Dachau
Overview
 
Dachau (ˈdaxaʊ) is a town in Upper Bavaria
Upper Bavaria
Upper Bavaria is one of the seven administrative regions of Bavaria, Germany.- Geography :Upper Bavaria is located in the southern portion of Bavaria, and is centered around the city of Munich. It is subdivided into four regions : Ingolstadt, Munich, Bayerisches Oberland , and Südostoberbayern...

, in the southern part of Germany. It is a major district town—a Große Kreisstadt
Große Kreisstadt
Große Kreisstadt is a term in the German municipal law. In some German federal states the term is used as a special legal status for district-affiliated cities or towns with additional competences in comparison with other municipalities or towns of the district. The title is based on souvereign...

—of the administrative region
Regierungsbezirk
In Germany, a Government District, in German: Regierungsbezirk – is a subdivision of certain federal states .They are above the Kreise, Landkreise, and kreisfreie Städte...

 of Upper Bavaria
Upper Bavaria
Upper Bavaria is one of the seven administrative regions of Bavaria, Germany.- Geography :Upper Bavaria is located in the southern portion of Bavaria, and is centered around the city of Munich. It is subdivided into four regions : Ingolstadt, Munich, Bayerisches Oberland , and Südostoberbayern...

, about 20 km (less than eleven miles) north-west of Munich. It is now a popular residential area for people working in Munich with roughly 40,000 inhabitants. The historic centre of town with its 18th century castle is situated on an elevation and visible over a great distance.

Dachau was founded in the 8th century.
Encyclopedia
Dachau (ˈdaxaʊ) is a town in Upper Bavaria
Upper Bavaria
Upper Bavaria is one of the seven administrative regions of Bavaria, Germany.- Geography :Upper Bavaria is located in the southern portion of Bavaria, and is centered around the city of Munich. It is subdivided into four regions : Ingolstadt, Munich, Bayerisches Oberland , and Südostoberbayern...

, in the southern part of Germany. It is a major district town—a Große Kreisstadt
Große Kreisstadt
Große Kreisstadt is a term in the German municipal law. In some German federal states the term is used as a special legal status for district-affiliated cities or towns with additional competences in comparison with other municipalities or towns of the district. The title is based on souvereign...

—of the administrative region
Regierungsbezirk
In Germany, a Government District, in German: Regierungsbezirk – is a subdivision of certain federal states .They are above the Kreise, Landkreise, and kreisfreie Städte...

 of Upper Bavaria
Upper Bavaria
Upper Bavaria is one of the seven administrative regions of Bavaria, Germany.- Geography :Upper Bavaria is located in the southern portion of Bavaria, and is centered around the city of Munich. It is subdivided into four regions : Ingolstadt, Munich, Bayerisches Oberland , and Südostoberbayern...

, about 20 km (less than eleven miles) north-west of Munich. It is now a popular residential area for people working in Munich with roughly 40,000 inhabitants. The historic centre of town with its 18th century castle is situated on an elevation and visible over a great distance.

Dachau was founded in the 8th century. It was home to many artists during the late 19th and early 20th century; well-known author and editor Ludwig Thoma
Ludwig Thoma
Ludwig Thoma was a German author, publisher and editor, who gained popularity through his partially exaggerated description of a Bavarian workday....

 lived here for two years. The town is best known for its proximity to the infamous Dachau concentration camp built in 1933 by the Nazis
Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany , also known as the Third Reich , but officially called German Reich from 1933 to 1943 and Greater German Reich from 26 June 1943 onward, is the name commonly used to refer to the state of Germany from 1933 to 1945, when it was a totalitarian dictatorship ruled by...

, in which tens of thousands of prisoners were murdered.

Prehistoric times and Early Middle Ages

As the Amper
Amper
The Amper is a river located in southern Bavaria, Germany and is the largest tributary to the Isar river. The Amper flows into the Isar in Moosburg, 185 km from the headwater of the river and at a speed of 45 m³/s. It runs out of the Ammersee and its upper course, upstream from the...

