culture. A minor planet
, discovered in 1978 by Soviet
astronomer Nikolai Stepanovich Chernykh
, was named for him (3656 Hemingway
); Ray Bradbury
wrote The Kilimanjaro Device, with Hemingway transported to the top of Mount Kilimanjaro
; the 1993 motion picture Wrestling Ernest Hemingway
, about the friendship of two retired men, Irish and Cuban, in a seaside town in Florida, starred Robert Duvall
, Richard Harris
, Shirley MacLaine
, Sandra Bullock
, and Piper Laurie
. The influence is evident with the many restaurants named "Hemingway"; and the proliferation of bars called "Harry's" (a nod to the bar in Across the River and Into the Trees). A line of Hemingway furniture, promoted by Hemingway's son Jack (Bumby), has pieces such as the "Kilimanjaro" bedside table, and a "Catherine" slip-covered sofa. Montblanc
offers a Hemingway fountain pen, and a line of Hemingway safari clothes has been created. The International Imitation Hemingway Competition
was created in 1977 to publicly acknowledge his influence and the comically misplaced efforts of lesser authors to imitate his style. Entrants are encouraged to submit one "really good page of really bad Hemingway" and winners are flown to Italy to Harry's Bar.
In 1965 Mary Hemingway established the Hemingway Foundation and in the 1970s she donated her husband's papers to the John F. Kennedy Library. In 1980 a group of Hemingway scholars gathered to assess the donated papers, subsequently forming the Hemingway Society, "committed to supporting and fostering Hemingway scholarship."
Almost exactly 35 years after Hemingway's death, on July 1, 1996, his granddaughter Margaux Hemingway
died in Santa Monica
, California. Margaux was a supermodel
and actress, co-starring with her sister Mariel
in the 1976 movie Lipstick
. Her death was later ruled a suicide, making her "the fifth person in four generations of her family to commit suicide."
Selected list of works
- "Indian CampIndian Camp"Indian Camp" is a short story written by Ernest Hemingway. The story was first published in 1924 in Ford Madox Ford's literary magazine Transatlantic Review in Paris and republished by Boni & Liveright in the American edition of Hemingway's first volume of short stories In Our Time...
- The Sun Also RisesThe Sun Also RisesThe Sun Also Rises is a 1926 novel written by American author Ernest Hemingway about a group of American and British expatriates who travel from Paris to the Festival of San Fermín in Pamplona to watch the running of the bulls and the bullfights. An early and enduring modernist novel, it received...
- A Farewell to ArmsA Farewell to ArmsA Farewell to Arms is a semi-autobiographical novel written by Ernest Hemingway concerning events during the Italian campaigns during the First World War. The book, which was first published in 1929, is a first-person account of American Frederic Henry, serving as a Lieutenant in the ambulance...
- "The Short Happy Life of Francis MacomberThe Short Happy Life of Francis Macomber"The Short Happy Life of Francis Macomber" is a short story by Ernest Hemingway. Set in Africa, it was published in the September 1936 issue of Cosmopolitan magazine concurrently with "The Snows of Kilimanjaro"...
- For Whom the Bell TollsFor Whom the Bell TollsFor Whom the Bell Tolls is a novel by Ernest Hemingway published in 1940. It tells the story of Robert Jordan, a young American in the International Brigades attached to a republican guerrilla unit during the Spanish Civil War. As an expert in the use of explosives, he is assigned to blow up a...
- The Old Man and the SeaThe Old Man and the SeaThe Old Man and the Sea is a novel written by American author Ernest Hemingway in 1951 in Cuba, and published in 1952. It was the last major work of fiction to be produced by Hemingway and published in his lifetime. One of his most famous works, it centers upon Santiago, an aging fisherman who...
- A Moveable FeastA Moveable FeastA Moveable Feast is a set of memoirs by American author Ernest Hemingway about his years in Paris as part of the American expatriate circle of writers in the 1920s. The book describes Hemingway's apprenticeship as a young writer in Europe during the 1920s with his first wife, Hadley...
- True at First LightTrue at First Lightthumb|250px|alt = bookcover showing a photograph of Mt. Kilimanjaro in the background and a green plain in the foreground | [[First edition]] cover of True at First Light, published 1999...
- American literatureAmerican literatureAmerican literature is the written or literary work produced in the area of the United States and its preceding colonies. For more specific discussions of poetry and theater, see Poetry of the United States and Theater in the United States. During its early history, America was a series of British...
- Family tree showing Ernest Hemingway's parents, siblings, wives, children and grandchildren
- Baker, Carlos. (1969) Ernest Hemingway: A Life Story. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. ISBN 0-02-001690-5
- Baker, Carlos. (1972) Hemingway: The Writer as Artist. Princeton: Princeton UP. ISBN 0-691-01305-5
- Baker, Carlos. (1981) "Introduction" in Ernest Hemingway Selected Letters 1917–1961. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. ISBN 0-684-16765-4
- Banks, Russell. (2004). "PEN/Hemingway Prize Speech". The Hemingway Review. Volume 24, issue 1.
