Demographics of India
Overview
 
The demographics of India are inclusive of the second most populous country in the world, with over 1.21 billion people (2011 census), more than a sixth of the world's population. Already containing 17.5% of the world's population, India is projected to be the world's most populous country by 2025, surpassing China
People's Republic of China
China , officially the People's Republic of China , is the most populous country in the world, with over 1.3 billion citizens. Located in East Asia, the country covers approximately 9.6 million square kilometres...

, its population reaching 1.6 billion by 2050.
Encyclopedia
The demographics of India are inclusive of the second most populous country in the world, with over 1.21 billion people (2011 census), more than a sixth of the world's population. Already containing 17.5% of the world's population, India is projected to be the world's most populous country by 2025, surpassing China
People's Republic of China
China , officially the People's Republic of China , is the most populous country in the world, with over 1.3 billion citizens. Located in East Asia, the country covers approximately 9.6 million square kilometres...

, its population reaching 1.6 billion by 2050. Its population growth rate is 1.41%, ranking 93rd in the world.

India has more than 50% of its population below the age of 25 and more than 65% hovers below the age of 35. It is expected that, in 2020, the average age of an Indian will be 29 years, compared to 37 for China and 48 for Japan; and, by 2030, India's dependency ratio
Dependency ratio
In economics and geography the dependency ratio is an age-population ratio of those typically not in the labor force and those typically in the labor force...

 should be just over 0.4.

India has more than two thousand ethnic groups, and every major religion
Religion in India
Indian religions is a classification for religions that originated in the Indian subcontinent; namely Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism and Sikhism. These religions are also classified as Eastern religions...

 is represented, as are four major families
Language family
A language family is a group of languages related through descent from a common ancestor, called the proto-language of that family. The term 'family' comes from the tree model of language origination in historical linguistics, which makes use of a metaphor comparing languages to people in a...

 of languages
Languages of India
The languages of India belong to several language families, the major ones being the Indo-European languages—Indo-Aryan and the Dravidian languages...

 (Indo-European
Indo-European languages
The Indo-European languages are a family of several hundred related languages and dialects, including most major current languages of Europe, the Iranian plateau, and South Asia and also historically predominant in Anatolia...

, Dravidian
Dravidian languages
The Dravidian language family includes approximately 85 genetically related languages, spoken by about 217 million people. They are mainly spoken in southern India and parts of eastern and central India as well as in northeastern Sri Lanka, Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh, Afghanistan, Iran, and...

, Austro-Asiatic
Austro-Asiatic languages
The Austro-Asiatic languages, in recent classifications synonymous with Mon–Khmer, are a large language family of Southeast Asia, also scattered throughout India and Bangladesh. The name Austro-Asiatic comes from the Latin words for "south" and "Asia", hence "South Asia"...

 and Tibeto-Burman languages
Tibeto-Burman languages
The Tibeto-Burman languages are the non-Chinese members of the Sino-Tibetan language family, over 400 of which are spoken thoughout the highlands of southeast Asia, as well as lowland areas in Burma ....

) as well as two language isolate
Language isolate
A language isolate, in the absolute sense, is a natural language with no demonstrable genealogical relationship with other languages; that is, one that has not been demonstrated to descend from an ancestor common with any other language. They are in effect language families consisting of a single...

s (the Nihali language
Nihali language
Nihali, also known as Nahali or erroneously as Kalto, is a language isolate spoken in west-central India by around 2,000 people out of an ethnic population of 5,000...

 spoken in parts of Maharashtra
Maharashtra
Maharashtra is a state located in India. It is the second most populous after Uttar Pradesh and third largest state by area in India...

 and the Burushaski language
Burushaski language
The Burushaski or Burushko language , is a language isolate . It is spoken by some 87,000 Burusho people in the Hunza, Nagar, Yasin, and Ishkoman valleys, and some parts of the Gilgit valley, in Gilgit–Baltistan in Pakistan and by about 300 Burusho people in Srinagar in Jammu and Kashmir, India...

 spoken in parts of Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir is the northernmost state of India. It is situated mostly in the Himalayan mountains. Jammu and Kashmir shares a border with the states of Himachal Pradesh and Punjab to the south and internationally with the People's Republic of China to the north and east and the...

).

Further complexity is lent by the great variation that occurs across this population on social parameters such as income and education. Only the continent of Africa
Africa
Africa is the world's second largest and second most populous continent, after Asia. At about 30.2 million km² including adjacent islands, it covers 6% of the Earth's total surface area and 20.4% of the total land area...

 exceeds the linguistic, genetic and cultural diversity of the nation of India.

Salient features

India
India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

 occupies 2.4% of the world's land area and supports over 17.5% of the world's population. India
India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

 has more arable land
Arable land
In geography and agriculture, arable land is land that can be used for growing crops. It includes all land under temporary crops , temporary meadows for mowing or pasture, land under market and kitchen gardens and land temporarily fallow...

 area than any country except the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

, and more water area than any country except Russia
Russia
Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

, Canada
Canada
Canada is a North American country consisting of ten provinces and three territories. Located in the northern part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west, and northward into the Arctic Ocean...

 and the United States. Indian life revolves mostly around agriculture and allied activities in small villages, where the overwhelming majority of Indians live. As per the 2001 census, 72.2% of the population lives in about 638,000 villages and the remaining 27.8% lives in more than 5,100 towns and over 380 urban agglomerations.

Where does India stand today globally?

Sl No. Category Global Ranking
1 Area 7th
2 Population 2nd
3 Population growth rate 93rd
4 Labour force 2nd
5 GDP (nominal) 10th
6 GDP (PPP) 4th
7 GDP (nominal) per capita 138th
8 GDP (PPP) per capita 127th
9 GDP (real) growth rate 5th
10 Human Development Index 134th
11 Exports 16th
12 Imports 11th
13 Current Account balance 169th
14 Received FDI 29th
15 Foreign Exchange reserves 6th
16 External debt 26th
17 Public debt 29th
18 Electricity consumption 5th
19 Mobile phone users 2nd
20 Internet users 4th
21 Motor vehicle production 7th
22 Military expenditure 10th
23 Active troops 3rd
24 Rail network 4th
25 Road network 3rd

List of States and Union territories by demographics

Rank State or union territory
States and territories of India
India is a federal union of states comprising twenty-eight states and seven union territories. The states and territories are further subdivided into districts and so on.-List of states and territories:...

Population (2011) % Rural Pop. Urban Pop. Area km² Density (per km²) Area mi² Density (per mi²) Sex ratio
Sex ratio
Sex ratio is the ratio of males to females in a population. The primary sex ratio is the ratio at the time of conception, secondary sex ratio is the ratio at time of birth, and tertiary sex ratio is the ratio of mature organisms....

1 Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh abbreviation U.P. , is a state located in the northern part of India. With a population of over 200 million people, it is India's most populous state, as well as the world's most populous sub-national entity...

199,581,520 16.49% 131,658,339 34,539,582 240,928 828 93,022.8 2146 908
2 Maharashtra
Maharashtra
Maharashtra is a state located in India. It is the second most populous after Uttar Pradesh and third largest state by area in India...

