Civil service reform in developing countries
Civil service
Civil service
The term civil service has two distinct meanings:* A branch of governmental service in which individuals are employed on the basis of professional merit as proven by competitive examinations....

Reform means to put or change into an improved form or condition; to amend or improve by change of color or removal of faults or abuses, beneficial change, more specifically, reversion to a pure original state, to repair, restore or to correct....

 is a deliberate action to improve the efficiency, effectiveness, professionalism, representativity and democratic character of a civil service
Civil service
The term civil service has two distinct meanings:* A branch of governmental service in which individuals are employed on the basis of professional merit as proven by competitive examinations....

, with a view to promoting better delivery of public goods and services, with increased accountability
Accountability is a concept in ethics and governance with several meanings. It is often used synonymously with such concepts as responsibility, answerability, blameworthiness, liability, and other terms associated with the expectation of account-giving...

. Such actions can include data gathering and analysis, organizational restructuring
Restructuring is the corporate management term for the act of reorganizing the legal, ownership, operational, or other structures of a company for the purpose of making it more profitable, or better organized for its present needs...

, improving human resource management
Human resource management
Human Resource Management is the management of an organization's employees. While human resource management is sometimes referred to as a "soft" management skill, effective practice within an organization requires a strategic focus to ensure that people resources can facilitate the achievement of...

 and training
The term training refers to the acquisition of knowledge, skills, and competencies as a result of the teaching of vocational or practical skills and knowledge that relate to specific useful competencies. It forms the core of apprenticeships and provides the backbone of content at institutes of...

, enhancing pay and benefits
Employee benefit
Employee benefits and benefits in kind are various non-wage compensations provided to employees in addition to their normal wages or salaries...

 while assuring sustainability
Sustainability is the capacity to endure. For humans, sustainability is the long-term maintenance of well being, which has environmental, economic, and social dimensions, and encompasses the concept of union, an interdependent relationship and mutual responsible position with all living and non...

 under overall fiscal
"Finance" is often defined simply as the management of money or “funds” management Modern finance, however, is a family of business activity that includes the origination, marketing, and management of cash and money surrogates through a variety of capital accounts, instruments, and markets created...

 constraints, and strengthening measures for public participation
Public participation
Public participation is a political principle or practice, and may also be recognised as a right . The terms public participation may be used interchangeably with the concept or practice of stakeholder engagement and/or popular participation.Generally public participation seeks and facilitates the...

, transparency, and combating corruption
Political corruption
Political corruption is the use of legislated powers by government officials for illegitimate private gain. Misuse of government power for other purposes, such as repression of political opponents and general police brutality, is not considered political corruption. Neither are illegal acts by...


Important differences between developing countries and developed countries require that civil service
Civil service
The term civil service has two distinct meanings:* A branch of governmental service in which individuals are employed on the basis of professional merit as proven by competitive examinations....

 and other reforms first rolled out in developed countries be carefully adapted to local conditions in developing countries.

Data and Diagnostics

  • Abdollahian, Mark, Michael Baranick, Brian Efird, and Jacek Kugler, 2006. Senturion A Predictive Political Simulation Model. Center for Technology and National Security Policy. National Defense University .
  • Global Integrity, 2007. Global Integrity Report.
  • International Budget Project, 2006. Open Budget Initiative. Washington, DC.
  • Hood, Christopher, Craig Beeston and Ruth Dixon. 2007. "Rating the Rankings: Assessing International Rankings of Public Service Performance". Paper prepared for the IPMN Workshop, ‘Ranking and Rating Public Services’, Worcester College, Oxford, 7-9 August 2007
  • Polimap, undated. PolicyMaker 2.3 Software Computer-Assisted Political Analysis.
  • Transparency International, 2007. Corruption Perceptions Index.
  • Wescott, C. 2003, “Measuring Governance in the Asia Pacific Region and its relevance for tax administrators”, in Asia-Pacific Tax Bulletin (APTB), Vol 9, No. 2, February 2003
  • World Bank, 2008. Governance Matters.
  • World Bank, 2007. “Actionable Governance Indicators”.
  • World Bank, 2007. Country Policy And Institutional Assessments 2007 Assessment Questionnaire, pp. 39-40.
  • World Bank. 2005. Public Financial Management—Performance Measurement Framework. Washington: PEFA Secretariat.
  • World Bank, 2002. Monitoring Comprehensive Reform Programs: The example of Albania.

Structure of the Public Sector

  • OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development). 1996. "Civil Service Legislation Contents Checklist." SIGMA Papers No. 5. Paris:
  • OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development). 1996. "Civil Service Legislation: Checklist On Secondary Legislation (and other Regulatory Instruments)" SIGMA Papers No. 14. Paris: OECD/SIGMA.
  • Schiavo-Campo, Salvatore and Hazel M. McFerson, 2008. Public Management in Global Perspective. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, pp. 70-123 .
  • Clay G Wescott 2006. “Decentralization Policy and Practice in Viet Nam: 1991-2001”, in Paul Smoke, Eduardo Gomez and George Peterson, eds. Decentralization in Asia and Latin America: A Comparative Interdisciplinary Perspective, Edward Elgar Press, Northampton, Mass.
  • Clay G Wescott 2005. "Improving Road Administration in the Asia-Pacific Region: some Lessons from Experience" in Kidd J B & Richter F-J (eds). Infrastructure and Productivity in Asia: Political, Financial, Physical and Intellectual Capital underpinnings, Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 123-43.
  • Wilson, James Q, 1989. Bureaucracy. NY: Basic Books, pp. 154-75.
  • World Bank, 2000. Architecture of the Public Sector.