- Baym, Nina (1990). "Actually I Felt Sorry for the Lion". in Benson, Jackson J. (ed). New Critical Approaches to the Short Stories of Ernest Hemingway. Durham: Duke UP. ISBN 0-8223-1067-8
- Beegel, Susan (1996). "Conclusion: The Critical Reputation". in Donaldson, Scott (ed). The Cambridge Companion to Ernest Hemingway. New York: Cambridge UP. ISBN 0-521-45479-X
- Benson, Jackson. (1989). "Ernest Hemingway: The Life as Fiction and the Fiction as Life". American Literature. Volume 61, issue 3. 354–358
- Benson, Jackson. (1975). The short stories of Ernest Hemingway: critical essays. Durham: Duke UP. ISBN 0-8223-0320-5
- Benson, Jackson. (1975). "The Art of the Short Story" in Benson, Jackson (ed). New Critical Approaches to the Short Stories of Ernest Hemingway. Durham: Duke UP. ISBN 978-0-8223-1067-9
- Burwell, Rose Marie. (1996) Hemingway: the postwar years and the posthumous novels. New York: Cambridge UP.
- Desnoyers, Megan Floyd. "Ernest Hemingway: A Storyteller's Legacy". John F. Kennedy Presidential Library Online Resources. John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum. Retrieved November 30, 2011.
- Fiedler, Leslie (1975). Love and Death in the American Novel. New York: Stein and Day. ISBN 0-8128-1799-0
- Griffin, Peter. (1985). Along with Youth: Hemingway, the Early Years. New York: Oxford UP. ISBN 0-8128-1799-0
- Hemingway, Leicester. (1996). My Brother, Ernest Hemingway. New York: World Publishing Company. ISBN 978-1-56164-098-0
- Hoberek, Andrew. (2005). Twilight of the Middle Class:Post World War II fiction and White Collar Work. New York: Cambridge UP. ISBN 0-691-12145-1
- Kert, Bernice. (1983). The Hemingway Women. New York: Norton. ISBN 0-393-31835-4
- Koch, Stephen. (2005). The Breaking Point: Hemingway, Dos Passos, and the Murder of Jose Robles. New York: Counterpoint. ISBN 1-58243-280-5
- Lynn, Kenneth. (1987). Hemingway. Cambridge: Harvard UP. ISBN 0-674-38732-5
- McCormick, John. American Literature 1919–1932. London: Routledge.
- Mellow, James (1992). Hemingway: A Life Without Consequences. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0-395-37777-3
- Mellow, James (1991). Charmed Circle: Gertrude Stein and Company. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0-395-47982-7
- Meyers, Jeffrey (1985). Hemingway: A Biography. New York: Macmillan. ISBN 0-333-42126-4
- Miller, Linda Patterson. (2006). "From the African Book to Under Kilimanjaro". The Hemingway Review, Volume 25, issue 2. 78-81
- Müller, Timo (2010). "The Uses of Authenticity: Hemingway and the Literary Field, 1926–1936". Journal of Modern Literature. Volume 33, issue 1. 28–42
- Nagel, James (1996). "Brett and the Other Women in The Sun Also Rises". in Donaldson, Scott (ed). The Cambridge Companion to Ernest Hemingway. New York: Cambridge UP. ISBN 0-521-45574-X
- Reynolds, Michael (1999). Hemingway: The Final Years. New York: Norton. ISBN 0-393-32047-2
- Reynolds, Michael (1989). Hemingway: The Paris Years. New York: Norton. ISBN 0-393-31879-6
- Reynolds, Michael (1998). The Young Hemingway. New York: Norton. ISBN 0-393-31776-5
- Reynolds, Michael. (2000). Ernest Hemingway: A Brief Biography A Historical Guide to Ernest Hemingway in Wagner-Martin, Linda (ed). Oxford: Oxford UP. ISBN 0-19-512151-1
- Robinson, Daniel. (2005). "My True Occupation is That of a Writer:Hemingway's passport correspondence". The Hemingway Review.
- Trogdon, Robert W. "Forms of Combat: Hemingway, the Critics and Green Hills of Africa". The Hemingway Review. Volume 15, issue 2. 1-14
- Sanderson, Rena. (1996). "Hemingway and Gender History". in Donaldson, Scott (ed). The Cambridge Companion to Ernest Hemingway. New York: Cambridge UP. ISBN 0-521-45574-X
- Scholes, Robert. (1990). "Decoding Papa: 'A Very Short Story' as Work and Text" in Jackson, Benson (ed). New Critical Approaches to the short stories of Ernest Hemingway. Durham: Duke UP. ISBN 0-8223-1067-8
- Starrs, Roy. (1998). An Artless Art. Japan Library. ISBN 1–873410–64–6
- Stoltzfus, Ben (2005). "Sartre, "Nada," and Hemingway's African Stories". Comparative Literature Studies. Volume 42, issue 3. 205-228
- Thomas, Hugh. (2001). The Spanish Civil War. New York: Modern Library.
- Trodd, Zoe (2007). "Hemingway's Camera Eye: The Problems of Language and an Interwar Politics of Form". The Hemingway Review. Volume 26, issue 2. 7-21
- Young, Philip. (1964). Ernest Hemingway. St. Paul, MN: University of Minnesota. ISBN 0-8166-0191-7
- Hemingway Archives: John F. Kennedy Library
- Ernest Hemingway's Collection at The University of Texas at Austin
- Ernest Hemingway In His Time at the University of DelawareUniversity of DelawareThe university is organized into seven colleges:* College of Agriculture and Natural Resources* College of Arts and Sciences* Alfred Lerner College of Business and Economics* College of Earth, Ocean and Environment* College of Education and Human Development...
- The Hemingway Society
- Rare, Unseen: Hemingway in Cuba — slideshow by Life magazine
- FBI Records: The Vault, Subject: Ernest Hemingway
- Hemingway legal files collection, 1899–1971 Manuscripts and Archives, New York Public Library.