112,372,972 9.29% 55,777,647 41,100,980 307,713 365 118,808.7 815 946
3 Bihar
Bihar
Bihar is a state in eastern India. It is the 12th largest state in terms of geographical size at and 3rd largest by population. Almost 58% of Biharis are below the age of 25, which is the highest proportion in India....

103,804,637 8.58% 74,316,709 8,681,800 94,163 1102 36,356.5 2,855 916
4 West Bengal
West Bengal
West Bengal is a state in the eastern region of India and is the nation's fourth-most populous. It is also the seventh-most populous sub-national entity in the world, with over 91 million inhabitants. A major agricultural producer, West Bengal is the sixth-largest contributor to India's GDP...

91,347,736 7.55% 57,748,946 22,427,251 88,752 1030 34,267.3 2,666 908
5 Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh , is one of the 28 states of India, situated on the southeastern coast of India. It is India's fourth largest state by area and fifth largest by population. Its capital and largest city by population is Hyderabad.The total GDP of Andhra Pradesh is $100 billion and is ranked third...

84,665,533 7.00% 55,401,067 20,808,940 275,045 308 106,195.5 797 912
6 Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh , often called the Heart of India, is a state in central India. Its capital is Bhopal and Indore is the largest city....

72,597,565 6.00% 44,380,878 15,967,145 308,245 236 119,014.1 610 930
7 Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu is one of the 28 states of India. Its capital and largest city is Chennai. Tamil Nadu lies in the southernmost part of the Indian Peninsula and is bordered by the union territory of Pondicherry, and the states of Kerala, Karnataka, and Andhra Pradesh...

72,138,958 5.96% 34,921,681 27,483,998 130,058 555 50,215.7 1,437 945
8 Rajasthan
Rajasthan
Rājasthān the land of Rajasthanis, , is the largest state of the Republic of India by area. It is located in the northwest of India. It encompasses most of the area of the large, inhospitable Great Indian Desert , which has an edge paralleling the Sutlej-Indus river valley along its border with...

68,621,012 5.67% 43,292,813 13,214,375 342,239 201 132,139.2 519 926
9 Karnataka
Karnataka
Karnataka , the land of the Kannadigas, is a state in South West India. It was created on 1 November 1956, with the passing of the States Reorganisation Act and this day is annually celebrated as Karnataka Rajyotsava...

61,130,704 5.05% 34,889,033 17,961,529 191,791 319 74,050.9 826 968
10 Gujarat 60,383,628 4.99% 31,740,767 18,930,250 196,024 308 75,685.3 798 918
11 Orissa
Orissa
Orissa , officially Odisha since Nov 2011, is a state of India, located on the east coast of India, by the Bay of Bengal. It is the modern name of the ancient nation of Kalinga, which was invaded by the Maurya Emperor Ashoka in 261 BC. The modern state of Orissa was established on 1 April...

41,947,358 3.47% 31,287,422 5,517,238 155,707 269 60,118.8 698 905
12 Kerala
Kerala
or Keralam is an Indian state located on the Malabar coast of south-west India. It was created on 1 November 1956 by the States Reorganisation Act by combining various Malayalam speaking regions....

33,387,677 2.76% 23,574,449 8,266,925 38,863 859 15,005.1 2,225 1,084
13 Jharkhand
Jharkhand
Jharkhand is a state in eastern India. It was carved out of the southern part of Bihar on 15 November 2000. Jharkhand shares its border with the states of Bihar to the north, Uttar Pradesh and Chhattisgarh to the west, Orissa to the south, and West Bengal to the east...

32,966,238 2.72% 20,952,088 5,993,741 79,714 414 30,777.7 1071 947
14 Assam
Assam
Assam , also, rarely, Assam Valley and formerly the Assam Province , is a northeastern state of India and is one of the most culturally and geographically distinct regions of the country...

31,169,272 2.58% 23,216,288 3,439,240 78,438 397 30,285.1 1029 954
15 Punjab
Punjab (India)
Punjab ) is a state in the northwest of the Republic of India, forming part of the larger Punjab region. The state is bordered by the Indian states of Himachal Pradesh to the east, Haryana to the south and southeast and Rajasthan to the southwest as well as the Pakistani province of Punjab to the...

27,704,236 2.29% 16,096,488 8,262,511 50,362 550 19,444.9 1,425 893
16 Haryana
Haryana
Haryana is a state in India. Historically, it has been a part of the Kuru region in North India. The name Haryana is found mentioned in the 12th century AD by the apabhramsha writer Vibudh Shridhar . It is bordered by Punjab and Himachal Pradesh to the north, and by Rajasthan to the west and south...

25,353,081 2.09% 15,029,260 6,115,304 44,212 573 17,070.3 1,485 877
17 Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh is a state in Central India, formed when the 16 Chhattisgarhi-speaking South-Eastern districts of Madhya Pradesh gained separate statehood on 1 November 2000....

25,540,196 2.11% 16,648,056 4,185,747 135,191 189 52,197.5 489 991
18 Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir is the northernmost state of India. It is situated mostly in the Himalayan mountains. Jammu and Kashmir shares a border with the states of Himachal Pradesh and Punjab to the south and internationally with the People's Republic of China to the north and east and the...

12,548,926 1.04% 7,627,062 2,516,638 222,236 56 85,805.8 146 883
19 Uttarakhand
Uttarakhand
Uttarakhand , formerly Uttaranchal, is a state in the northern part of India. It is often referred to as the Land of Gods due to the many holy Hindu temples and cities found throughout the state, some of which are among Hinduism's most spiritual and auspicious places of pilgrimage and worship...

10,116,752 0.84% 6,310,275 2,179,074 53,483 189 20,649.9 490 963
20 Himachal Pradesh
Himachal Pradesh
Himachal Pradesh is a state in Northern India. It is spread over , and is bordered by the Indian states of Jammu and Kashmir on the north, Punjab on the west and south-west, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh on the south, Uttarakhand on the south-east and by the Tibet Autonomous Region on the east...

6,856,509 0.57% 5,482,319 595,581 55,673 123 21,495.5 319 974
21 Tripura
Tripura
Tripura is a state in North-East India, with an area of . It is the third smallest state of India, according to area. Tripura is surrounded by Bangladesh on the north, south, and west. The Indian states of Assam and Mizoram lie to the east. The capital is Agartala and the main languages spoken are...

3,671,032 0.30% 2,653,453 545,750 10,486 350 4,048.7 907 921
22 Meghalaya
Meghalaya
Meghalaya is a state in north-eastern India. The word "Meghalaya" literally means the Abode of Clouds in Sanskrit and other Indic languages. Meghalaya is a hilly strip in the eastern part of the country about 300 km long and 100 km wide, with a total area of about 8,700 sq mi . The...

2,964,007 0.24% 1,864,711 454,111 22,429 132 8,659.9 342 986
23 Manipur
Manipur
Manipur is a state in northeastern India, with the city of Imphal as its capital. Manipur is bounded by the Indian states of Nagaland to the north, Mizoram to the south and Assam to the west; it also borders Burma to the east. It covers an area of...

2,721,756 0.22% 1,590,820 575,968 22,327 122 8,620.5 316 987
24 Nagaland
Nagaland
Nagaland is a state in the far north-eastern part of India. It borders the state of Assam to the west, Arunachal Pradesh and part of Assam to the north, Burma to the east and Manipur to the south. The state capital is Kohima, and the largest city is Dimapur...

