Egyptian Air Force
Overview
 
The Egyptian Air Force, or EAF , is the aviation branch of the Egyptian Armed Forces. The EAF is headed by an Air Marshal
Air Marshal
Air marshal is a three-star air-officer rank which originated in and continues to be used by the Royal Air Force...

 (Lieutenant General
Lieutenant General
Lieutenant General is a military rank used in many countries. The rank traces its origins to the Middle Ages where the title of Lieutenant General was held by the second in command on the battlefield, who was normally subordinate to a Captain General....

 equivalent). Currently, the commander of the Egyptian Air Force is Air Marshal Reda Mahmoud Hafez Mohamed
Reda Mahmoud Hafez Mohamed
Air Marshal Reda Mahmoud Hafez Mohamed is the current Commander of the Egyptian Air Force.-Biography:Reda Mahmoud Hafez Mohamed graduated from the Egyptian Air Academy in 1972 with a Bachelor's degree in Aviation and Military Sciences. The following year he saw active service in the October or...

. The force's motto
Motto
A motto is a phrase meant to formally summarize the general motivation or intention of a social group or organization. A motto may be in any language, but Latin is the most used. The local language is usual in the mottoes of governments...

 is 'Higher and higher for the sake of glory' .
Currently the EAF has over 438 combat aircraft and 155 armed helicopters. The backbone of the Egyptian Air Force are 220 F-16
F-16 Fighting Falcon
The General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon is a multirole jet fighter aircraft originally developed by General Dynamics for the United States Air Force . Designed as an air superiority day fighter, it evolved into a successful all-weather multirole aircraft. Over 4,400 aircraft have been built since...

 fighters.
Encyclopedia
The Egyptian Air Force, or EAF , is the aviation branch of the Egyptian Armed Forces. The EAF is headed by an Air Marshal
Air Marshal
Air marshal is a three-star air-officer rank which originated in and continues to be used by the Royal Air Force...

 (Lieutenant General
Lieutenant General
Lieutenant General is a military rank used in many countries. The rank traces its origins to the Middle Ages where the title of Lieutenant General was held by the second in command on the battlefield, who was normally subordinate to a Captain General....

 equivalent). Currently, the commander of the Egyptian Air Force is Air Marshal Reda Mahmoud Hafez Mohamed
Reda Mahmoud Hafez Mohamed
Air Marshal Reda Mahmoud Hafez Mohamed is the current Commander of the Egyptian Air Force.-Biography:Reda Mahmoud Hafez Mohamed graduated from the Egyptian Air Academy in 1972 with a Bachelor's degree in Aviation and Military Sciences. The following year he saw active service in the October or...

. The force's motto
Motto
A motto is a phrase meant to formally summarize the general motivation or intention of a social group or organization. A motto may be in any language, but Latin is the most used. The local language is usual in the mottoes of governments...

 is 'Higher and higher for the sake of glory' .
Currently the EAF has over 438 combat aircraft and 155 armed helicopters. The backbone of the Egyptian Air Force are 220 F-16
F-16 Fighting Falcon
The General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon is a multirole jet fighter aircraft originally developed by General Dynamics for the United States Air Force . Designed as an air superiority day fighter, it evolved into a successful all-weather multirole aircraft. Over 4,400 aircraft have been built since...

 fighters. The Egyptian Air Force is the 4th largest operator of F-16's in the world, after the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

, Israel
Israel
The State of Israel is a parliamentary republic located in the Middle East, along the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea...

, and Turkey
Turkey
Turkey , known officially as the Republic of Turkey , is a Eurasian country located in Western Asia and in East Thrace in Southeastern Europe...

.

Establishment

In late 1928, the Parliament of Egypt
Parliament of Egypt
The Parliament of Egypt is the currently dissolved bicameral legislature of Egypt. The Parliament is located in Cairo, Egypt's capital. As the legislative branch of the Egyptian government, the Parliament enacts laws, approves the general policy of the State, the general plan for economic and...

 proposed the creation of an Egyptian Air Force. The Egyptian ministry of war announced that it needed volunteers for the new arm to become the first four Egyptian military pilots. Over 200 Egyptian officers volunteered, but in the end only three succeeded in passing strict medical tests and technical examinations.

These three went to British Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force
The Royal Air Force is the aerial warfare service branch of the British Armed Forces. Formed on 1 April 1918, it is the oldest independent air force in the world...

 number 4 Flying Training School at Abu Suwayer near the Suez Canal
Suez Canal
The Suez Canal , also known by the nickname "The Highway to India", is an artificial sea-level waterway in Egypt, connecting the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea. Opened in November 1869 after 10 years of construction work, it allows water transportation between Europe and Asia without navigation...

, where they were trained on a variety of aircraft. After graduation they travelled to the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

 for specialised training.

On November 2, 1930, the King of Egypt and Sudan, Fuad I
Fuad I of Egypt
Fuad I was the Sultan and later King of Egypt and Sudan, Sovereign of Nubia, Kordofan, and Darfur. The ninth ruler of Egypt and Sudan from the Muhammad Ali Dynasty, he became Sultan of Egypt and Sudan in 1917, succeeding his elder brother Sultan Hussein Kamel...

 announced the creation of the Egyptian Army Air Force (EAAF) and in September 1931, the British de Havilland
De Havilland
The de Havilland Aircraft Company was a British aviation manufacturer founded in 1920 when Airco, of which Geoffrey de Havilland had been chief designer, was sold to BSA by the owner George Holt Thomas. De Havilland then set up a company under his name in September of that year at Stag Lane...

 aircraft company won a contract to supply Egypt with 10 de Havilland Gipsy Moth trainers.

The first commander of the EAAF was Canadian squadron leader Victor Hubert Tait
Victor Hubert Tait
Air Vice Marshal Sir Victor Hubert Tait, KBE, CB was a Canadian-born soldier and airman who served with the Royal Canadian Engineers, the Royal Flying Corps, the Royal Air Force, and the Egyptian Air Force. He represented Great Britain at ice hockey in the 1928 Winter Olympics...

. Tait selected staff and weapons and built air-bases. In 1934 the British government provided 10 Avro 626 aircraft, which were the first real Egyptian military planes. A further 17 626s together with Hawker Audaxes for army cooperation and close support and Avro Anson
Avro Anson
The Avro Anson is a British twin-engine, multi-role aircraft that served with the Royal Air Force, Fleet Air Arm and numerous other air forces prior to, during, and after the Second World War. Named for British Admiral George Anson, it was originally designed for maritime reconnaissance, but was...

s for VIP work followed shortly afterward.

In 1937 the Egyptian Army Air Force was separated from the army command and became an independent branch named the Royal Egyptian Air Force (REAF). New bases were built in the Suez Canal Zone
Suez Canal
The Suez Canal , also known by the nickname "The Highway to India", is an artificial sea-level waterway in Egypt, connecting the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea. Opened in November 1869 after 10 years of construction work, it allows water transportation between Europe and Asia without navigation...

, and the Western Desert.