 River would divert into backwaters in several places, there were many fords making it possible to cross the river. The oldest findings of human presence here date back to the Stone Age
Stone Age
The Stone Age is a broad prehistoric period, lasting about 2.5 million years , during which humans and their predecessor species in the genus Homo, as well as the earlier partly contemporary genera Australopithecus and Paranthropus, widely used exclusively stone as their hard material in the...

. The most noteworthy findings were discovered near Feldgeding in the adjoining municipality Bergkirchen.
Around 1000 B.C. the Celts arrived in this area and settled. The name “Dachau” originated in the celtic Dahauua, which roughly translates to “loamy meadow” and also alludes to the loamy soil of the surrounding hills. Some theories assume the name “Amper” river may derive from the Celtic word for “water”.
Approximately at the turn of the first millennium the Romans conquered the area and incorporated it into the province of Rhaetia. A Roman trade road between Salzburg
Salzburg
-Population development:In 1935, the population significantly increased when Salzburg absorbed adjacent municipalities. After World War II, numerous refugees found a new home in the city. New residential space was created for American soldiers of the postwar Occupation, and could be used for...

 and today’s Augsburg
Augsburg
Augsburg is a city in the south-west of Bavaria, Germany. It is a university town and home of the Regierungsbezirk Schwaben and the Bezirk Schwaben. Augsburg is an urban district and home to the institutions of the Landkreis Augsburg. It is, as of 2008, the third-largest city in Bavaria with a...

 is said to have run through Dachau. Remains of this old route are found along the Amper marshlands.

Middle Ages

The first known documentation of Dachau was a medieval deed by the Noble Erchana of Dahauua to the Bishop of Freising, both descendants of the lineage of the Aribons. With this deed dating back to August 15, 805 A.D., the Feast of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary, she donated her entire property in Dachau, including 5 so called Colonenhöfe and some serfs and bondsman, to devolve to the Bishop of the Diocese of Freising
Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Munich and Freising
The Archdiocese of Munich and Freising is an ecclesiastical territory or diocese of the Roman Catholic Church in Bavaria, Germany. It is led by the prelature of the Archbishop of Munich, who administers the see from the mother church in Munich, the Frauenkirche, also known as Munich Cathedral...

 after her death.

From the 12th century, Dachau was a summer residence for several Bavarian princes.
Between 1240 and 1270, Dachau was granted market privileges, first by Duke Otto II
Otto II Wittelsbach, Duke of Bavaria
Otto II of Bavaria was the Duke of Bavaria and Count Palatine of the Rhine . He was a son of Louis I and Ludmilla of Bohemia and a member of the Wittelsbach dynasty.- Biography :...

, and then by his son, Duke Ludwig II der Strenge
Louis II, Duke of Bavaria
Duke Louis II of Bavaria was Duke of Bavaria and Count Palatine of the Rhine from 1253. Born in Heidelberg, he was a son of duke Otto II and Agnes of the Palatinate...

.

From the 16th century to modern times

Between 1546 and 1577, the House of Wittelsbach
Wittelsbach
The Wittelsbach family is a European royal family and a German dynasty from Bavaria.Members of the family served as Dukes, Electors and Kings of Bavaria , Counts Palatine of the Rhine , Margraves of Brandenburg , Counts of Holland, Hainaut and Zeeland , Elector-Archbishops of Cologne , Dukes of...

 had the Dachau Palace
Dachau Palace
The Dachau Palace is a former residence of the rulers of Bavaria at Dachau, southern Germany.-History:The castle was constructed around 1100 as a castle by the cadet branch of the House of Wittelsbach. In 1182, the last Count of Dachau, Konrad III, died without issue and Duke Otto I of Bavaria...

 erected in the Renaissance
Renaissance
The Renaissance was a cultural movement that spanned roughly the 14th to the 17th century, beginning in Italy in the Late Middle Ages and later spreading to the rest of Europe. The term is also used more loosely to refer to the historical era, but since the changes of the Renaissance were not...

 style. From June 1715 to Autumn 1717, Joseph Effner
Joseph Effner
Joseph Effner was a German architect and decorator.Effner was born in Dachau as a son of the court gardener Christian Öffner. Effner accompanied the elector of Bavaria Max Emanuel to Bruxelles. In 1706 Effner was retrained by Gabriel Germain Boffrand in Paris. Here he changed his family name to...

 remodelled the palace to suit the contemporary taste in style.

