Deportation of Azerbaijanis from Armenia
The deportation of Azerbaijanis
Azerbaijani people
The Azerbaijanis are a Turkic-speaking people living mainly in northwestern Iran and the Republic of Azerbaijan, as well as in the neighbourhood states, Georgia, Russia and formerly Armenia. Commonly referred to as Azeris or Azerbaijani Turks , they also live in a wider area from the Caucasus to...

 from Armenia
took place as an act of forced resettlement and ethnic cleansing
Ethnic cleansing
Ethnic cleansing is a purposeful policy designed by one ethnic or religious group to remove by violent and terror-inspiring means the civilian population of another ethnic orreligious group from certain geographic areas....

 throughout the 20th century.

Azerbaijani population was systematically deported from the territory of Democratic Republic of Armenia
Democratic Republic of Armenia
The Democratic Republic of Armenia was the first modern establishment of an Armenian state...

 and Armenian SSR
Armenian SSR
The Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic The Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic The Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic The Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic The Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic The Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic The Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic The Armenian Soviet...

 several times by force during the 20th century. In the course of several Armenian-Azerbaijani conflicts, hundred of thousands of Azerbaijanis were resettled by force and many of them were killed and injured. The deportations of 1988 were partially stipulated as response to Armenians’ exile from Azerbaijan.

Causes and targets of deportations and ethnic cleansings

The statement, circulated at the regular session of Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe
Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe
The Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe , which held its first session in Strasbourg on 10 August 1949, can be considered the oldest international parliamentary assembly with a pluralistic composition of democratically elected members of parliament established on the basis of an...

 in 2006 which had been signed by several deputies of Azerbaijan, Italy, France, Ukraine, Turkey, Romania asserted that the purpose of ethnic cleansing of Azerbaijanis in Armenia was the establishment of "Greater Armenia
Greater Armenia (political concept)
Greater Armenia or United Armenia refers to an irredentist concept of the territory claimed by some Armenian nationalist groups outside the Republic of Armenia which are considered part of national homeland by Armenians, based on the present-day and historical presence of Armenian...


Ethnic cleansing in the beginning of the 20th century

As a result of Armenian-Azerbaijani interethnic conflict in the beginning of the 20th century, as well as Armenian nationalists' coordinated policy of ethnic cleansing, a substantial portion of the Azerbaijani population was driven out from the territory of Armenian Oblast
Armenian Oblast
The Armenian Oblast or Armenian Province ) was an oblast of the Russian Empire that existed from 1828 to 1840. It roughly corresponded to most of present-day central Armenia, the Iğdır Province of present-day Turkey, and present-day Azerbaijan's Nakhchivan exclave...

 and Republic of Armenia. Starting from the middle of 1918, Armenian paramilitary forces played a great role in destruction of Muslim settlements in Zangezur
Zangezur may refer to:* Syunik, alternative name of an Armenian geographic-historic region, nowadays one of the provinces of Armenia* Kapan, former name of a city in Armenia...

 and ethnic cleansing of the region under the guidance of Andranik
Andranik Toros Ozanian
Andranik Ozanian , Andranik Toros Ozanian , General Andranik , also as Antranik or Antranig was an Armenian general, political and public activist and freedom fighter, greatly admired as a national hero.-Early Age:Antranik Toros Ozanian was born in the church...

. The British command, which had its own political objectives didn’t allow Andranik to extend his activity to Karabakh
The Karabakh horse , also known as Karabakh, is a mountain-steppe racing and riding horse. It is named after the geographic region where the horse was originally developed, Karabakh in the Southern Caucasus, an area that is de jure part of Azerbaijan but the highland part of which is currently...

. Andranik brought 30,000 Armenian refugees from Eastern Anatolia
Eastern Anatolia Region
The Eastern Anatolia Region is one of seven non-administrative subdivisions of Turkey and encompasses its eastern provinces.The region and the name "Doğu Anadolu Bölgesi" were first defined at the First Geography Congress in 1941. It has the highest average altitude, largest geographical area, and...