In 1938, the REAF received 2 squadrons of Gloster Gladiator
Gloster Gladiator
The Gloster Gladiator was a British-built biplane fighter. It was used by the Royal Air Force and the Royal Navy and was exported to a number of other air forces during the late 1930s. It was the RAF's last biplane fighter aircraft and was rendered obsolete by newer monoplane designs even as it...

 biplane fighters and a squadron of then-modern Westland Lysander
Westland Lysander
The Westland Lysander was a British army co-operation and liaison aircraft produced by Westland Aircraft used immediately before and during the Second World War...

 reconnaissance aircraft, (Egypt was the last state to use the Lysander in action, during the Palestine War
1948 Arab-Israeli War
The 1948 Arab–Israeli War, known to Israelis as the War of Independence or War of Liberation The war commenced after the termination of the British Mandate for Palestine and the creation of an independent Israel at midnight on 14 May 1948 when, following a period of civil war, Arab armies invaded...

 of 1948.

Second World War

As the Egyptian border was threatened by an Italian
Italy
Italy , officially the Italian Republic languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Italy's official name is as follows:;;;;;;;;), is a unitary parliamentary republic in South-Central Europe. To the north it borders France, Switzerland, Austria and...

 and German
Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

 invasion during the Second World War
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

, the Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force
The Royal Air Force is the aerial warfare service branch of the British Armed Forces. Formed on 1 April 1918, it is the oldest independent air force in the world...

 established more bases in Egypt
Egypt
Egypt , officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, Arabic: , is a country mainly in North Africa, with the Sinai Peninsula forming a land bridge in Southwest Asia. Egypt is thus a transcontinental country, and a major power in Africa, the Mediterranean Basin, the Middle East and the Muslim world...

. The Egyptian Air Force was sometimes treated as a part of the Royal Air Force, at other times a strict policy of neutrality was followed as Egypt maintained its official neutrality until very late in the war. As a result, few additional aircraft were supplied by Britain, however the arm did receive its first modern fighters, Hawker Hurricane
Hawker Hurricane
The Hawker Hurricane is a British single-seat fighter aircraft that was designed and predominantly built by Hawker Aircraft Ltd for the Royal Air Force...

s and a small number of Curtiss P-40 Tomahawk
Curtiss P-40
The Curtiss P-40 Warhawk was an American single-engine, single-seat, all-metal fighter and ground attack aircraft that first flew in 1938. The P-40 design was a modification of the previous Curtiss P-36 Hawk which reduced development time and enabled a rapid entry into production and operational...

s. In the immediate post-war period, cheap war surplus aircraft, including a large number of Supermarine Spitfire Mk.IXs
Supermarine Spitfire
The Supermarine Spitfire is a British single-seat fighter aircraft that was used by the Royal Air Force and many other Allied countries throughout the Second World War. The Spitfire continued to be used as a front line fighter and in secondary roles into the 1950s...

 were acquired.

1948 Arab-Israeli War

Following the British withdrawal from Palestine
Palestine
Palestine is a conventional name, among others, used to describe the geographic region between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River, and various adjoining lands....

 and the establishment of the State of Israel
Israel
The State of Israel is a parliamentary republic located in the Middle East, along the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea...

 on 14 May 1948, Egyptian forces crossed into Palestine as part of a wider Arab League
Arab League
The Arab League , officially called the League of Arab States , is a regional organisation of Arab states in North and Northeast Africa, and Southwest Asia . It was formed in Cairo on 22 March 1945 with six members: Egypt, Iraq, Transjordan , Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, and Syria. Yemen joined as a...

 military coalition in support of the Palestinians against the Israelis. The Egyptian Air Force contribution included the Short Stirling
Short Stirling
The Short Stirling was the first four-engined British heavy bomber of the Second World War. The Stirling was designed and built by Short Brothers to an Air Ministry specification from 1936, and entered service in 1941...

 bomber, C-47 Dakotas performing as light bombers and Spitfires
Supermarine Spitfire
The Supermarine Spitfire is a British single-seat fighter aircraft that was used by the Royal Air Force and many other Allied countries throughout the Second World War. The Spitfire continued to be used as a front line fighter and in secondary roles into the 1950s...

. Two Israeli aircraft were shot down. On May 22, Egyptian Spitfires attacked the British RAF airfield at Ramat David, believing the base had already been taken over by Israeli forces. The first raid surprised the British, and resulted in the destruction of several RAF aircraft on the ground, and the deaths of four airmen. The British were uncertain whether the attacking Spitfires had come from Arab or Israeli forces. When second and third raids followed shortly afterward, they met a well prepared response, and the entire Egyptian force was shot down - the last aircraft being baited for some time as the RAF pilots attempted to get a close look at its markings.

Relations with Britain were soon restored and the continuing official state of war with Israel ensured that arms purchases continued. New Spitfire Mk. 22s were purchased to replace the earlier models. In late 1949, Egypt received its first jet fighter, the British Gloster Meteor F4
Gloster Meteor
The Gloster Meteor was the first British jet fighter and the Allies' first operational jet. It first flew in 1943 and commenced operations on 27 July 1944 with 616 Squadron of the Royal Air Force...

, and shortly after De Havilland Vampire FB5
De Havilland Vampire
The de Havilland DH.100 Vampire was a British jet-engine fighter commissioned by the Royal Air Force during the Second World War. Following the Gloster Meteor, it was the second jet fighter to enter service with the RAF. Although it arrived too late to see combat during the war, the Vampire served...

s.

After the Egyptian Revolution of 1952, the Egyptian Government was determined to move away from reliance on British armaments. In 1955, under President Gamal Abdel Nasser
Gamal Abdel Nasser
Gamal Abdel Nasser Hussein was the second President of Egypt from 1956 until his death. A colonel in the Egyptian army, Nasser led the Egyptian Revolution of 1952 along with Muhammad Naguib, the first president, which overthrew the monarchy of Egypt and Sudan, and heralded a new period of...

, Egypt began acquiring weaponry, including aircraft, from the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
The Soviet Union , officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics , was a constitutionally socialist state that existed in Eurasia between 1922 and 1991....

. Initial Soviet deliveries included MiG-15 fighters, Ilyushin Il-28
Ilyushin Il-28
The Ilyushin Il-28 is a jet bomber aircraft of the immediate postwar period that was originally manufactured for the Soviet Air Force. It was the USSR's first such aircraft to enter large-scale production. It was also licence-built in China as the Harbin H-5. Total production in the USSR was 6,316...

 bombers, Il-14
Il-14
IL-14 can refer to:*Ilyushin Il-14, a Soviet twin-engine aircraft*Interleukin 14, a protein important in immunology*Illinois's 14th congressional district*Illinois Route 14...

 transports, and Yak-11 trainers. Instructors from Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia or Czecho-Slovakia was a sovereign state in Central Europe which existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until 1992...

 accompanied these aircraft. This period in the Egyptian Air Force's history also yielded the first indigenous aircraft production as the country began manufacturing its own Czech-designed Gomhouria Bü 181 Bestmann primary trainers.