At the beginning of the 19th century, the castle's north-, east- and south-wing had to be demolished due to their state of disrepair. The west-wing housing the dance hall with a superb view of the enchanting gardens, still remains today. On the first floor the original renaissance
Renaissance
The Renaissance was a cultural movement that spanned roughly the 14th to the 17th century, beginning in Italy in the Late Middle Ages and later spreading to the rest of Europe. The term is also used more loosely to refer to the historical era, but since the changes of the Renaissance were not...

 wood carved, coffered ceiling can be admired by visitors.

Beginning during the second half of the 19th century the town became home to numerous artists. The Dachau artists' colony gave the town recognition as one of the most important artist's colonies in Germany beside Worpswede
Worpswede
Worpswede is a municipality in the district of Osterholz, in Lower Saxony, Germany. It is situated in the Teufelsmoor, northeast of Bremen. The small town itself is located near the Weyerberg hill. It has been the home to a lively artistic community since the end of the 19th century, with over 130...

.

Second World War

In 1933, the Dachau concentration camp was built east of the city by the Nazis
Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany , also known as the Third Reich , but officially called German Reich from 1933 to 1943 and Greater German Reich from 26 June 1943 onward, is the name commonly used to refer to the state of Germany from 1933 to 1945, when it was a totalitarian dictatorship ruled by...

 and was operated until 1945. It became the prototype for all other camps. 25,613 prisoners were murdered in the camp and almost another 10,000 in its subcamps.

Geographical location

Dachau is located just 20 km northwest of Munich
Munich
Munich The city's motto is "" . Before 2006, it was "Weltstadt mit Herz" . Its native name, , is derived from the Old High German Munichen, meaning "by the monks' place". The city's name derives from the monks of the Benedictine order who founded the city; hence the monk depicted on the city's coat...

. It is situated at an altitude of 482 meters above sea level
Above mean sea level
The term above mean sea level refers to the elevation or altitude of any object, relative to the average sea level datum. AMSL is used extensively in radio by engineers to determine the coverage area a station will be able to reach...

 by the river Amper
Amper
The Amper is a river located in southern Bavaria, Germany and is the largest tributary to the Isar river. The Amper flows into the Isar in Moosburg, 185 km from the headwater of the river and at a speed of 45 m³/s. It runs out of the Ammersee and its upper course, upstream from the...

, with a boundary demarcated by lateral moraine
Moraine
A moraine is any glacially formed accumulation of unconsolidated glacial debris which can occur in currently glaciated and formerly glaciated regions, such as those areas acted upon by a past glacial maximum. This debris may have been plucked off a valley floor as a glacier advanced or it may have...

s formed during the last ice age
Wisconsin glaciation
The last glacial period was the most recent glacial period within the current ice age occurring during the last years of the Pleistocene, from approximately 110,000 to 10,000 years ago....

 and the Amper glacial valley. It is also close to a large marshy area called Dachauer Moos. Highest elevation of the district is the so called “Schlossberg”, the lowest point is located near the neighbourhood of Prittlbach, at the border to the next community of Hebertshausen. The bordering communities are Bergkirchen to the west, Schwabhausen to the northwest, Röhrmoos to the north, Hebertshausen to the northeast, and Karlsfeld to the south. To the east the greater district Dachau borders on the greater district of Munich with the community of Oberschleißheim.