1,980,602 0.16% 1,647,249 342,787 16,579 119 6,401.2 309 931
25 Goa
Goa
Goa , a former Portuguese colony, is India's smallest state by area and the fourth smallest by population. Located in South West India in the region known as the Konkan, it is bounded by the state of Maharashtra to the north, and by Karnataka to the east and south, while the Arabian Sea forms its...

1,457,723 0.12% 677,091 670,577 3,702 394 1,429.4 1020 968
26 Arunachal Pradesh
Arunachal Pradesh
Arunachal Pradesh is a state of India, located in the far northeast. It borders the states of Assam and Nagaland to the south, and shares international borders with Burma in the east, Bhutan in the west, and the People's Republic of China in the north. The majority of the territory is claimed by...

1,382,611 0.11% 870,087 227,881 83,743 17 32,333.4 43 920
27 Mizoram
Mizoram
Mizoram is one of the Seven Sister States in North Eastern India, sharing borders with the states of Tripura, Assam, Manipur and with the neighbouring countries of Bangladesh and Burma. Mizoram became the 23rd state of India on 20 February 1987. Its capital is Aizawl. Mizoram is located in the...

1,091,014 0.09% 447,567 441,006 21,081 52 8,139.4 134 975
28 Sikkim
Sikkim
Sikkim is a landlocked Indian state nestled in the Himalayan mountains...

607,688 0.05% 480,981 59,870 7,096 86 2,739.8 222 889
UT1 Delhi
Delhi
Delhi , officially National Capital Territory of Delhi , is the largest metropolis by area and the second-largest by population in India, next to Mumbai. It is the eighth largest metropolis in the world by population with 16,753,265 inhabitants in the Territory at the 2011 Census...

16,753,235 1.38% 944,727 12,905,780 11,297 9,340 572.6 29,258 866
UT2 Pondicherry 1,244,464 0.10% 325,726 648,619 479 2,598 184.9 6,730 1,038
UT3 Chandigarh
Chandigarh
Chandigarh is a union territory of India that serves as the capital of two states, Haryana and Punjab. The name Chandigarh translates as "The Fort of Chandi". The name is from an ancient temple called Chandi Mandir, devoted to the Hindu goddess Chandi, in the city...

1,054,686 0.09% 92,120 808,515 114 9,252 44.0 23,970 818
UT4 Andaman and Nicobar Islands 379,944 0.03% 239,954 116,198 8,249 46 3,185.0 119 878
UT5 Dadra and Nagar Haveli 342,853 0.03% 170,027 50,463 491 698 189.6 1,808 775
UT6 Daman and Diu 242,911 0.02% 100,856 57,348 112 2,169 43.2 5,623 618
UT7 Lakshadweep
Lakshadweep
Lakshadweep , formerly known as the Laccadive, Minicoy, and Amindivi Islands, is a group of islands in the Laccadive Sea, 200 to 440 km off the coast of the South West Indian state of Kerala...

64,429 0.01% 33,683 26,967 32 2,013 12.4 5,196 946
Total India 1,210,193,422 100.00% 742,490,639 286,119,689 3,287,240 382 1,269,210.5 954 940

Districts in India: Census 2011

State/UT Code India/State/UT No. of districts in 2001 No. of Districts in 2011 No. of Districts without any geographical change
01 Jammu & Kashmir 14 22 5
02 Himachal Pradesh 12 12 12
03 Punjab 17 20 8
04 Chandigarh 1 1 1
05 Uttarakhand 13 13 11
06 Haryana 19 21 17
07 NCT of Delhi 9 9 9
08 Rajasthan 32 33 18
09 Uttar Pradesh 70 71 47
10 Bihar 37 38 34
11 Sikkim 4 4 4
12 Arunachal Pradesh 13 16 10
13 Nagaland 8 11 4
14 Manipur 9 9 9
15 Mizoram 8 8 4
16 Tripura 4 4 2
17 Meghalaya 7 7 4
18 Assam 23 27 15
19 West Bengal 18 19 17
20 Jharkhand 18 24 9
21 Orissa 30 30 26
22 Chattisgarh 16 18 14
23 Madhya Pradesh 45 50 36
24 Gujarat 25 26 20
25 Daman & Diu 2 2 2
26 Dadra & Nagar Haveli 1 1 1
27 Maharashtra 35 35 31
28 Andhra Pradesh 23 23 23
29 Karnataka 27 30 24
30 Goa 2 2 2
31 Lakshadweep 1 1 1
32 Kerala 14 14 14
33 Tamil Nadu 30 32 25
34 Pondicherry 4 4 4
35 Andaman & Nicobar Islands 2 3 1
INDIA 593 640 464


Religious demographics

India contains the majority of the world's Zoroastrians (even ahead of Iran), Sikhs, Hindus, Jains
Jainism
Jainism is an Indian religion that prescribes a path of non-violence towards all living beings. Its philosophy and practice emphasize the necessity of self-effort to move the soul towards divine consciousness and liberation. Any soul that has conquered its own inner enemies and achieved the state...

 and Bahá'ís. India is also home to the third-largest Muslim
Muslim
A Muslim, also spelled Moslem, is an adherent of Islam, a monotheistic, Abrahamic religion based on the Quran, which Muslims consider the verbatim word of God as revealed to prophet Muhammad. "Muslim" is the Arabic term for "submitter" .Muslims believe that God is one and incomparable...

 population in the world after Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia , officially the Republic of Indonesia , is a country in Southeast Asia and Oceania. Indonesia is an archipelago comprising approximately 13,000 islands. It has 33 provinces with over 238 million people, and is the world's fourth most populous country. Indonesia is a republic, with an...

 and Pakistan
Pakistan
Pakistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is a sovereign state in South Asia. It has a coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by Afghanistan and Iran in the west, India in the east and China in the far northeast. In the north, Tajikistan...

.

Religious majorities vary greatly by state. The majority of states have a Hindu
Hindu
Hindu refers to an identity associated with the philosophical, religious and cultural systems that are indigenous to the Indian subcontinent. As used in the Constitution of India, the word "Hindu" is also attributed to all persons professing any Indian religion...

 majority. However, Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir is the northernmost state of India. It is situated mostly in the Himalayan mountains. Jammu and Kashmir shares a border with the states of Himachal Pradesh and Punjab to the south and internationally with the People's Republic of China to the north and east and the...

 and Lakshadweep
Lakshadweep
Lakshadweep , formerly known as the Laccadive, Minicoy, and Amindivi Islands, is a group of islands in the Laccadive Sea, 200 to 440 km off the coast of the South West Indian state of Kerala...

 are Muslim
Muslim
A Muslim, also spelled Moslem, is an adherent of Islam, a monotheistic, Abrahamic religion based on the Quran, which Muslims consider the verbatim word of God as revealed to prophet Muhammad. "Muslim" is the Arabic term for "submitter" .Muslims believe that God is one and incomparable...

 majority states; Nagaland
Nagaland
Nagaland is a state in the far north-eastern part of India. It borders the state of Assam to the west, Arunachal Pradesh and part of Assam to the north, Burma to the east and Manipur to the south. The state capital is Kohima, and the largest city is Dimapur...