The Suez Crisis

After the Egyptian Government's nationalisation of the Suez Canal
Suez Canal
The Suez Canal , also known by the nickname "The Highway to India", is an artificial sea-level waterway in Egypt, connecting the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea. Opened in November 1869 after 10 years of construction work, it allows water transportation between Europe and Asia without navigation...

 in 1956, Egypt was attacked by Israel
Israel
The State of Israel is a parliamentary republic located in the Middle East, along the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea...

, France
France
The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

, and the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

 in what came to be known as the Suez Crisis
Suez Crisis
The Suez Crisis, also referred to as the Tripartite Aggression, Suez War was an offensive war fought by France, the United Kingdom, and Israel against Egypt beginning on 29 October 1956. Less than a day after Israel invaded Egypt, Britain and France issued a joint ultimatum to Egypt and Israel,...

. Heavy losses were sustained by the Egyptian side. The conflict, though devastating militarily, turned out to be a political victory for Egypt, and resulted in the total withdrawal of the tri-nation aggressor forces from the country. It also forced the EAF to begin rebuilding with non-British help.

In 1958, Egypt merged with Syria
Syria
Syria , officially the Syrian Arab Republic , is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the West, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest....

 to form the United Arab Republic
United Arab Republic
The United Arab Republic , often abbreviated as the U.A.R., was a sovereign union between Egypt and Syria. The union began in 1958 and existed until 1961, when Syria seceded from the union. Egypt continued to be known officially as the "United Arab Republic" until 1971. The President was Gamal...

, and the previously separate Egyptian, and Syrian forces were combined as the United Arab Republic Air Force. Though Syria left the union in 1961, Egypt continued to use the union's official name until 1971, including for its air force.

By the mid-1960s, British aircraft had been replaced completely by Soviet hardware. The Soviet Union
Soviet Union
The Soviet Union , officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics , was a constitutionally socialist state that existed in Eurasia between 1922 and 1991....

 became the principal supplier of the EAF, and many other Arab states. This allowed the EAF to greatly modernise and boost its combat effectiveness. The MiG-21 Fishbed arrived in the early 1960s, bringing with it a Mach 2 capability. The MiG-21 would remain Egypt's primary fighter for the next two decades. In 1967, Egypt had 200 MiG-21s. The EAF also began flying the Sukhoi Su-7 fighter/bomber in the mid-1960s.

Egypt also produced Helwan HA-300
Helwan HA-300
-See also:-External links:...

 as its first supersonic aircraft.

The Yemen War

The Yemeni Royalist side received support from Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia , commonly known in British English as Saudi Arabia and in Arabic as as-Sa‘ūdiyyah , is the largest state in Western Asia by land area, constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula, and the second-largest in the Arab World...

, and Jordan
Jordan
Jordan , officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan , Al-Mamlaka al-Urduniyya al-Hashemiyya) is a kingdom on the East Bank of the River Jordan. The country borders Saudi Arabia to the east and south-east, Iraq to the north-east, Syria to the north and the West Bank and Israel to the west, sharing...

, while the Yemeni Republicans were supported by Egypt. The fighting was fierce, featuring heavy urban combat as well as battles in the countryside. Both foreign irregular and conventional forces were also involved.

Strategically, the Yemen War was an opportunity for Israel. It stagnated Egyptian military plans for the reinforcement of the Sinai by shifting the Egyptian military focus to another theater of operation. Egyptian historian Mohammed Heikal writes that Israel provided arms shipments and also cultivated relationships with hundreds of European mercenaries fighting for the Royalists in Yemen. Israel established a covert air-supply bridge from Djibouti
Djibouti
Djibouti , officially the Republic of Djibouti , is a country in the Horn of Africa. It is bordered by Eritrea in the north, Ethiopia in the west and south, and Somalia in the southeast. The remainder of the border is formed by the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden at the east...

 to North Yemen. The war also gave Israelis the opportunity to assess Egyptian combat tactics and adaptability.

Egyptian air and naval forces began bombing and shelling raids in the Saudi southwestern city of Najran and the coastal town of Jizan, which were staging points for royalist forces. In response, the Saudis purchased a British Thunderbird air defense system and developed their airfield in Khamis Mushayt. Riyadh also attempted to convince the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 to respond on its behalf. President Kennedy sent only a wing of jet fighters and bombers to Dhahran Airbase, demonstrating to Egypt the seriousness of his commitment to defending U.S. interests in Saudi Arabia.

The Six-Day War

In the 1967 Six-Day War
Six-Day War
The Six-Day War , also known as the June War, 1967 Arab-Israeli War, or Third Arab-Israeli War, was fought between June 5 and 10, 1967, by Israel and the neighboring states of Egypt , Jordan, and Syria...

 the EAF's combat capacity was severely damaged after the Israeli Air Force
Israeli Air Force
The Israeli Air Force is the air force of the State of Israel and the aerial arm of the Israel Defense Forces. It was founded on May 28, 1948, shortly after the Israeli Declaration of Independence...

 destroyed its airbases in a preemptive strike
Preemptive strike
A preemptive strike refers to a surprise attack launched with the stated intention of countering an anticipated enemy offensive.  Preemptive strike may also refer to:...

 codenamed Operation Focus
Operation Focus
Operation Focus was the opening airstrike by Israel at the start of the Six-Day War in 1967. It is sometimes referred to as "Sinai Air Strike" since the focus was primarily on airfields around the Sinai Peninsula. At 07:45 on June 5, 1967, the Israeli Air Force under Maj. Gen...

. During the last four days the EAF conducted only 150 sorties against Israeli units throughout the Sinai. After the war, the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
The Soviet Union , officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics , was a constitutionally socialist state that existed in Eurasia between 1922 and 1991....

 replenished EAF stocks, sending large numbers of aircraft and advisors to Egypt to revitalize the EAF.

The War of Attrition

The years between 1967 and 1970 involved a prolonged campaign of attrition against Israel. The EAF went through a massive construction program to build new air bases in order to increase its survivability. During this period Egypt also received replacements for losses it suffered during the Six Day War. The EAF was the first branch of the Egyptian armed forces to achieve full combat readiness.

October War 1973

The EAF was involved in the raid with over 220 aircraft taking part in the initial phase. Unlike their Syrian counterparts, EAF aircraft evaded Israeli radars by flying below detection height. Their attacks largely went undetected and the IAF's belated response flew right into the teeth of the Egyptian air defence umbrella.

EAF aircraft were held in reserve after that point, mainly concentrating on airfield defence in conjunction with the SA-3 'Pechora', while the more mobile SA-6 'Gainful' protected Egyptian forces at low and medium level, aided by the ZSU-23-4SP
ZSU-23-4
The ZSU-23-4 "Shilka" is a lightly armored, self-propelled, radar guided anti-aircraft weapon system . ZSU stands for Zenitnaya Samokhodnaya Ustanovka , meaning "anti-aircraft self-propelled mount". The "23" signifies the bore diameter in millimeters. The "4" signifies the number of gun barrels. It...

 and shoulder-held SA-7 SAMs.