, mainly from Mush
Mus Province
Muş Province is a province in eastern Turkey. It is 8,196 km² in area, and has a population of 406,886 . The population was 453,654 in 2000. The provincial capital is the city of Muş...

 and Bitlis
Bitlis Province
Bitlis Province is a province of eastern Turkey, located to the west of Lake Van.-History:Bitlis was formed as an administrative district in the 17th Century...

. Part of Armenian refugees from Turkey remained in Zangezur, whereas many others were settled in regions of Yerevan
Yerevan is the capital and largest city of Armenia and one of the world's oldest continuously-inhabited cities. Situated along the Hrazdan River, Yerevan is the administrative, cultural, and industrial center of the country...

 and Daralagoz, where they took the place of outcast Muslims in order to making Armenia’s key regions ethnically homogeneous.
According to statistical data from Caucasian Ethnographical Collection of Academy of Sciences of the USSR, "the settlements of Azerbaijani population in Armenia had become empty. The policy of “cleansing the country from outsiders” practised by Armenian Dashnaks, targeted all Muslims, especially those who had been driven out from Novobayazet, Yerevan, Echmiadzin and Sherur-Daralagoz districts.
Hereinafter the data collection states:

In 1897, 63,6 thousands were Armenians (46,2%), 71,2 thousands were Azerbaijanis (51,7%), 1,8 thousands were Kurds (1,3%) out of 137,9 thousands population. According to agricultural census of 1922, the whole population of Zengezur was 63,5 thousands people, including 59,9 thousands of Armenians (89,5%), 6,5 thousands Azerbaijanis (10,2%), 0,2 thousand Russians (0,3%)

According to American historian F. Kazemzade
Firuz Kazemzadeh
Firuz Kazemzadeh is a professor emeritus of history at Yale University.Firuz Kazemzadeh was born in Moscow, where his father served in the embassy of Iran...

, who cited Armenian historian A. Boryan, the Dashnak administration of independent Armenia of 1918-1920 was not founded for administrative needs, but for “deportation of Muslim population and seizure of their property”. Extermination of Muslims in the territories, which had been controlled by Turkey and later occupied by Armenian Army scaled up.

Deportation of Azerbaijani population from Armenian SSR

Deportation of Azerbaijani population was continued even after the establishment of Armenian SSR. According to the 1926 First All-Union Census of the Soviet Union
First All-Union Census of the Soviet Union
The First All Union Census of the Soviet Union took place in December 1926. It was an important tool in the state-building of the USSR, provided the government with important ethnographic information, and helped in the transformation from Imperial Russian society to Soviet society...

 of population, Azerbaijanis made up 8,8% of the republic’s general population (78,000 people). According to All-Union census of 1939, 130,896 Azerbaijanis lived in Armenian SSR. Results of All-Union census of 1959 show that this figure decreased to 107,748, although in the rate of natality, Azerbaijanis took one of the highest places in the Union. Deportation of Azerbaijanis from Armenia and relocation of Armenians living outside the borders of the Soviet Union to Armenia was the main factor of decrease in the size of Azerbaijani population. In 1937, Muslim Kurds were deported to Kazakhstan from border districts of Armenia with Turkey, immediately after appearance of the problem in USSR-Turkey
Russia–Turkey relations
Russia–Turkey relations is the bilateral relationship between the Russian Federation and the Republic of Turkey and their predecessor states. Contact between the two countries has been close at times, but excessively strained at others.- Early history :...

 relations, because of Turkey’s denial of the Soviet Union’s request for joint control of the Black Sea
Black Sea
The Black Sea is bounded by Europe, Anatolia and the Caucasus and is ultimately connected to the Atlantic Ocean via the Mediterranean and the Aegean seas and various straits. The Bosphorus strait connects it to the Sea of Marmara, and the strait of the Dardanelles connects that sea to the Aegean...

 straights. In that period (1945) the Soviet Union presented a territorial claim to Turkish territories of Kars
Kars is a city in northeast Turkey and the capital of Kars Province. The population of the city is 73,826 as of 2010.-Etymology:As Chorzene, the town appears in Roman historiography as part of ancient Armenia...

 and Ardahan
Ardahan is a city in northeastern Turkey, near the Georgian border.-Ancient and medieval:In Ancient times the region was called Gogarene, which is assumed to derive from the name of Gugars, who were a Proto-Kartvelian tribe...