, Mizoram
Mizoram
Mizoram is one of the Seven Sister States in North Eastern India, sharing borders with the states of Tripura, Assam, Manipur and with the neighbouring countries of Bangladesh and Burma. Mizoram became the 23rd state of India on 20 February 1987. Its capital is Aizawl. Mizoram is located in the...

 and Meghalaya
Meghalaya
Meghalaya is a state in north-eastern India. The word "Meghalaya" literally means the Abode of Clouds in Sanskrit and other Indic languages. Meghalaya is a hilly strip in the eastern part of the country about 300 km long and 100 km wide, with a total area of about 8,700 sq mi . The...

 are Christian
Christian
A Christian is a person who adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as recorded in the Canonical gospels and the letters of the New Testament...

 majority; Punjab
Punjab (India)
Punjab ) is a state in the northwest of the Republic of India, forming part of the larger Punjab region. The state is bordered by the Indian states of Himachal Pradesh to the east, Haryana to the south and southeast and Rajasthan to the southwest as well as the Pakistani province of Punjab to the...

 is majority Sikh
Sikh
A Sikh is a follower of Sikhism. It primarily originated in the 15th century in the Punjab region of South Asia. The term "Sikh" has its origin in Sanskrit term शिष्य , meaning "disciple, student" or शिक्ष , meaning "instruction"...

; Sikkim
Sikkim
Sikkim is a landlocked Indian state nestled in the Himalayan mountains...

 and Ladakh
Ladakh
Ladakh is a region of Jammu and Kashmir, the northernmost state of the Republic of India. It lies between the Kunlun mountain range in the north and the main Great Himalayas to the south, inhabited by people of Indo-Aryan and Tibetan descent...

 are Buddhist majority areas

The table below summarises the findings of the 2001 census with regard to religion in India:
  1. All figures in %.
  2. Others including Bahá'ís
    Bahá'í Faith
    The Bahá'í Faith is a monotheistic religion founded by Bahá'u'lláh in 19th-century Persia, emphasizing the spiritual unity of all humankind. There are an estimated five to six million Bahá'ís around the world in more than 200 countries and territories....

    , Jews, and Parsis.
  3. Tribal Animists (and non religious) are grouped under Others after 1926 (1931 census onwards)

Table 2: Census information for 2001*
Composition Hindu
Hindu
Hindu refers to an identity associated with the philosophical, religious and cultural systems that are indigenous to the Indian subcontinent. As used in the Constitution of India, the word "Hindu" is also attributed to all persons professing any Indian religion...

s
Muslim
Muslim
A Muslim, also spelled Moslem, is an adherent of Islam, a monotheistic, Abrahamic religion based on the Quran, which Muslims consider the verbatim word of God as revealed to prophet Muhammad. "Muslim" is the Arabic term for "submitter" .Muslims believe that God is one and incomparable...

s
Christian
Christianity
Christianity is a monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus as presented in canonical gospels and other New Testament writings...

s
Sikh
Sikh
A Sikh is a follower of Sikhism. It primarily originated in the 15th century in the Punjab region of South Asia. The term "Sikh" has its origin in Sanskrit term शिष्य , meaning "disciple, student" or शिक्ष , meaning "instruction"...

s
Buddhist Jains Others
% total of population 2001 80.5% 13.4% 2.3% 1.9% 0.8% 0.4% 0.6%
10-Yr Growth % (est '91–'01)* 20.3% 29.5% 22.6% 18.2% 24.5% 26.0% 103.1%
Sex ratio† (avg. 944) 935 940 1009 895 955 940 1000
Literacy rate (71.7% for Age 7 & above) 75.5 60.0 90.3 70.4 73.0 95.0 50.0
Work Participation Rate 40.4 31.3 39.7 37.7 40.6 32.9 48.4
Rural sex ratio 944 953 1001 895 958 937 995
Urban sex ratio 922 907 1026 886 944 941 966
Child sex ratio (0–6 yrs) 925 950 964 786 942 870 976


Population within the age group of 0-6: Census 2011

State/UT Code India/State/UT Persons Males Females
01 Jammu & Kashmir 20,08,642 10,80,662 9,27,980
02 Himachal Pradesh 7,63,864 4,00,681 3,63,183
03 Punjab 29,41,570 15,93,262 13,48,308
04 Chandigarh 1,17,953 63,187 54,766
05 Uttarakhand 13,28,844 7,04,769 6,24,075
06 Haryana 32,97,724 18,02,047 14,95,677
07 NCT of Delhi 19,70,510 10,55,735 9,14,775
08 Rajasthan 1,05,04,916 55,80,212 49,24,704
09 Uttar Pradesh 2,97,28,235 1,56,53,175 1,40,75,060
10 Bihar 1,85,82,229 96,15,280 89,66,949
11 Sikkim 61,077 31,418 29,659
12 Arunachal Pradesh 2,02,759 1,03,430 99,329
13 Nagaland 2,85,981 1,47,111 1,38,870
14 Manipur 3,53,237 1,82,684 1,70,553
15 Mizoram 1,65,536 83,965 81,571
16 Tripura 4,44,055 2,27,354 2,16,701
17 Meghalaya 5,55,822 2,82,189 2,73,633
18 Assam 45,11,307 23,05,088 22,06,219
19 West Bengal 1,01,12,599 51,87,264 49,25,335
20 Jharkhand 52,37,582 26,95,921 25,41,661
21 Orissa 50,35,650 26,03,208 24,32,442
22 Chhattisgarh 3,584,028 1,824,987 1,759,041
23 Madhya Pradesh 10,548,295 5,516,957 5,031,338
24 Gujarat 7,494,176 3,974,286 3,519,890
25 Daman & Diu 25,880 13,556 12,324
26 Dadra & Nagar Haveli 49,196 25,575 23,621
27 Maharashtra 12,848,375 6,822,262 6,026,113
28 Andhra Pradesh 8,642,686 4,448,330 4,194,356
29 Karnataka 6,855,801 3,527,844 3,327,957
30 Goa 139,495 72,669 66,826
31 Lakshadweep 7,088 3,715 3,373
32 Kerala 3,322,247 1,695,935 1,626,312
33 Tamil Nadu 6,894,821 3,542,351 3,352,470
34 Pondicherry 127,610 64,932 62,678
35 Andaman & Nicobar Islands 39,497 20,094 19,403
INDIA 158,789,287 82,952,135 75,837,152