Despite these limitations, the EAF conducted offensive sorties from time to time. The Su-7BM was used for quick strafe attacks on Israeli columns and the Mirage IIIE (sometimes confused with the Mirage 5), donated by Libya, carried out long-range attacks deep inside Sinai at Bir Gifgafa.

However, when Israeli armoured forces used a gap between the two Egyptian armies to cross the Suez Canal
Suez Canal
The Suez Canal , also known by the nickname "The Highway to India", is an artificial sea-level waterway in Egypt, connecting the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea. Opened in November 1869 after 10 years of construction work, it allows water transportation between Europe and Asia without navigation...

 (Operation Stouthearted Men), they destroyed several Egyptian SAM sites, forcing the EAF into battle against the IAF. The EAF claimed victories and continued to contest IAF operations, while also launching attacks on Israeli ground forces on the East Bank of the Suez Cana. In most of these engagements, Egyptian MiG-21s (of all types) challenged Israeli Mirage IIICJs or Neshers. However, Israel was able to maintain a degree of air superiority, thus was able to attack Egyptian ground forces more freely.

The IAF did not operate freely and did not have complete air supremacy it enjoyed during the previous conflict, the 1967 war. Egyptian MiGs were used with better efficiency than before which included the tactics and lessons learned from the 1967 war.

It was during this war that the EAF applied the lessons it earlier learnt from the Israelis. A 32-year-old deputy MiG-21 regiment commander who has been flying since he was 15 recalls:
"During the war of attrition, the Israeli air force had a favorite ambush tactic", he told Aviation Week and Space Technology. "They would penetrate with two aircraft at medium altitude where they would be quickly picked up by radar, We would scramble four or eight to attack them. But they had another dozen fighters trailing at extremely low altitude below radar coverage. As we climbed to the attack they would zoom up behind and surprise us. My regiment lost MiGs to this ambush tactic three times. But we learned the lesson and practiced the same tactics. In the final fights over Deversoir, we ambushed some Mirages the same way, and my own 'finger four' formation
Tactical formation
A tactical formation is the arrangement or deployment of moving military forces such as infantry, cavalry, AFVs, military aircraft, or naval vessels...

 shot down four Mirages with the loss of one MiG."

El-Mansourah air battle

On October 14, 1973, Israel launched a large scale raid with over 250 aircraft – F-4 Phantoms and A-4 Skyhawk
A-4 Skyhawk
The Douglas A-4 Skyhawk is a carrier-capable ground-attack aircraft designed for the United States Navy and United States Marine Corps. The delta winged, single-engined Skyhawk was designed and produced by Douglas Aircraft Company, and later McDonnell Douglas. It was originally designated the A4D...

s – attempting to hit the large air base at el-Mansourah. It culminated in an almost continuous dogfight lasting no less than 53 minutes. According to Egyptian estimates over 180 aircraft were involved at one time, the majority belonging to the Israelis. At 10 pm local time, Cairo Radio broadcast "Communiqué Number 39", announcing that there had been several air battles that day over a number of Egyptian airfields, that most intensive being over the northern Delta area. It also claimed that 15 enemy aircraft had been downed by Egyptian fighters for the loss of three Egyptian aircraft, while an even greater number of Israelis had been shot down by the Army and the Air Defense Forces over Sinai and the Suez Canal. For its part, Israel Radio claimed, early the following morning, that the IAF had shot down 15 Egyptian aircraft, a figure subsequently reduced to seven.

Later on, the Egyptian Government changed the country’s "Air Force Day" from November 2 to October 14, to commemorate the Mansourah air battle.

Libyan-Egyptian War

During the Libyan-Egyptian War
Libyan-Egyptian War
The Egyptian–Libyan War was a short border war between Libya and Egypt in July, 1977.On July 21, 1977, there were first gun battles between troops on the border, followed by land and air strikes...

, there were some skirmishes between Libyan and Egyptian fighter jets. In one instance, two LARAF MiG-23MS engaged two EAF MiG-21MF that had been upgraded to carry Western weaponry. The Libyan pilots made the mistake of trying to manoeuvre with the more nimble Egyptian fighters, and one MiG-23MS was shot down by EAF Maj. Sal Mohammad, while the other Libyan aircraft used its speed advantage to escape.

Operation Bright Star

Operation Bright Star is a joint exercise conducted every two years in Egypt. It was first conducted during the summer of 1980 as a single service bilateral event involving only the ground forces of Egypt and the United States. However, from 1985 onwards Operation Bright Star began to evolve, as air forces of both the U.S. and Egypt started participating in addition to the ground forces. Starting in 1987 the Navy and Special Operations Forces from both countries also joined in the exercise.

At present other allied nations such as France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Jordan, Kuwait, the Netherlands, the United Arab Emirates, and the United Kingdom also take part in the exercises.

Upgrade and development

The Camp David Accords
Camp David Accords
The Camp David Accords were signed by Egyptian President Anwar El Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin on September 17, 1978, following thirteen days of secret negotiations at Camp David. The two framework agreements were signed at the White House, and were witnessed by United States...

 caused a change in the overall composition of the EAF. They began to rely more and more on American, French and in some cases on Chinese
People's Republic of China
China , officially the People's Republic of China , is the most populous country in the world, with over 1.3 billion citizens. Located in East Asia, the country covers approximately 9.6 million square kilometres...

 aircraft. The addition of these aircraft from multiple sources along with the ones already in the EAF inventory gave it an interesting composition. In 1982, the EAF began receiving F-16
F-16 Fighting Falcon
The General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon is a multirole jet fighter aircraft originally developed by General Dynamics for the United States Air Force . Designed as an air superiority day fighter, it evolved into a successful all-weather multirole aircraft. Over 4,400 aircraft have been built since...

 fighters under the Peace Vector Program. The EAF received a total of 220 F-16s so far. 18 aircraft were lost in accidents and 7 F-16A/Bs were grounded. These grounded F-16A/Bs were later overhauled, upgraded and returned to active service, additional F-16s were acquired to replace the lost ones. In 1986, the EAF received Mirage 2000 fighters, one lost in a training accident. Egypt also license built Alphajet
Dassault-Breguet/Dornier Alpha Jet
The Dassault/Dornier Alpha Jet is a light attack jet and advanced trainer aircraft co-manufactured by Dornier of Germany and Dassault-Breguet of France.- Origins :...

s, Tucano
Embraer EMB 312 Tucano
The Embraer EMB 312 Tucano is a two seat turboprop basic trainer developed in Brazil. The prototype first flew in 1980 and initial production units were delivered in 1983. The Tucano family of aircraft became one of Embraer's first international marketing successes, with 600 units produced...

 airplanes and Westland Gazelle helicopters. In 1987 the E-2C Hawkeye Airborne Early Warning (AEW) entered service and was upgraded with advanced AN/APS-145 radars. The EAF also upgraded its F-16 fighters to C/D standard that enabled them to fire the AGM-84 Harpoon anti-ship missile.