The city is divided into 3 zones:
  • Historic Center: Dachau old town, Mitterndorf, Udlding,Etzenhausen, Unterer Markt, Webling
  • Dachau-East: Oberaugustenfeld, Unteraugustenfeld, Polln, Obergrashof, partially Prittlbach
  • Dachau-South: Himmelreich, Holzgarten, partially Gröbenried


Since 1972 also belonging to Dachau: the former community Pellheim with Pullhausen, Assenhausen, Lohfeld and Viehgarten.

Bodies of water

Running from the west the river Amper runs south of Dachau’s old town, changes its direction at the former paper milling plant to the northeast and continues through Prittlbach into Hebertshausen.

Coming from Karlsfeld, the Würm crosses Dachau-East and merges into the river Amper just outside the district limit of Hebertshausen.

The Gröbenbach, which has its source south of Puchheim, runs through town coming from the south and merges into the Amper river at several locations near the festival grounds.

The Mühlbach, a man made canal, which is diverted from the river Amper at the electrical power plant and runs parallel and flows back into it after passing the paper mill. The name derives from the frequent mills in former times along the canal which took advantage of the decline between Mühlbach and Amper. West of the so called Festwiese runs another canal, called Lodererbach.

In town there are still parts of the Schleißheimer canal remaining today. This canal was built in the mid-eighteenth century as part of the northern Munich canal system to which the Nymphenburger Canal belongs as well.
It functioned as a transportation route between Dachau and Schleißheim. The building material recovered from the demolition of three wings of the Dachau castle was transported to Schleißheim this way.

By allowing it to run to seed and through deliberate cultivation by the town of Dachau the canal is only still recognizable as such between Frühlingstrasse and the Pollnbach. Outside the city limit the original canal continues on to Schloss Schleißheim.

Within the city boundaries, in Dachau Süd (South), there is also a small lake called Stadtweiher.

Transport

The city is served by Munich S-Bahn
Munich S-Bahn
The Munich S-Bahn is an electric rail transit system in Munich, Germany. "S-Bahn" is the German abbreviation for stadtschnellbahn , and the Munich S-Bahn exhibits characteristics of both rapid transit and commuter rail systems.The Munich S-Bahn network is operated by S-Bahn München, a subsidiary...

 (S2) and Deutsche Bahn
Deutsche Bahn
Deutsche Bahn AG is the German national railway company, a private joint stock company . Headquartered in Berlin, it came into existence in 1994 as the successor to the former state railways of Germany, the Deutsche Bundesbahn of West Germany and the Deutsche Reichsbahn of East Germany...

 via Dachau railway station located in the South of the town. The station is also annexed to the central bus terminal. The town is also served by Dachau Stadt Railway Station which serves the local A line with the rural vicinity. There are five bus lines which are operated by Stadtwerke Dachau: 719, 720, 722, 724 and 726. There is no tramway transport.

Dachau has a well-developed road infrastructure for regional transportation. The city is connected to Bundesautobahn 8
Bundesautobahn 8
is an autobahn in southern Germany that runs 497 km from the Luxembourg A13 motorway at Schengen via Neunkirchen, Pirmasens, Karlsruhe, Stuttgart, Ulm, Augsburg and Munich to the Austrian West Autobahn near Salzburg....

 (via Fürstenfeldbruck) with Munich-Pasing
Pasing
Pasing is a district in the city of Munich, Germany and part of the borough Pasing-Obermenzing.-Overview:Pasing is located west of the Munich city centre, at the north-western edge of the city's innermost traffic zone. The district is mainly residential; there is a large concentration of shops,...

 southbound, and westbound terminating in Karlsruhe
Karlsruhe
The City of Karlsruhe is a city in the southwest of Germany, in the state of Baden-Württemberg, located near the French-German border.Karlsruhe was founded in 1715 as Karlsruhe Palace, when Germany was a series of principalities and city states...