Population above the age of 7: Census 2011

State/UT Code India/State/UT Persons Males Females
01 Jammu & Kashmir 1,05,40,284 55,84,889 49,55,385
02 Himachal Pradesh 60,92,645 30,73,211 30,19,434
03 Punjab 2,47,62,666 1,30,41,557 1,17,21,109
04 Chandigarh 9,36,733 5,17,095 4,19,638
05 Uttarakhand 87,87,908 44,49,409 43,38,499
06 Haryana 2,20,55,357 1,17,03,083 1,03,52,274
07 NCT of Delhi 1,47,82,725 79,20,675 68,62,050
08 Rajasthan 5,81,16,096 3,00,39,874 2,80,76,222
09 Uttar Pradesh 16,98,53,242 8,89,43,240 8,09,10,002
10 Bihar 8,52,22,408 4,45,70,067 4,06,52,341
11 Sikkim 5,46,611 2,90,243 2,56,368
12 Arunachal Pradesh 11,79,852 6,16,802 5,63,050
13 Nagaland 16,94,621 8,78,596 8,16,025
14 Manipur 23,68,519 11,87,080 11,81,439
15 Mizoram 9,25,478 4,68,374 4,57,104
16 Tripura 32,26,977 16,44,513 15,82,464
17 Meghalaya 24,08,185 12,10,479 11,97,706
18 Assam 2,66,57,965 1,36,49,839 1,30,08,126
19 West Bengal 8,12,35,137 4,17,40,125 3,94,95,012
20 Jharkhand 2,77,28,656 1,42,35,767 1,34,92,889
21 Orissa 3,69,11,708 1,85,98,470 1,83,13,238
22 Chattisgarh 2,19,56,168 1,10,02,928 1,09,53,240
23 Madhya Pradesh 6,20,49,270 3,20,95,963 2,99,53,307
24 Gujarat 5,28,89,452 2,75,07,996 2,53,81,456
25 Daman & Diu 2,17,031 1,36,544 80,487
26 Dadra & Nagar Haveli 2,93,657 1,67,603 1,26,054
27 Maharashtra 9,95,24,597 5,15,39,135 4,79,85,462
28 Andhra Pradesh 7,60,22,847 3,80,61,551 3,79,61,296
29 Karnataka 5,42,74,903 2,75,29,898 2,67,45,005
30 Goa 13,18,228 6,68,042 6,50,186
31 Lakshadweep 57,341 29,391 27,950
32 Kerala 3,00,65,430 1,43,25,355 1,57,40,075
33 Tamil Nadu 6,52,44,137 3,26,16,520 3,26,27,617
34 Pondicherry 11,16,854 5,45,553 5,71,301
35 Andaman & Nicobar Islands 3,40,447 1,82,236 1,58,211
INDIA 1,05,14,04,135 54,07,72,113 51,06,32,022

Literacy Rate in India: Census 2011

State/UT Code India/State/UT Literate Persons (%) Males (%) Females (%)
01 Jammu & Kashmir 68.74 78.26 58.01
02 Himachal Pradesh 83.78 90.83 76.60
03 Punjab 76.68 81.48 71.34
04 Chandigarh 86.43 90.54 81.38
05 Uttarakhand 79.63 88.33 70.70
06 Haryana 76.64 85.38 66.77
07 NCT of Delhi 86.34 91.03 80.93
08 Rajasthan 67.06 80.51 52.66
09 Uttar Pradesh 69.72 79.24 59.26
10 Bihar 63.82 73.39 53.33
11 Sikkim 82.20 87.29 76.43
12 Arunachal Pradesh 66.95 73.69 59.57
13 Nagaland 80.11 83.29 76.69
14 Manipur 79.85 86.49 73.17
15 Mizoram 91.58 93.72 89.40
16 Tripura 87.75 92.18 83.15
17 Meghalaya 75.48 77.17 73.78
18 Assam 73.18 78.81 67.27
19 West Bengal 77.08 82.67 71.16
20 Jharkhand 67.63 78.45 56.21
21 Orissa 73.45 82.40 64.36
22 Chattisgarh 71.04 81.45 60.59
23 Madhya Pradesh 70.63 80.53 60.02
24 Gujarat 79.31 87.23 70.73
25 Daman & Diu 87.07 91.48 79.59
26 Dadra & Nagar Haveli 77.65 86.46 65.93
27 Maharashtra 82.91 89.82 75.48
28 Andhra Pradesh 67.66 75.56 59.74
29 Karnataka 75.60 82.85 68.13
30 Goa 87.40 92.81 81.84
31 Lakshadweep 92.28 96.11 88.25
32 Kerala 93.91 96.02 91.98
33 Tamil Nadu 80.33 86.81 73.86
34 Pondicherry 86.55 92.12 81.22
35 Andaman & Nicobar Islands 86.27 90.11 81.84
INDIA 74.04 82.14 65.46


Linguistic demographics

43% of the Hindus speak Hindi
Hindi
Standard Hindi, or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi, also known as Manak Hindi , High Hindi, Nagari Hindi, and Literary Hindi, is a standardized and sanskritized register of the Hindustani language derived from the Khariboli dialect of Delhi...

 while the rest speak Assamese
Assamese language
Assamese is the easternmost Indo-Aryan language. It is used mainly in the state of Assam in North-East India. It is also the official language of Assam. It is also spoken in parts of Arunachal Pradesh and other northeast Indian states. Nagamese, an Assamese-based Creole language is widely used in...

, Bangla, Gujarati
Gujarati language
Gujarati is an Indo-Aryan language, and part of the greater Indo-European language family. It is derived from a language called Old Gujarati which is the ancestor language of the modern Gujarati and Rajasthani languages...

, Kannada, Malayalam, Marathi
Marathi language
Marathi is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by the Marathi people of western and central India. It is the official language of the state of Maharashtra. There are over 68 million fluent speakers worldwide. Marathi has the fourth largest number of native speakers in India and is the fifteenth most...

, Tamil
Tamil language
Tamil is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamil people of the Indian subcontinent. It has official status in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu and in the Indian union territory of Pondicherry. Tamil is also an official language of Sri Lanka and Singapore...

, Telugu
Telugu language
Telugu is a Central Dravidian language primarily spoken in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India, where it is an official language. It is also spoken in the neighbouring states of Chattisgarh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Orissa and Tamil Nadu...

, Punjabi
Punjabi language
Punjabi is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by inhabitants of the historical Punjab region . For Sikhs, the Punjabi language stands as the official language in which all ceremonies take place. In Pakistan, Punjabi is the most widely spoken language...

 and other languages. Almost 45% of the Muslims speak Urdu
Urdu
Urdu is a register of the Hindustani language that is identified with Muslims in South Asia. It belongs to the Indo-European family. Urdu is the national language and lingua franca of Pakistan. It is also widely spoken in some regions of India, where it is one of the 22 scheduled languages and an...

 while the rest speak Assamese
Assamese language
Assamese is the easternmost Indo-Aryan language. It is used mainly in the state of Assam in North-East India. It is also the official language of Assam. It is also spoken in parts of Arunachal Pradesh and other northeast Indian states. Nagamese, an Assamese-based Creole language is widely used in...

, Bangla, Gujarati
Gujarati language
Gujarati is an Indo-Aryan language, and part of the greater Indo-European language family. It is derived from a language called Old Gujarati which is the ancestor language of the modern Gujarati and Rajasthani languages...

, Kashmiri
Kashmiri language
Kashmiri is a language from the Dardic sub-group and it is spoken primarily in the Kashmir Valley, in Jammu and Kashmir. There are approximately 5,554,496 speakers in Jammu and Kashmir, according to the Census of 2001. Most of the 105,000 speakers or so in Pakistan are émigrés from the Kashmir...

, Malayalam, Tamil
Tamil language
Tamil is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamil people of the Indian subcontinent. It has official status in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu and in the Indian union territory of Pondicherry. Tamil is also an official language of Sri Lanka and Singapore...