Personnel Management

  • Victor Lapuente and Marina Nistotskaya, "To The Short-Sighted Victor Belong the Spoils: Politics and Merit Adoption in Comparative Perspective," Governance 22.3 (July 2009): 431-458
  • Hood, C. and G. Peters, with G.O.M. Lee, eds. 2003. Reward For High Public Office: Asian And Pacific Rim States, London: Taylor and Francis (Routledge).,
  • Mintzberg, Henry. 1996. “Managing Government, Governing Management”. Harvard Business Review. May-June.;jsessionid=2MVAO11O42FL0AKRGWCB5VQBKE0YOISW?id=96306&referral=2340
  • Perry, James L and Annie Hondeghem, eds. 2008. “Symposium on Public Service Motivation.” International Public Management Journal, 11 (1), pp. 3-167.
  • Rath, Tom, 2007. Strengths Finder 2.0. NY: Gallup Press.
  • Schiavo-Campo, Salvatore and Hazel M. McFerson, 2008. Public Management in Global Perspective. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, pp. 175-247, 293-322.
  • Clay G Wescott. and Brinkerhoff, J. (eds), 2006. Converting Migration Drains into Gains Harnessing the Resources of Overseas Professionals. Manila: Asian Development Bank.
  • Clay G Wescott 2006. "Adapting Asia - Pacific Public Administration to a Globalizing World: Some Lessons From Experience", in Ali Farazmand and Jack
  • Pinkowski, eds. Handbook of Globalization, Governance, and Public Administration. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Taylor and Francis: 491-518.
  • World Bank, 2008. Using Training to Build Capacity for Development. Independent Evaluation Group. Washington, DC: World Bank.
  • World Bank, 2000. Personnel Management.

Combating Corruption

  • Bräutigam, D. & Knack, S. 2004. “Foreign Aid, Institutions, and Governance in Sub-Saharan Africa.” Economic Development and Cultural Change, Volume 52, Number 2, January.
  • Campos, J. Edgardo and Sanjay Pradhan, 2007. The Many Faces of Corruption. Washington, DC: World Bank.
  • Ear, Sophal. 2007. "Does Aid Dependence Worsen Governance?" International Public Management Journal, 10 (3): 259–286.
  • Wescott, C. 2003. “Combating Corruption in Southeast Asia”, in Kidd J B & Richter F-J, eds. Fighting Corruption In Asia: Causes, Effects and Remedies. Singapore, World Scientific Press,
  • Robert Williams and Robin Theobald, Eds. 1986. The Politics of Corruption (4 vol). Northampton, Mass.: Elgar Reference Collection.

Issues for Reform

  • Batley, Richard and George A. Larbi, 2004. Changing Role of Government The Reform of Public Services in Developing Countries. Basingstoke Hampshire (UK): Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Cheung, Anthony B. L., 2005. "The Politics of Administrative Reforms in Asia: Paradigms and Legacies, Paths and Diversities". Governance April 2005 - Vol. 18 Issue 2: 257-282.
  • Jenkins, Kate and William Plowden, 2006. Governance and Nationbuilding: the failure of international intervention. Northampton, Mass.: Edward Elgar.
  • Pollitt, Christopher, and Geert Bouchaert. 2004. Public Management Reform: A Comparative Analysis. Revised edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.,M1
  • Schedler, Kuno and Isabella Proeller, eds. 2007. Cultural Aspects of Public Management reform. Amsterdam: Elsevier JAI.
  • Schick, Allen. 1998. ‘Why most developing countries should not try New Zealand’s reforms’, The World Bank Research Observer, 13(1):123–31.
  • Clay G Wescott 2007. “E-Government And The Applications Of Technology To Government Services” in Dennis A. Rondinelli and John M. Heffron, eds. Globalization In Transition: Forces Of Adjustment In The Asia Pacific Region. Boulder, Colorado: Lynne Reinner.
  • Clay G Wescott 1999. Guiding principles on civil service reform in Africa: an empirical review. The International Journal of Public Sector Management. Volume 12, Number 2 (Online). Available:
  • World Bank, 2008. Public Sector Reform: What Works and Why? An IEG Evaluation of World Bank Support.
  • World Bank, 2000. “Common Problems”.

Engaging support for reform

  • Bentley, Arthur Fisher, 1908. The Process of Government; a Study of Social Pressures: A Study of Social Pressures. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • Norma M. Riccucci
    Norma M. Riccucci
    Norma M. Riccucci is a Professor of Public Administration at the School of Public Affairs and Administration at Rutgers University in Newark. She is a scholar in the field of Public Administration. An authority on issues related to affirmative action and public management, Dr...

     and Frank J. Thompson, 2008. “The New public management, homeland security and the politics of civil service reform” Public Administration Review. September/October: 877-890.
  • Clay G Wescott, 2003. “In Asia, the Web is routing Power to the People”, International Herald Tribune, October 29.
  • World Bank, 2000. Engaging Support for reform.
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