The EAF currently operates 35 AH-64 Apache
AH-64 Apache
The Boeing AH-64 Apache is a four-blade, twin-engine attack helicopter with a tailwheel-type landing gear arrangement, and a tandem cockpit for a two-man crew. The Apache was developed as Model 77 by Hughes Helicopters for the United States Army's Advanced Attack Helicopter program to replace the...

 attack helicopter which were initially delivered as AH-64A variant but were later upgraded to AH-64D standard. On 22 May 2009, Egypt requested the purchase of 36 Apache Arrowhead
Apache arrowhead
The Apache Arrowhead , is an integrated targeting and night vision system developed by Lockheed Martin for the Boeing AH-64 Apache attack helicopter...

 sensor systems as part of an order for 12 Block II AH-64D Apache helicopters.

The Egyptian Navy recently received the SH-2G Seasprite to supplement their Sea King and Gazelle
Aérospatiale Gazelle
The Aérospatiale Gazelle is a five-seat light helicopter, powered by a single turbine engine. It was designed and manufactured in France by Sud Aviation . It was also manufactured under licence by Westland Aircraft in the United Kingdom , by SOKO in Yugoslavia and ABHCO in Egypt...

 helicopters. 74 Grob G-115's and 120 K-8
Hongdu JL-8
The Hongdu JL-8 is a two-seat intermediate jet trainer and light attack aircraft designed in the People's Republic of China by China Nanchang Aircraft Manufacturing Corporation. The primary contractor for this plane is the Hongdu Aviation Industry Corporation...

 Karakorum trainers
Trainer (aircraft)
A trainer is a class of aircraft designed specifically to facilitate in-flight training of pilots and aircrews. The use of a dedicated trainer aircraft with additional safety features—such as tandem flight controls, forgiving flight characteristics and a simplified cockpit arrangement—allows...

 were also ordered.

Future requirements

During the late 1990s, then Air Marshal Ahmed Shafik
Ahmed Shafik
Ahmed Mohamed Shafik is a former senior commander in the Egyptian Air Force and politician who served as Prime Minister of Egypt from January 2011 to March 2011....

 (the former Civil Aviation minister till 2011) outlined an ambitious modernization program for the Egyptian Air Force in the 21st century. The EAF planned to obtain the modern technology it needed to deter any foreign aggression, help its allies and protect national security interests. This modernization included the integration of space and air reconnaissance systems, acquisition of airborne command and control capability, aerial refueling capability, advanced next generation fighters and heavy transport aircraft.

As part of the modernization plan, in 2002 Egypt requested 12 F-15E Strike Eagle
F-15E Strike Eagle
The McDonnell Douglas F-15E Strike Eagle is an all-weather multirole fighter, derived from the McDonnell Douglas F-15 Eagle. The F-15E was designed in the 1980s for long-range, high speed interdiction without relying on escort or electronic warfare aircraft. United States Air Force F-15E Strike...

 strike fighter from the US. Israel quickly moved to block the sale, citing that in all Egypt's recent military exercises Israel was the target. The Americans refused to ban the sale of F-15
F-15 Eagle
The McDonnell Douglas F-15 Eagle is a twin-engine, all-weather tactical fighter designed by McDonnell Douglas to gain and maintain air superiority in aerial combat. It is considered among the most successful modern fighters with over 100 aerial combat victories with no losses in dogfights...

 to Egypt at first but later succumbed to the Israeli pressure when Israel presented evidence that Israel was in fact the "enemy" in all of Egypt's military exercises.

Due to the refusal of the US government to sell the F-15's and due to the failed deal for 60-100 F-16C/D Block 50/52 worth $4.5 billion in 2005; on November 6, 2006 the Egyptian Government began negotiation with Mikoyan
Mikoyan
Russian Aircraft Corporation MiG , or RSK MiG, is a Russian joint stock company. Formerly Mikoyan-and-Gurevich Design Bureau , then simply Mikoyan, it is a military aircraft design bureau, primarily designing fighter aircraft...

 over the possible purchase of 40 MiG-29SMT fighters.

In 2007, Egypt further examined prospects for delivery of a even larger batch of 60-80 MiG-29SMTs, 20-25 Sukhoi Su-35
Sukhoi Su-35
The Sukhoi Su-35 is a single-seat, twin-engined supermaneuverability multirole fighter. It is a derivative of the Su-27 'Flanker', and was initially known as the Su-27M. More than a dozen of these were built with some used by the Russian Knights aerobatic demonstration team...

 for air superiority role and 24-40 Yak-130 in the advanced trainer/light support role to replace the aging Dassault-Breguet/Dornier Alpha Jet. The deal was also encouraged by Russia in an effort to regain Egypt as a regional ally. However, these deals have not been confirmed yet. Negotiations were held again in 2010 with possible sale in the near future.

Egypt had also made several deals with Ukrainian companies for the modernization of their old MiG-21 fleet. The upgrade will include the implementation of Helmet-mounted-sight and R-73 missiles coupled with LCDs and engines modifications. It is not clear however, that whether these upgrades will include the insertion of the Kopyo Radar.

Egyptian Air Force ordered 20 Lockheed Martin Advanced Block 52 F-16C/D jets. The contract is set to complete in 2013 and includes 16 single-seat F-16C and four twin-seat F-16D aircraft. The deal was announced on March 3, 2010. This order includes associated support equipments and JDAM kits to upgrade the Mk-84 GP bombs already in service with EAF.

Egypt also showed interest in Chinese/Pakistani JF-17, Egypt is currently discussing a deal with Pakistan to co-produce the JF-17 for the Egyptian Air force. The JF-17 is competing against the MiG-29 in an Egyptian tender for 32 fighter aircraft.

Insignia

The Roundel of the EAF consists of three circles, with the outside one being red, the middle one white, and the inner one being black. These are the colors of the Egyptian flag.

The former roundels of the EAF included a similar variant with two green stars used from 1961 to 1973, and one with the old Egyptian crescent and three stars on a green background.

Aircraft Inventory

! style="text-align: left; background: #aacccc;"|Aircraft
! style="text-align: left; background: #aacccc;"|Origin
! style="text-align: left; background: #aacccc;"|Type
! style="text-align: left; background: #aacccc;"|Versions
! style="text-align: left; background: #aacccc;"|In service
! style="text-align: left; background: #aacccc;"|Comments
|-----
! style="align: center; background: lavender;" colspan="7" | Combat Aircraft
Fighter aircraft
A fighter aircraft is a military aircraft designed primarily for air-to-air combat with other aircraft, as opposed to a bomber, which is designed primarily to attack ground targets...


|-----
| F-4 Phantom II || || Fighter bomber || E || 32 || Out of 46 delivered. Assigned to 222nd Tactical Fighter Brigade at Cairo West.
|-----
| F-16 Fighting Falcon ||
||
MRCA
Multirole combat aircraft
A multirole combat aircraft is an aircraft designed to act in at least two different roles in combat. The primary role is usually a fighter—hence, it is as often called a multirole fighter—while the secondary role is usually air-to-surface attack. More roles are added, such as air reconnaissance,...

 || Total
C
D || 240
186
54 || 220 (46 built by TAI
Turkish Aerospace Industries
Turkish Aerospace Industries, Inc. is the center of technology in design, development, manufacturing, integration of aerospace systems, modernization and after sales support in Turkey....

 of Turkey) delivered with another 20 Block 52 on order with expected delivery in 2013.
|-----
| J-7 Airguard
Chengdu J-7
The Chengdu Jian-7 is a People's Republic of China-built version of the Soviet Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-21. Though production ceased in 2008 it continues to serve, mostly as an interceptor, in several air forces, including China's.-Design and development:...

 || ||

Interceptor
Interceptor aircraft
An interceptor aircraft is a type of fighter aircraft designed specifically to prevent missions of enemy aircraft, particularly bombers and reconnaissance aircraft. Interceptors generally rely on high speed and powerful armament in order to complete their mission as quickly as possible and set up...