, Telugu
Telugu language
Telugu is a Central Dravidian language primarily spoken in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India, where it is an official language. It is also spoken in the neighbouring states of Chattisgarh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Orissa and Tamil Nadu...

 and other languages. About one-third of the Christians speak Malayalam, one-sixth speak Tamil
Tamil language
Tamil is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamil people of the Indian subcontinent. It has official status in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu and in the Indian union territory of Pondicherry. Tamil is also an official language of Sri Lanka and Singapore...

 while the rest speak a variety of languages. In total, there are 1,652 languages and dialect
Dialect
The term dialect is used in two distinct ways, even by linguists. One usage refers to a variety of a language that is a characteristic of a particular group of the language's speakers. The term is applied most often to regional speech patterns, but a dialect may also be defined by other factors,...

s spoken in India.
Languages of India by number of native speakers as per the 2001 census
Rank Language Speakers Percentage
1 Hindi dialects
Hindi languages
The Hindi languages, also known as Madhya and the Central Zone of the Indo-Aryan languages, is a subset of the varieties of Hindi spoken across northern India that descend from the Madhya prakrits, and includes the official languages of India and Pakistan, Hindi and Urdu...

422,048,642 41.03%
2 Bengali
Bengali language
Bengali or Bangla is an eastern Indo-Aryan language. It is native to the region of eastern South Asia known as Bengal, which comprises present day Bangladesh, the Indian state of West Bengal, and parts of the Indian states of Tripura and Assam. It is written with the Bengali script...

83,369,769 8.11%
3 Telugu
Telugu language
Telugu is a Central Dravidian language primarily spoken in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India, where it is an official language. It is also spoken in the neighbouring states of Chattisgarh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Orissa and Tamil Nadu...

74,002,856 7.19%
4 Marathi
Marathi language
Marathi is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by the Marathi people of western and central India. It is the official language of the state of Maharashtra. There are over 68 million fluent speakers worldwide. Marathi has the fourth largest number of native speakers in India and is the fifteenth most...

71,936,894 6.99%
5 Tamil
Tamil language
Tamil is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamil people of the Indian subcontinent. It has official status in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu and in the Indian union territory of Pondicherry. Tamil is also an official language of Sri Lanka and Singapore...

60,793,814 5.91%
6 Urdu
Urdu
Urdu is a register of the Hindustani language that is identified with Muslims in South Asia. It belongs to the Indo-European family. Urdu is the national language and lingua franca of Pakistan. It is also widely spoken in some regions of India, where it is one of the 22 scheduled languages and an...

51,536,111 5.01%
7 Gujarati
Gujarati language
Gujarati is an Indo-Aryan language, and part of the greater Indo-European language family. It is derived from a language called Old Gujarati which is the ancestor language of the modern Gujarati and Rajasthani languages...

46,091,617 4.48%
8 Kannada
Kannada language
Kannada or , is a language spoken in India predominantly in the state of Karnataka. Kannada, whose native speakers are called Kannadigas and number roughly 50 million, is one of the 30 most spoken languages in the world...

37,924,011 3.69%
9 Malayalam
Malayalam language
Malayalam , is one of the four major Dravidian languages of southern India. It is one of the 22 scheduled languages of India with official language status in the state of Kerala and the union territories of Lakshadweep and Pondicherry. It is spoken by 35.9 million people...

33,066,392 3.21%
10 Oriya
Oriya language
Oriya , officially Odia from November, 2011, is an Indian language, belonging to the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European language family. It is mainly spoken in the Indian states of Orissa and West Bengal...

33,017,446 3.21%
11 Punjabi
Punjabi language
Punjabi is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by inhabitants of the historical Punjab region . For Sikhs, the Punjabi language stands as the official language in which all ceremonies take place. In Pakistan, Punjabi is the most widely spoken language...

29,102,477 2.83%
12 Assamese
Assamese language
Assamese is the easternmost Indo-Aryan language. It is used mainly in the state of Assam in North-East India. It is also the official language of Assam. It is also spoken in parts of Arunachal Pradesh and other northeast Indian states. Nagamese, an Assamese-based Creole language is widely used in...

13,168,484 1.28%
13 Maithili
Maithili language
Maithili language is spoken in the eastern region of India and South-eastern region of Nepal. The native speakers of Maithili reside in Bihar, Jharkhand,parts of West Bengal and South-east Nepal...

12,179,122 1.18%
14 Bhili/Bhilodi
Bhili language
Bhili is a Western Indo-Aryan language spoken in west-central India, in the region east of Ahmedabad. Other names for the language include Bhagoria and Bhilboli; varieties are Wagdi and Garasia. Bhili is a member of the Bhil language family, which is related to Gujarati and the Rajasthani language...

 
9,582,957 0.93%
15 Santali
Santali language
Santhali is a language in the Santhali subfamily of Austro-Asiatic, related to Ho and Mundari. It is spoken by about six million people in India, Bangladesh, Nepal, and Bhutan . Most of its speakers live in India, in the states of Jharkhand, Assam, Bihar, Orissa, Tripura, and West Bengal. It has...

6,469,600 0.63%
16 Kashmiri
Kashmiri language
Kashmiri is a language from the Dardic sub-group and it is spoken primarily in the Kashmir Valley, in Jammu and Kashmir. There are approximately 5,554,496 speakers in Jammu and Kashmir, according to the Census of 2001. Most of the 105,000 speakers or so in Pakistan are émigrés from the Kashmir...

5,527,698 0.54%
17 Nepali
Nepali language
Nepali or Nepalese is a language in the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European language family.It is the official language and de facto lingua franca of Nepal and is also spoken in Bhutan, parts of India and parts of Myanmar...

2,871,749 0.28%
18 Gondi
Gondi language
Gondi is spoken by the Gondi people. It is a Central-Dravidian language, spoken by about two million people chiefly in the states of Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Chhattishgarh and in various adjoining areas of neighbouring states...

2,713,790 0.26%
19 Sindhi
Sindhi language
Sindhi is the language of the Sindh region of Pakistan that is spoken by the Sindhi people. In India, it is among 22 constitutionally recognized languages, where Sindhis are a sizeable minority. It is spoken by 53,410,910 people in Pakistan, according to the national government's Statistics Division...

2,535,485 0.25%
20 Konkani
Konkani language
KonkaniKonkani is a name given to a group of several cognate dialects spoken along the narrow strip of land called Konkan, on the west coast of India. This is, however, somewhat an over-generalisation. Geographically, Konkan is defined roughly as the area between the river Damanganga to the north...

2,489,015 0.24%
21 Dogri
Dogri language
Dogri is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by about five million people in Pakistan and India, chiefly in the Jammu region of Jammu and Kashmir, but also in northern Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, other parts of Jammu and Kashmir, and elsewhere. Dogri speakers are called Dogras, and the Dogri-speaking...

2,282,589 0.22%
22 Khandeshi  2,075,258 0.20%
23 Kurukh
Kurukh language
Kurukh , also called Kurux, Kuṛux or Kuruḵẖ, is a Dravidian language spoken by the Oraon and Kisan tribal peoples of Bihar, Jharkhand, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, and West Bengal, India, as well as in northern Bangladesh. It is most closely related to Brahui and Malto...

