Dam dcm strain
The dam dcm strain is a strain of the nonpathogenic E. coli
Escherichia coli
Escherichia coli is a Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms . Most E. coli strains are harmless, but some serotypes can cause serious food poisoning in humans, and are occasionally responsible for product recalls...

K-12 bacteria
Bacteria are a large domain of prokaryotic microorganisms. Typically a few micrometres in length, bacteria have a wide range of shapes, ranging from spheres to rods and spirals...

 with functional dam and dcm genes.

The methylase
A methylase is an enzyme that attaches a methyl group to a molecule.These are found in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Bacteria use methylase to differentiate between foreign genetic material and their own, thus protecting their DNA from their own immune system...

 encoded by the dam gene (Dam methylase
Dam (methylase)
DAM methylase is an enzyme that adds a methyl group to the adenine of the sequence 5'-GATC-3' in newly synthesized DNA. Immediately after DNA synthesis, the daughter strand remains unmethylated for a short time....

) transfers a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionine to adenine
Adenine is a nucleobase with a variety of roles in biochemistry including cellular respiration, in the form of both the energy-rich adenosine triphosphate and the cofactors nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide and flavin adenine dinucleotide , and protein synthesis, as a chemical component of DNA...

 residues in the sequence GATC. The Dcm methylase (encoded by the dcm gene) methylated
DNA methylation
DNA methylation is a biochemical process that is important for normal development in higher organisms. It involves the addition of a methyl group to the 5 position of the cytosine pyrimidine ring or the number 6 nitrogen of the adenine purine ring...

 the internal cytosine
Cytosine is one of the four main bases found in DNA and RNA, along with adenine, guanine, and thymine . It is a pyrimidine derivative, with a heterocyclic aromatic ring and two substituents attached . The nucleoside of cytosine is cytidine...

 residues in the sequences CCAGG and CCTGG.

Restriction enzyme
Restriction enzyme
A Restriction Enzyme is an enzyme that cuts double-stranded DNA at specific recognition nucleotide sequences known as restriction sites. Such enzymes, found in bacteria and archaea, are thought to have evolved to provide a defense mechanism against invading viruses...

DpnI can recognize 5'-GmeATC-3'sites and digest the methylated DNA.

List of some Dam- strains
- JM110
- GM2929
- INV110
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