. Dachau is connected to Bundesautobahn 92
Bundesautobahn 92
The connects Munich with Deggendorf, and is 134 kilometers long. Between the interchange Neufahrn and the interchange Munich Airport it has three lanes, otherwise two with a shoulder...

 via Oberschleißheim
Oberschleißheim
Oberschleißheim is a municipality in the district of Munich, in Bavaria, Germany. It is located 13 km north of Munich . As of 2005 it had a population of 11,467....

 connector which is located east of Dachau. Bundesautobahn 99
Bundesautobahn 99
- History :A ring Autobahn round Munich was planned in 1938, but war intervened and construction was deferred. Sections of the road were constructed to the north and east of the city in the 1960s and 1970s, following a route significantly further from the city centre than the ring planned in the...

 is connected with Dachau via Karlsfeld which is located south of Dachau. Bundesstraße
Bundesstraße
Bundesstraße , abbreviated B, is the denotation for German and Austrian national highways.-Germany:...

 No. 471 (via Rothschwaige) connects eastbound towns such as the neighboring city Fürstenfeldbruck and westbound towns such as Oberschleißheim. Bundesstraße No. 304 starts in the south of the city and connects southbound towns until the German-Austrian border. Additionally, several Staatsstraßen connect Dachau with surrounding towns and villages.

Sights

  • Dachau Palace: A medieval castle which became the favourite residence of the Bavarian dukes in the 16th century. It was renovated into an enormous four-wing complex. Only one wing exists today.
  • Palace garden: a landscape garden.
  • Church of St Jakob (St James), built in the 17th century (Stadtpfarrkirche)
  • Old town
  • Town hall
  • Dachauer Moos: a wetland area.
  • Church of St Nicolas, Mitterndorf (1496)
  • Dachau Concentration Camp memorial Site: Dachau is best known for its proximity to the relatively well-preserved site of the infamous Dachau concentration camp, the first large-scale concentration camp
    Nazi concentration camps
    Nazi Germany maintained concentration camps throughout the territories it controlled. The first Nazi concentration camps set up in Germany were greatly expanded after the Reichstag fire of 1933, and were intended to hold political prisoners and opponents of the regime...

     in Germany, converted from an old gunpowder factory by the Nazi regime in 1933.

International relations

Dachau is twinned
Town twinning
Twin towns and sister cities are two of many terms used to describe the cooperative agreements between towns, cities, and even counties in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties.- Terminology :...

 with: Klagenfurt
Klagenfurt
-Name:Carinthia's eminent linguists Primus Lessiak and Eberhard Kranzmayer assumed that the city's name, which literally translates as "ford of lament" or "ford of complaints", had something to do with the superstitious thought that fateful fairies or demons tend to live around treacherous waters...

, Austria
Austria
Austria , officially the Republic of Austria , is a landlocked country of roughly 8.4 million people in Central Europe. It is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north, Slovakia and Hungary to the east, Slovenia and Italy to the south, and Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the...

 Comune di Fondi
Fondi
Fondi is a city and comune in the province of Latina, Lazio, central Italy, halfway between Rome and Naples. Before the construction of the highway between the latter cities in the late 1950s, Fondi had been an important settlement on the Roman Via Appia, which was the main connection from Rome to...

, Italy
Italy
Italy , officially the Italian Republic languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Italy's official name is as follows:;;;;;;;;), is a unitary parliamentary republic in South-Central Europe. To the north it borders France, Switzerland, Austria and...

 Tervuren
Tervuren
Tervuren is a municipality in the province of Flemish Brabant, in Flanders, one of the three regions of Belgium. The municipality comprises the villages of Duisburg, Tervuren, Vossem and Moorsel. On January 1, 2006, Tervuren had a total population of 20,636...

, Belgium
Belgium
Belgium , officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a federal state in Western Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts the EU's headquarters, and those of several other major international organisations such as NATO.Belgium is also a member of, or affiliated to, many...



Dachau is a member of Euroart, the European Federation of Artists' Colonies.

Literature

  • Hans-Günther Richardi: Dachauer Zeitgeschichtsführer. Stadt Dachau, Dachau 1998

External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
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