 
1,751,489 0.17%
24 Tulu
Tulu language
The Tulu language |?]]]) is a Dravidian language spoken by 1.95 million native speakers mainly in the southwest part of Indian state Karnataka known as Tulu Nadu. In India, 1.72 million people speak it as their mother tongue , increased by 10 percent over the 1991 census...

 
1,722,768 0.17%
25 Meitei (Manipuri) 1,466,705* 0.14%
26 Bodo
Bodo language
Bodo is a language that belongs to the branch of Barish section under Baric division of the Tibeto-Burman languages and spoken by the Bodo people of north-eastern India and Nepal...

1,350,478 0.13%
27 Khasi
Khasi language
Khasi is an Austro-Asiatic language spoken primarily in Meghalaya state in India by the Khasi people. Khasi is part of the Austroasiatic family of languages, and is fairly closely related to the Munda branch of that family, which is spoken in east&endash;central India.Although most of the 865,000...

 
1,128,575 0.112%
28 Mundari
Mundari language
The Mundari are a small ethnic group of South Sudan and one of the Nilotic peoples.The group is composed of cattle-herders and agriculturalists and are part of Karo people which also includes Bari, Pojulu, Kakwa, Kuku and Nyangwara...

 
1,061,352 0.105%
29 Ho
Ho language
Ho is a Munda language of the Austroasiatic language family spoken primarily in India by about 3,803,126 people. It is written with the Devanagari and the Varang Kshiti scripts. It is spoken by the Ho people. 0.103% of India's Population speaks this language as per the 2001 census.The Script was...

 
1,042,724 0.103%


CIA World Factbook demographic statistics

The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated.
Total Population:
1,166,079,217 (July 2009 est. CIA)
1,028.7 million (2001 Census final figures, March 1 enumeration and estimated 124,000 in areas of Manipur that could not be covered in the enumeration)

Rural Population:
72.2%, male: 381,668,992, female: 360,948,755 (2001 Census)

Age structure:
0–14 years: 30.8%, male: 188,208,196, female: 171,356,024

15–64 years: 64.3%, male: 386,432,921, female: 364,215,759

65+ years: 4.9%, male: 27,258,259, female: 30,031,289 (2007 est.)

Median age:
25.1 years

Population growth rate:
1.548% (2009 est.)

Birth rate:
21.76 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

Death rate:
6.4 deaths/1,000 population (2009 est.)

Literacy rate:
71.7% (Age 7 & above)

Percent of the population under the poverty line:
22% (2006 est.)

Unemployment Rate:
7.8%

Net migration rate:
−0.05 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth:
1.12 male(s)/female

under 10 years:
1.14 male(s)/female

15–24 years:
1.09 male(s)/female

24–64 years:
1.06 male(s)/female

65 years and over:
0.908 male(s)/female

total population:
1.08 male(s)/female (2011 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
total: 30.15 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)
male: 34.61 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 25.17 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy
Life expectancy
Life expectancy is the expected number of years of life remaining at a given age. It is denoted by ex, which means the average number of subsequent years of life for someone now aged x, according to a particular mortality experience...

 at birth:
total population:
69.89 years

male:
67.46 years

female:
72.61 years (2007 est.)

Total fertility rate:
2.72 children born/woman (2009 est.), although more up to date statistics indicate that India's TFR was 2.6 in 2008
The TFR (Total number of children born per women) according to Religion in 2001 was :

Hindus — 2.0
Muslims — 2.4
Sikhs — 2.1
Christians — 2.1
Buddhists — 2.1
Jains — 1.4
Animists and Others — 2.99
Tribals — 3.16
Scheduled Castes — 2.89

Religions:
Hindu 80.5%
Muslim 13.4%
Christian 2.3%
Sikh 1.8%
Buddhists 0.8%
Jains 0.4%
others 0.7%
unspecified 0.1% (2001 Census)
Scheduled Castes and Tribes:
Scheduled Castes: 16.2% (2001 Census)
Scheduled Tribes: 8.2% (2001 Census)

Languages: See Languages of India
Languages of India
The languages of India belong to several language families, the major ones being the Indo-European languages—Indo-Aryan and the Dravidian languages...

 and List of Indian languages by total speakers.
There are 216 languages with more than 10,000 native speakers in India. The largest of these is Hindi
Hindi
Standard Hindi, or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi, also known as Manak Hindi , High Hindi, Nagari Hindi, and Literary Hindi, is a standardized and sanskritized register of the Hindustani language derived from the Khariboli dialect of Delhi...

 with some 337 million (the second largest being Bangla with some 207 million). 22 languages are recognized as official languages. In India, there are 1,652 languages and dialect
Dialect
The term dialect is used in two distinct ways, even by linguists. One usage refers to a variety of a language that is a characteristic of a particular group of the language's speakers. The term is applied most often to regional speech patterns, but a dialect may also be defined by other factors,...

s in total.

Population projections

India is projected to overtake China as the world's most populous nation by 2030. India's population growth has raised concerns that it would lead to widespread unemployment and political instability.

Source:
  • 2020: 1,326,093,000
  • 2030: 1,460,743,000
  • 2040: 1,571,715,000
  • 2050: 1,656,554,000

2020 Estimate

Source:
Year Under 15 15–64 65+ Total
2000 361 604 45 1010
2005 368 673 51 1093
2010 370 747 58 1175
2015 372 819 65 1256
2020 373 882 76 1331

Ethnic groups

The national Census of India does not recognize racial or ethnic groups within India, but recognizes many of the tribal groups as Scheduled Castes and Tribes
Scheduled Castes and Tribes
The Scheduled Castes , also known as the Dalit, and the Scheduled Tribes are two groupings of historically disadvantaged people that are given express recognition in the Constitution of India...

 (see list of Scheduled Tribes in India). Nevertheless, modern anthropologists classify Indians as belonging to one of four major ethno-racial groups, which significantly overlap because of racial admixture between populations: Caucasoids, Australoids, Mongoloids and Negritos. The Caucasoids are largely confined to the north and generally speak Indo-Aryan languages; Australoids are found in the south and generally speak Dravidian languages; Mongoloids are largely confined to the Northeastern region of the country and for the most part, speak Tibeto-Burman languages; and Negritos are found on the Andaman Islands located on the southeastern side of the country. These speak a language known simply as Great Andamanese
Great Andamanese
Great Andamanese is a collective term used to refer to related indigenous peoples who lived throughout most of the Great Andaman archipelago, the main and closely situated group of islands in the Andaman Islands. Numbering between 200 and 700, each of the Great Andamanese peoples maintained a...

, a linguistic isolate not related to any known language. And finally, Austro-Asiatic languages are spoken by only tribals or Adivasis, who can be of either Australoid or Mongoloid racial stock.

According to a 2009 study published by Reich et al., the modern Indian population is composed of two genetically divergent and heterogeneous populations which mixed in ancient times (about 1,200-3,500 BC), known as Ancestral North Indians (ANI) and Ancestral South Indians (ASI). ASI corresponds to the Dravidian-speaking population of southern India, whereas ANI corresponds to the Indo-Aryan-speaking population of northern India. This demonstrates that there is a genetic basis to ethno-linguistic labels such as "Indo-Aryan" and "Dravidian".