 
MRCA|| Total
B
M || 53
27
26 || Out of 150 delivered.
|-----
| Mirage V
Dassault Mirage 5
The Dassault Mirage 5 is a supersonic attack aircraft designed in France by Dassault Aviation during the 1960s, and manufactured in France and a number of other countries. It was derived from Dassault's popular Mirage III fighter, and spawned several variants of its own.-Early development:The...

 || ||

OCU
Operational Conversion Unit
An Operational Conversion Unit is a unit within an air force whose role is to support preparation for the operational missions of a specific aircraft type by providing trained personnel. OCUs teach pilots how to fly an aircraft and which tactics best exploit the performance of their aircraft and...

 
Interceptor
MRCA
Reconnaissance
Reconnaissance aircraft
A reconnaissance aircraft is a manned military aircraft designed, or adapted, to carry out aerial reconnaissance.-History:The majority of World War I aircraft were reconnaissance designs...

 ||Total
SDD
E
SDE
DDR ||60
6
12
36
6 || Out of a total of 82 delivered
|-----
| Mirage 2000 || ||

OCU
MRCA||Total
BM
EM ||18
3
15|| Out of 20 delivered.
|-----
| MiG-21 Fishbed || ||

MRCA
Interceptor
Reconnaissance
OCU || Total
MF
PFM
R
UM || 62
36
12
12
2 || Out of over 360 delivered. Upgraded with British avionics and armed with mixed Russian and Western weapons. In 2008, Egypt made agreements with Ukrainian companies to upgrade the current fleet.
|-----
|-----
! style="align: center; background: lavender;" colspan="7" | UAV
|-----
| Model-324 Scarab
Teledyne Ryan Scarab
-References:This article contains material that originally came from the web article by Greg Goebel, which exists in the Public Domain....

 || || Jet Reconnaissance UAV || || 52 || Out of 56 delivered.
|-----
| R4E-50 Sky Eye || || Reconnaissance UAV || || 48 ||
|-----
| Camcopter || || Helicopter Reconnaissance UAV || || 2 ||
|-----
| Kader || || Reconnaissance/Target UAV || || N/A ||
|-----
|-----
! style="align: center; background: lavender;" colspan="7" | Trainer Aircraft
|-----
| Alpha Jet
Dassault-Breguet/Dornier Alpha Jet
The Dassault/Dornier Alpha Jet is a light attack jet and advanced trainer aircraft co-manufactured by Dornier of Germany and Dassault-Breguet of France.- Origins :...

 ||
||

OCU
COIN||Total
E(MS1)
MS2 ||54
40
14 || License built by AOI. May be replaced with Yak-130.
|-----
| EMB 312 Tucano
Embraer EMB 312 Tucano
The Embraer EMB 312 Tucano is a two seat turboprop basic trainer developed in Brazil. The prototype first flew in 1980 and initial production units were delivered in 1983. The Tucano family of aircraft became one of Embraer's first international marketing successes, with 600 units produced...

 ||
|| Basic Trainer || A || 54 || Built under license by AOI, out of 134 built; 80 delivered to Iraq.
|-----
| G-115 Tutor || || Primary trainer || E || 74 ||
|-----
| K-8 Karakorum
Hongdu JL-8
The Hongdu JL-8 is a two-seat intermediate jet trainer and light attack aircraft designed in the People's Republic of China by China Nanchang Aircraft Manufacturing Corporation. The primary contractor for this plane is the Hongdu Aviation Industry Corporation...

 ||

|| Advanced trainer || E || 120 || 110 were license built by AOI.
|-----
| L-39 Albatros || || Advanced trainer || ZO || 10 || Ex-Libyan. To be phased out.
|-----
| L-59 Super Albatros
Aero L-59 Super Albatros
-See also:-References:* Lake, Jon. "Aero L-39 Albatross family: Variant Briefing". World Air Power Journal, Volume 43, Winter 2000. London:Aerospace Publishing. pp. 116–131. ISBN 1-86184-055-1....

 || || COIN/Light Attack || E || 47 || Out of 48 delivered.
|-----
| UH-12 Raven || || Rotary trainer || E || 17 || Out of 18 delivered.
|-----
| Z-142C || || Primary Trainer || C || 48 ||
|-----
|-----
! style="align: center; background: lavender;" colspan="7" | Transports
Cargo aircraft
A cargo aircraft is a fixed-wing aircraft designed or converted for the carriage of goods, rather than passengers. They are usually devoid of passenger amenities, and generally feature one or more large doors for the loading and unloading of cargo...


|-----
| An-74 Coaler || || Tactical transport || T-200A/TK-200A || 9 ||
|-----
| Beechcraft 1900
Beechcraft 1900
The Beechcraft 1900 is a 19-passenger, pressurized twin-engine turboprop airplane manufactured by the Beechcraft Division of the Raytheon Company . It was designed, and is primarily used, as a regional airliner...

 || ||

Maritime patrol
ELINT || Total
C
C || 8
6
2 ||
|-----
| C-130 Hercules || ||

Tactical transport
Tactical transport
EW/ELINT ||Total
H
H30
EC130H||26
22
2
2 || 30 aircraft were delivered. 4 were lost, including one during the Cyprus operation.
|-----
| C-295
EADS CASA C-295
The EADS CASA C-295 is a twin-turboprop tactical military transport aircraft manufactured by Airbus Military in Spain.-Design and development:...

 || || Tactical transport || C-295 || 1 || 3 on order http://www.aviationnews.eu/2010/10/29/egypt-orders-three-airbus-military-c295-aircraft/ http://www.deagel.com/country/Egypt_c0062.aspx
First delivery was on 23 sep 2011 with the rest in 2011
|-----
| DHC-5 Buffalo || ||

Tactical transport
Navigational training ||Total
D
D ||9
5
4 ||
|-----
|-----
! style="align: center; background: lavender;" colspan="7" | Helicopter
Helicopter
A helicopter is a type of rotorcraft in which lift and thrust are supplied by one or more engine-driven rotors. This allows the helicopter to take off and land vertically, to hover, and to fly forwards, backwards, and laterally...