. This confrontation in the relations of countries lasted till Stalin’s death. The preparation for foundation of these claims continued till 1953, and Stalin’s decision became the significant step of offering Armenians living in other countries to move to Soviet Armenia. The Soviet Armenia was located on the most advantageous military-geographical territory at the eastern frontier of Turkey within the context of influencing Turkey. Cleansing of Armenia from Azerbaijani Muslims with the purpose of strengthening Armenia’s stronghold was in the plans of the Soviet regime. In the Soviet government’s judgement, “disloyal” Azerbaijanis could be “the fifth column
Fifth column
A fifth column is a group of people who clandestinely undermine a larger group such as a nation from within.-Origin:The term originated with a 1936 radio address by Emilio Mola, a Nationalist General during the 1936–39 Spanish Civil War...

” in case of conflict with Turkey and for this reason Stalin allowed Azerbaijani population’s deportation from Armenian SSR in 1947-1950, according to the Soviet Union’s Council of Ministers’ Resolution #4083 from December 23, 1947. One clauses of the resolution stated:
Details of resettlement were defined in the Soviet Union’s Council of Ministers’ Resolution #754. The part of kolkhoz’s (collective farm) moveable property was assigned and gratuitous transportation of this property to the new settlement was provided for the deported. Price of moveable property abandoned in Armenia was paid for in kolkhozs at places of new settlement of Azerbaijanis. Some benefits were given to migrants and at the same time permanent grants of 1000 rubles were given out per head of family and 300 rubles per each member of family. According to historian Vladislav Zubok, due to calls of Grigory Arutyunov
Grigory Arutyunov
Grigory Artyomovich Arutyunov was the First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Armenian SSR from 24 September 1937 to 12 March 1953. His tenure as first secretary was the longest in Armenian SSR history....

, the first secretary of Armenian SSR’s Communist Party’s Central Committee, Stalin ordered to deport Azerbaijani population from Armenian SSR to Azerbaijan. At the same time he gave consent for repatriation of 90,000 Armenians to settlements of newly deported Azerbaijanis. Resettlement was not a voluntary action. As it was planned, the houses of Azerbaijanis were occupied by Armenian settlers. As a result of deportation, more than 100,000 Azerbaijanis were forcibly resettled to Kur-Araz lowland of Azerbaijan SSR in three stages: 10,000 people were resettled in 1949, 50,000 people in 1959.

Final expulsion of Azerbaijani population from Armenia

Besides Azerbaijanis, representatives of other ethnicities lived in Armenia: Azerbaijanis, Russians, Kurds, Ukrainians, Greeks and other ethnic minorities. According to census of 1979, Azerbaijanis were the largest minority in Armenia making up 5,3% of Armenia’s population (approximately 160,800 people). Expulsion of Azerbaijanis in masses by Armenian extremists started in 1987 from district of Kafan.
According to Azerbaijani authorities, 216 Azerbaijanis died in Armenia as a result of pogroms and violence committed by Armenians. Bulk of the killed was from northern areas, where refugees poured from districts of Kirovabad formerly; especially to district Gugark, where 11 people were killed. According to information of KGB of the USSR, in Armenian town Gugark
Gugark, Armenia
Gugark is a town in the Lori Province of Armenia.-References:* –

: “…Azerbaijanis were taunted, killed and their houses were pillaged…” According to Azerbaijani statistics, about 40,897 Azerbaijani families were totally deported. 218 people died during the resettlement, 45 of them froze alive on mountains of Lesser Caucasus, 45 disappeared in mountain districts of Armenia, 34 people were tortured and killed, 6 people were killed by Armenian doctors in hospitals.

