DIN 31635
DIN 31635 is a Deutsches Institut für Normung (DIN)
Deutsches Institut für Normung
is the German national organization for standardization and is that country's ISO member body. DIN is a Registered German Association headquartered in Berlin...

 standard for the transliteration
Transliteration is a subset of the science of hermeneutics. It is a form of translation, and is the practice of converting a text from one script into another...

 of the Arabic alphabet
Arabic alphabet
The Arabic alphabet or Arabic abjad is the Arabic script as it is codified for writing the Arabic language. It is written from right to left, in a cursive style, and includes 28 letters. Because letters usually stand for consonants, it is classified as an abjad.-Consonants:The Arabic alphabet has...

 adopted in 1982. It is based on the rules of the Deutsche Morgenländische Gesellschaft (DMG)
Deutsche Morgenländische Gesellschaft
The Deutsche Morgenländische Gesellschaft , in English the German Oriental Society, is a scholarly organization dedicated to studies of Asia and the broader Orient....

 as modified by the International Orientalist Congress 1936 in Rome. (The most important change was doing away with “j
Ĵ or ĵ is a letter in Esperanto orthography representing the sound .While Esperanto orthography uses a diacritic for its four postalveolar consonants, as do the Latin-based Slavic alphabets, the base letters are Romano-Germanic...

”, because it stood for dʒ in the English speaking world and for j in the German speaking world.) Its acceptance relies less on its official status than on its elegance (one sign for each Arabic letter) and the Geschichte der arabischen Literatur manuscript catalogue of Carl Brockelmann
Carl Brockelmann
Carl Brockelmann , German Semiticist, was the foremost orientalist of his generation. He was a professor at the universities in Breslau, Berlin and, from 1903, Königsberg...

 and the dictionary of Hans Wehr
Hans Wehr
Hans Wehr was a German Arabist. A professor at the University of Münster from 1957-1974, he published the Arabisches Wörterbuch , which was later published in an English edition as A Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic, edited by J Milton Cowan. For the dictionary Wehr created a transliteration...

The 28 letters:

Arabic letters ‎ / /
DIN 31635 / b t d r z s f q k l m n h w / ū
U is the twenty-first letter and a vowel in the basic modern Latin alphabet.-History:The letter U ultimately comes from the Semitic letter Waw by way of the letter Y. See the letter Y for details....

y / ī
I is the ninth letter and a vowel in the basic modern Latin alphabet.-History:In Semitic, the letter may have originated in a hieroglyph for an arm that represented a voiced pharyngeal fricative in Egyptian, but was reassigned to by Semites, because their word for "arm" began with that sound...

ALA-LC Romanization
ALA-LC is a set of standards for romanization, or the representation of text in other writing systems using the Latin alphabet. The initials stand for American Library Association - Library of Congress....

[[ʼ]] / ā th j kh dh sh [[ʻ]] gh
Literary Arabic
Modern Standard Arabic , Standard Arabic, or Literary Arabic is the standard and literary variety of Arabic used in writing and in most formal speech....

ʔ, aː b t θ
ħ x d ð r z s ʃ ðˤ
ʕ ɣ f q k l m n h w, uː j, iː

The , , and are transliterated as , , . A results in a geminate (consonant written twice), except in the case of the article, which is written with “sun letters” assimilated ().
An marking /aː/ is transliterated as . as word-final or .
has many variants: depending on its position, all of which are transliterated as . The initial () without a isn't transliterated using initially, only the initial vowel is transliterated (if pronounced): .
appears as , transliterating it indistinguishable from .
Long vowels /iː/ and /uː/ are transliterated as and . The suffix /ij(j), ijja/ appears as although the male version (the former one) is normally transliterated as , the nunation is ignored in transliteration. A hyphen is used to separate morphological elements, notably the article and prepositions.

The "Arabic-Indic numerals" in use with the Arabic script are rendered as western "Arabic numerals
Arabic numerals
Arabic numerals or Hindu numerals or Hindu-Arabic numerals or Indo-Arabic numerals are the ten digits . They are descended from the Hindu-Arabic numeral system developed by Indian mathematicians, in which a sequence of digits such as "975" is read as a numeral...

" .

See also

  • Arabic transliteration
    Arabic transliteration
    Different approaches and methods for the romanization of Arabic exist. They vary in the way that they address the inherent problems of rendering written and spoken Arabic in the Latin alphabet; they also use different symbols for Arabic phonemes that do not exist in English or other European...

  • ISO 233
    ISO 233
    The international standard ISO 233 establishes a system for Arabic transliteration . It has been completed by ISO 233-2 in 1993.- 1984 edition :The table below shows the consonants for the Arabic language.- ISO 233-2:1993 :...

  • WP:IPA for Arabic
  • Arabic phonology
    Arabic phonology
    While many languages have numerous dialects that differ in pronunciation, the Arabic language is more properly described as a continuum of varieties. This article deals primarily with Modern Standard Arabic, which is the standard variety shared by educated speakers throughout Arabic-speaking regions...

External links

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