|-----
| CH-47 Chinook ||
||

Navigational training
Assault Support
Assault Support
Assault Support is one of the six functions of United States Marine Corps aviation and comprises those actions required to airlift personnel, supplies or equipment into or within a battle area by helicopters or fixed-wing aircraft. It provides the Marine Air-Ground Task Force commander the...

 ||Total
C
D ||19
3
16 || New order for additional 6 rebuilt CH-47D is in progress.
|-----
| SH-2G Super Seasprite
SH-2G Super Seasprite
The Kaman SH-2G Super Seasprite is a ship-based helicopter with anti-submarine, anti-surface threat capability, including over-the-horizon targeting. This aircraft extends and increases shipboard sensor and weapon capabilities against several types of enemy threats, including submarines of all...

 || || ASW
Anti-submarine warfare
Anti-submarine warfare is a branch of naval warfare that uses surface warships, aircraft, or other submarines to find, track and deter, damage or destroy enemy submarines....

 || G/E || 13 || Electronic/Navigation Suite upgraded to Egyptian Navy requirements.
|-----
|-----
| Mi-8 Hip
Mil Mi-8
The Mil Mi-8 is a medium twin-turbine transport helicopter that can also act as a gunship. The Mi-8 is the world's most-produced helicopter, and is used by over 50 countries. Russia is the largest operator of the Mi-8/Mi-17 helicopter....

 || ||

Assault/Gunship
Gunship
Armed helicopter
An armed helicopter is a helicopter equipped with weapons. Most commonly, it is used for attacking targets on the ground. Such helicopter could be either purposely designed for the ground-attack mission—in which case it would be more specifically categorized as an attack helicopter—or could be...

 
Command
EW
Electronic warfare
Electronic warfare refers to any action involving the use of the electromagnetic spectrum or directed energy to control the spectrum, attack an enemy, or impede enemy assaults via the spectrum. The purpose of electronic warfare is to deny the opponent the advantage of, and ensure friendly...

 
Reconnaissance
MedEvac 
Artillery observer
Artillery observer
A military artillery observer or spotter is responsible for directing artillery fire and close air support onto enemy positions. Because artillery is an indirect fire weapon system, the guns are rarely in line-of-sight of their target, often located tens of miles away...

 ||Total
T
TVK
PPA
MV
R
MB
K ||42
16
10
3
4
4
3
2 || Out of over 140 delivered, some replaced by Mi-17 Hip.
|-----
| Mi-17 Hip
Mil Mi-17
The Mil Mi-17 is a Russian helicopter currently in production at two factories in Kazan and Ulan-Ude...

 || || Assault Support || H || 51 || Including 24 units ordered in 2009 & were delivered in 2010.
|-----
| AH-64 Apache || || Attack helicopter
Attack helicopter
An attack helicopter is a military helicopter with the primary role of an attack aircraft, with the capability of engaging targets on the ground, such as enemy infantry and armored vehicles...

 || D ||47 ||Modernization of current fleet is underway and an additional 10 AH-64D Longbow Block II are being delivered.
|-----
| UH-60 Black Hawk || ||

Assault Support
CSAR
Combat search and rescue
Combat search and rescue are search and rescue operations that are carried out during war that are within or near combat zones.A CSAR mission may be carried out by a task force of helicopters, ground-attack aircraft, tankers and an airborne command post...

 
Assault Support || Total
A
M
M ||30
22
4
4 ||
|-----
| Sea King
Westland Sea King
The Westland WS-61 Sea King is a British licence-built version of the American Sikorsky S-61 helicopter of the same name, built by Westland Helicopters. The aircraft differs considerably from the American version, with Rolls-Royce Gnome engines , British made anti-submarine warfare systems and a...

 || || ASW || Mk.47 ||6 || Egyptian variant of the British HAS.2 model.
|-----
| Commando
Westland Sea King
The Westland WS-61 Sea King is a British licence-built version of the American Sikorsky S-61 helicopter of the same name, built by Westland Helicopters. The aircraft differs considerably from the American version, with Rolls-Royce Gnome engines , British made anti-submarine warfare systems and a...

 || ||

Assault Support
Assault Support
EW ||Total
Mk.1
Mk.2
Mk.2E ||26
5
17
4 || A total of 28 were delivered, 2 Mk.2B version were relegated as VIP transport of the Presidential fleet.
|-----
| SA-342 Gazelle
Aérospatiale Gazelle
The Aérospatiale Gazelle is a five-seat light helicopter, powered by a single turbine engine. It was designed and manufactured in France by Sud Aviation . It was also manufactured under licence by Westland Aircraft in the United Kingdom , by SOKO in Yugoslavia and ABHCO in Egypt...

 || / ||

Maritime Patrol 
Battlefield Scout
Attack helicopter||Total
K
L
M ||84
9
40
35 || Out of 108 license-built by the Arab British Helicopter Company.
|-----
! style="align: center; background: lavender;" colspan="7" | Airborne Early Warning and Control
|-----
| E-2 Hawkeye || || AEW || C HE2K || 8 || Egypt is in the process of upgrading its E-2C aircraft to the Hawkeye 2000 (HE2K) configuration.

Presidential and Governmental Fleet

In addition to Air Force aircraft, a number of aircraft are directly under government control (Presidential Fleet), including:
  • 1 Airbus A340
    Airbus A340
    The Airbus A340 is a long-range four-engine wide-body commercial passenger jet airliner. Developed by Airbus Industrie,A consortium of European aerospace companies, Airbus is now fully owned by EADS and since 2001 has been known as Airbus SAS. a consortium of European aerospace companies, which is...

  • 4 Beechcraft Super King Air
    Beechcraft Super King Air
    The Beechcraft Super King Air family is part of a line of twin-turboprop aircraft produced by the Beech Aircraft Corporation . The King Air line comprises a number of model series that fall into two families: the Model 90 series, Model 100 series , Model 200 series and Model 300 series...

  • 1 Boeing 707
    Boeing 707
    The Boeing 707 is a four-engine narrow-body commercial passenger jet airliner developed by Boeing in the early 1950s. Its name is most commonly pronounced as "Seven Oh Seven". The first airline to operate the 707 was Pan American World Airways, inaugurating the type's first commercial flight on...

  • 4 Boeing 737
    Boeing 737
    The Boeing 737 is a short- to medium-range, twin-engine narrow-body jet airliner. Originally developed as a shorter, lower-cost twin-engine airliner derived from Boeing's 707 and 727, the 737 has developed into a family of nine passenger models with a capacity of 85 to 215 passengers...

  • 3 Dassault Falcon 20
    Dassault Falcon 20
    The Dassault Falcon 20 is a French business jet and was the first of a family of business jets built by Dassault Aviation.-Design and development:...

  • 2 Gulfstream III
  • 4 Gulfstream IV
    Gulfstream IV
    The Gulfstream IV and derivatives are a family of twin-jet aircraft, mainly for private or business use. The aircraft was designed and built by Gulfstream Aerospace, a General Dynamics company based in Savannah, Georgia, United States from 1985 until 2003.-Design and development:Gulfstream, in...