The chronology of deportations and resettlements

• 1947- The Soviet Union’s Councils of Ministers’ resolution about resettlement of Azerbaijanis from Armenian SSR to Azerbaijan SSR
• 1947-1950- Eviction of Azerbaijanis from Armenian SSR
• November, 1987- Assault on Azerbaijanis in Gafan district of Armenia
• January 25, 1988- Azerbaijanis were driven away from Gafan district of Armenia
• February 21, 1988- Mass demonstrations began in Yerevan
• November, 1988- Mass deportation of Azerbaijanis from Armenia

Change in number of Azerbaijanis in Armenia in terms of figures
1926 1939 1959 1970 1979 1989 2001
Azerbaijani people
The Azerbaijanis are a Turkic-speaking people living mainly in northwestern Iran and the Republic of Azerbaijan, as well as in the neighbourhood states, Georgia, Russia and formerly Armenia. Commonly referred to as Azeris or Azerbaijani Turks , they also live in a wider area from the Caucasus to...

 (number of people and as the percentage
of Armenia's population)

83,181 (9,4 %) 130,896 (10.2 %) 107,748 (6.1 %) 148,189 (5.9 %) 160,841 (5.2 %) 84,860 (2.5 %) no data available

Results of ethnic cleansings

As a result of the last ethnic cleansing in 1988, the last phase of republic’s homogenization was carried out in Armenia. As a consequence, Armenian population reached 98% of Armenia’s whole population. Responsibility for these events was imposed upon Armenian nationalists
Armenian nationalism
Armenian nationalism in the modern period has its roots in the romantic nationalism of Mikayel Chamchian and generally defined as the creation of a free, independent and united Armenia formulated as the Armenian Cause . Armenian national awakening developed in the 1880s in the context of the...

, together with republic’s administration. Remainders of Azerbaijani population were driven away from country in 1991. According to United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees , also known as The UN Refugee Agency is a United Nations agency mandated to protect and support refugees at the request of a government or the UN itself and assists in their voluntary repatriation, local integration or resettlement to...

’ report, Azerbaijani population, being the largest ethnic minority in Armenia since 1988, was driven away from republic with assistance of local authorities after pogroms in Sumgait and Baku. Today, Armenia is the only country of the former USSR with monoethnic population (97,9% Armenians). According to United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees’ estimations, today not more than 30 Azerbaijanis live in Armenia, majority of whom live in rural areas and are members of mixed families (generally Azerbaijani women, who married Armenian men). Changes in demographic character were accompanied by total renaming of settlements and toponyms on the territory of Armenian SSR. In sum, more than 600 toponyms have been renamed from 1924 to 1988 in Armenian SSR. Such alterations of toponyms were continued in postsoviet period as well. Renaming of Turkish toponyms remained in the territory of republic was the last stage. According to State Committee’s superior Manuk Vardanyan, 57 toponyms were renamed in 2006. It was planned to rename 21 settlements of the republic in 2007. This process lasted for a long time in connection with problem in the choice of new name. Contributions of Azerbaijanis in Armenia
Azerbaijanis in Armenia
The Turkic community in Armenia, which mostly identified themselves as Azerbaijanis in the 20th century, represented a large number but have been virtually non-existent since in 1988–1991. Most Azeris fled the country as a result of the Nagorno-Karabakh War and the ongoing conflict between Armenia...

 to cultural diversity of Armenia suffered great losses. Agababa-Childir and Daralagoz ashig schools entirely disappeared in the wake of explusion of Azerbaijanis from Armenia.

Changes in demographic structure of Yerevan

In 1897, the town Erivan had 29,006 residents in , 12,523 of them were Armenians, 12,359 Azerbaijanis. According to facts of the Russian Empire census of 1897, Azerbaijanis (tatars) made up 12,000 people (49%) of 29,000 people of the city. However, in the course of systematic ethnic cleansings during many years and migrations of Armenians from Persia and Ottoman Empire, the capital of present day Armenia became the city with monoethnic population. According to the census of 1959, Armenians made up 96% population of the country, but in 1989-more than 96,5%. Azerbaijanis made up only 0,1% of Yerevan’s population. Forcible demographic changes in Yerevan diversity were enforced with the assistance of Armenian nationalists from “Dashnaktsutiun” party. They changed Yerevan’s population in favor of Armenians by terrorization of local Muslims. As a result of ethnic cleansings, not only were the Azerbaijanis of Yerevan driven away, but Azerbaijani mosque in Yerevan was also destroyed.
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