For a list of ethnic groups in the Republic of India (as well as neighboring countries) see ethnic groups of the Indian subcontinent or the tree diagram
Tree diagram
The term tree diagram refers to a specific type of diagram that has a unique network topology. It can be seen as a specific type of network diagram, which in turn can be seen as a special kind of cluster diagram.-Applications:...

 above.

Y-chromosome DNA

Y-Chromosome DNA Y-DNA represents the male lineage, The Indian Y-chromosome pool may be summarized as follows where haplogroup
Haplogroup
In the study of molecular evolution, a haplogroup is a group of similar haplotypes that share a common ancestor having the same single nucleotide polymorphism mutation in both haplotypes. Because a haplogroup consists of similar haplotypes, this is what makes it possible to predict a haplogroup...

s R1a
Haplogroup R1a (Y-DNA)
Haplogroup R1a is the phylogenetic name of a major clade of Human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups. In other words, it is a way of grouping a significant part of all modern men according to a shared male-line ancestor. It is common in many parts of Eurasia and is frequently discussed in human...

, H
Haplogroup H (Y-DNA)
In human genetics, Haplogroup H is a Y-chromosome haplogroup.This haplogroup is found at a high frequency in South Asia. It is generally rare outside of the South Asia but is common among the Romani people, particularly the H-M82 subgroup.-Origins:...

, R2
Haplogroup R2 (Y-DNA)
- Paragroup R2a* :Paragroup is a term used in population genetics to describe lineages within a haplogroup that are not defined by any additional unique markers...

, L
Haplogroup L (Y-DNA)
In human genetics, Haplogroup L is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup.-Origins:Haplogroup L is associated with South Asia. It has also been found at low frequencies among populations of Central Asia, Southwest Asia, and Southern Europe along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea...

 & NOP
Haplogroup NOP (Y-DNA)
In more detail, the following phylogenetic tree of haplogroup subclades is based on the YCC 2008 tree and subsequent published research.*K **M ***M****M1 ****M1*****M1a *****M1a*...

 comprise generally more than 80% of the total chromosomes.
  • H
    Haplogroup H (Y-DNA)
    In human genetics, Haplogroup H is a Y-chromosome haplogroup.This haplogroup is found at a high frequency in South Asia. It is generally rare outside of the South Asia but is common among the Romani people, particularly the H-M82 subgroup.-Origins:...

     ~ 30%
  • R1a
    Haplogroup R1a (Y-DNA)
    Haplogroup R1a is the phylogenetic name of a major clade of Human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups. In other words, it is a way of grouping a significant part of all modern men according to a shared male-line ancestor. It is common in many parts of Eurasia and is frequently discussed in human...

     ~ 20%
  • R2
    Haplogroup R2 (Y-DNA)
    - Paragroup R2a* :Paragroup is a term used in population genetics to describe lineages within a haplogroup that are not defined by any additional unique markers...

     ~ 15%
  • L
    Haplogroup L (Y-DNA)
    In human genetics, Haplogroup L is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup.-Origins:Haplogroup L is associated with South Asia. It has also been found at low frequencies among populations of Central Asia, Southwest Asia, and Southern Europe along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea...

     ~ 10%
  • NOP
    Haplogroup NOP (Y-DNA)
    In more detail, the following phylogenetic tree of haplogroup subclades is based on the YCC 2008 tree and subsequent published research.*K **M ***M****M1 ****M1*****M1a *****M1a*...

     ~ 10% (Excluding R)
  • Other Haplogroups 15%

Mitochondrial DNA

Mitochondrial DNA mtDNA represents the female lineage. The Indian mitochondrial DNA is primarily made up of Haplogroup M
Haplogroup M (mtDNA)
In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup M is a human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup. An enormous haplogroup spanning all the continents, the macro-haplogroup M, like its sibling N, is a descendant of haplogroup L3....

  • Haplogroup M
    Haplogroup M (mtDNA)
    In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup M is a human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup. An enormous haplogroup spanning all the continents, the macro-haplogroup M, like its sibling N, is a descendant of haplogroup L3....

     ~ 60%
  • Haplogroup UK
    Haplogroup UK (mtDNA)
    In human genetics, Haplogroup UK was a human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup. It is now known that K is a subclade of U8.-See also:*Genealogical DNA test*Genetic Genealogy*Human mitochondrial genetics*Population Genetics-External links:...

     ~ 15%
  • Haplogroup N
    Haplogroup N (mtDNA)
    In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup N is a human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup. An enormous haplogroup spanning many continents, the macro-haplogroup N, like its sibling M, is a descendant of haplogroup L3....

     ~ 25% (Excluding UK)

Autosomal DNA

Basu et al. (2003) have concluded on the basis of results obtained from mtDNA, Y-chromosome and autosomal markers that "(1) there is an underlying unity of female lineages in India, indicating that the initial number of female settlers may have been small; (2) the tribal and the caste populations are highly differentiated; (3) the Austro-Asiatic tribals are the earliest settlers in India, providing support to one anthropological hypothesis while refuting some others; (4) a major wave of humans entered India through the northeast; (5) the Tibeto-Burman tribals share considerable genetic commonalities with the Austro-Asiatic tribals, supporting the hypothesis that they may have shared a common habitat in southern China, but the two groups of tribals can be differentiated on the basis of Y-chromosomal haplotypes; (6) the Dravidian tribals were possibly widespread throughout India before the arrival of the Indo-European-speaking nomads, but retreated to southern India to avoid dominance; (7) formation of populations by fission that resulted in founder and drift effects have left their imprints on the genetic structures of contemporary populations; (8) the upper castes show closer genetic affinities with Central Asian populations, although those of southern India are more distant than those of northern India; (9) historical gene flow into India has contributed to a considerable obliteration of genetic histories of contemporary populations so that there is at present no clear congruence of genetic and geographical or sociocultural affinities."

See also

  • Ethnic groups of India
  • Indian diaspora
    Non-resident Indian and Person of Indian Origin
    A Non-Resident Indian is an Indian citizen who has migrated to another country, a person of Indian origin who is born outside India, or a person of Indian origin who resides permanently outside India. Other terms with the same meaning are overseas Indian and expatriate Indian...

  • Racial groups of India
  • Caste system in India
    Caste system in India
    The Indian caste system is a system of social stratification and social restriction in India in which communities are defined by thousands of endogamous hereditary groups called Jātis....

  • Demography of Central Asia
    Demography of Central Asia
    Central Asia is a diverse land with many ethnic groups, languages, religions and tribes. This article discusses all of the above, and includes the demographics of the nations of the five former Soviet republics: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan, a group which has a...



Government:
  • 2011 census of India
    2011 census of India
    The 15th Indian National census was conducted in two phases, houselisting and population enumeration. Houselisting phase began on April 1, 2010 and involved collection of information about all buildings...

  • National Commission on Population
    National Commission on Population
    National Population Commission is a commission of the Indian government.It is Chaired by the Prime Minister with the Deputy Chairman Planning Commission as Vice Chairman...



Lists:

External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
x
OK