  • 1 VC-130H Hercules
  • 2 Agusta AS-61 A-4 Sea King
  • 2 Sikorsky UH-60 Black Hawk
  • 2 Westland Commando MK-2B
    Westland Sea King
    The Westland WS-61 Sea King is a British licence-built version of the American Sikorsky S-61 helicopter of the same name, built by Westland Helicopters. The aircraft differs considerably from the American version, with Rolls-Royce Gnome engines , British made anti-submarine warfare systems and a...


Royal Egyptian Air Force commanders

  • 1932 to 1936 Squadron Leader
    Squadron Leader
    Squadron Leader is a commissioned rank in the Royal Air Force and the air forces of many countries which have historical British influence. It is also sometimes used as the English translation of an equivalent rank in countries which have a non-English air force-specific rank structure. In these...

     Victor Hubert Tait
    Victor Hubert Tait
    Air Vice Marshal Sir Victor Hubert Tait, KBE, CB was a Canadian-born soldier and airman who served with the Royal Canadian Engineers, the Royal Flying Corps, the Royal Air Force, and the Egyptian Air Force. He represented Great Britain at ice hockey in the 1928 Winter Olympics...

  • list incomplete
  • 6 July 1939 to 20 August 1939 Ali Islam
  • 20 August 1939 to 21 October 1940 Hassan Mohammed Abdel Wahab
  • 21 October 1940 to 4 October 1942 Ali Muwafi
  • 4 October 1942 to 4 November 1944 Hassan Hosni Taher
  • list incomplete

Egyptian Air Force Chiefs of Staff

  • 23 June 1953 to 19 September 1959 Mohamed Sedky Mahmoud
    Mohamed Sedky Mahmoud
    Mohamed Sedky Mahmoud is an Egyptian military leader. He served as Air Force Chief of Staff from June 23, 1953 to September 19, 1959, and Air Force and Defense Commander from September 20, 1959 to June 11, 1967....


Egyptian Air Force and Defense commanders

  • 20 September 1959 to 11 June 1967 Mohamed Sedky Mahmoud
    Mohamed Sedky Mahmoud
    Mohamed Sedky Mahmoud is an Egyptian military leader. He served as Air Force Chief of Staff from June 23, 1953 to September 19, 1959, and Air Force and Defense Commander from September 20, 1959 to June 11, 1967....


Egyptian Air Force commanders

  • 11 June 1967 to 2 November 1967 Major General
    Major General
    Major general or major-general is a military rank used in many countries. It is derived from the older rank of sergeant major general. A major general is a high-ranking officer, normally subordinate to the rank of lieutenant general and senior to the ranks of brigadier and brigadier general...

     Madkour Ahmed Abou El-Ezz
  • 2 November 1967 to 22 June 1969 Major General
    Major General
    Major general or major-general is a military rank used in many countries. It is derived from the older rank of sergeant major general. A major general is a high-ranking officer, normally subordinate to the rank of lieutenant general and senior to the ranks of brigadier and brigadier general...

     Mustafa Shalaby El Hennawy
  • 22 June 1969 to 23 April 1972 Major General
    Major General
    Major general or major-general is a military rank used in many countries. It is derived from the older rank of sergeant major general. A major general is a high-ranking officer, normally subordinate to the rank of lieutenant general and senior to the ranks of brigadier and brigadier general...

     Ali Mustafa Baghdady
    Ali Mustafa Baghdady
    Ali Mustafa Baghdady was the Egyptian Air Force commander from 1969 to 1972. He was also an Olympic swimmer and water polo player, and competed in the London 1948 Olympics. He died in January 2005 due to complications of a stroke.- Early Life and Family :Ali Baghdady was born in Cairo, Egypt, to...

  • 23 April 1972 to 16 April 1975 Air Marshal
    Air Marshal
    Air marshal is a three-star air-officer rank which originated in and continues to be used by the Royal Air Force...

     Hosni Mubarak
    Hosni Mubarak
    Muhammad Hosni Sayyid Mubarak is a former Egyptian politician and military commander. He served as the fourth President of Egypt from 1981 to 2011....

  • 16 April 1975 to 6 April 1980 Major General
    Major General
    Major general or major-general is a military rank used in many countries. It is derived from the older rank of sergeant major general. A major general is a high-ranking officer, normally subordinate to the rank of lieutenant general and senior to the ranks of brigadier and brigadier general...

     Mahmoud Shaker Abd El Moneim
  • 6 April 1980 to 14 April 1982 Major General
    Major General
    Major general or major-general is a military rank used in many countries. It is derived from the older rank of sergeant major general. A major general is a high-ranking officer, normally subordinate to the rank of lieutenant general and senior to the ranks of brigadier and brigadier general...

     Mohamed Lotfy Shabana
  • 14 April 1982 to 15 April 1987 Major General
    Major General
    Major general or major-general is a military rank used in many countries. It is derived from the older rank of sergeant major general. A major general is a high-ranking officer, normally subordinate to the rank of lieutenant general and senior to the ranks of brigadier and brigadier general...

     Mohamed Abd El Hamid Helmy
  • 15 April 1987 to 6 April 1990 Mohamed Alaa El Din Barakat
  • 7 April 1990 to 7 April 1996 Ahmed Abdel Rahman Nasser
    Ahmed Abdel Rahman Nasser
    Air Marshal Ahmed Abdel Rahman Nasser was a senior officer in the Egyptian Air Force who served as its commander from 1990 until 1996, when he reached retirement age. Thereafter, he was Minister of Civil Aviation until 2002.-References:*...

  • 7 April 1996 to 1 March 2002 Air Marshal
    Air Marshal
    Air marshal is a three-star air-officer rank which originated in and continues to be used by the Royal Air Force...

     Ahmed Shafik
    Ahmed Shafik
    Ahmed Mohamed Shafik is a former senior commander in the Egyptian Air Force and politician who served as Prime Minister of Egypt from January 2011 to March 2011....

  • 1 March 2002 to 20 March 2008 Air Marshal
    Air Marshal
    Air marshal is a three-star air-officer rank which originated in and continues to be used by the Royal Air Force...

     Magdy Galal Sharawi
    Magdy Galal Sharawi
    Air Marshal Magdy Galal Sharawi is a retired senior Egyptian Air Force officer. From 2002 to 2008, he was the Commander of the Egyptian Air Force....

  • 20 March 2008 Air Marshal
    Air Marshal
    Air marshal is a three-star air-officer rank which originated in and continues to be used by the Royal Air Force...

     Reda Mahmoud Hafez Mohamed
    Reda Mahmoud Hafez Mohamed
    Air Marshal Reda Mahmoud Hafez Mohamed is the current Commander of the Egyptian Air Force.-Biography:Reda Mahmoud Hafez Mohamed graduated from the Egyptian Air Academy in 1972 with a Bachelor's degree in Aviation and Military Sciences. The following year he saw active service in the October or...


External links

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