Civil Air Patrol
Overview
 
Civil Air Patrol is a Congressionally
United States Congress
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the federal government of the United States, consisting of the Senate and the House of Representatives. The Congress meets in the United States Capitol in Washington, D.C....

 chartered, federally supported, non-profit
Nonprofit organization
Nonprofit organization is neither a legal nor technical definition but generally refers to an organization that uses surplus revenues to achieve its goals, rather than distributing them as profit or dividends...

 corporation that serves as the official civilian auxiliary
Auxiliaries
An auxiliary force is a group affiliated with, but not part of, a military or police organization. In some cases, auxiliaries are armed forces operating in the same manner as regular soldiers...

 of the United States Air Force
United States Air Force
The United States Air Force is the aerial warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the American uniformed services. Initially part of the United States Army, the USAF was formed as a separate branch of the military on September 18, 1947 under the National Security Act of...

 (USAF). CAP is a volunteer
Volunteering
Volunteering is generally considered an altruistic activity, intended to promote good or improve human quality of life, but people also volunteer for their own skill development, to meet others, to make contacts for possible employment, to have fun, and a variety of other reasons that could be...

 organization with an aviation-minded membership that includes people from all backgrounds, lifestyles, and occupations. It performs three congressionally assigned key missions: emergency service
Emergency service
Emergency services are organizations which ensure public safety and health by addressing different emergencies. Some agencies exist solely for addressing certain types of emergencies whilst others deal with ad hoc emergencies as part of their normal responsibilities...

s, which includes search and rescue
Search and rescue
Search and rescue is the search for and provision of aid to people who are in distress or imminent danger.The general field of search and rescue includes many specialty sub-fields, mostly based upon terrain considerations...

 (by air and ground) and disaster relief
Emergency management
Emergency management is the generic name of an interdisciplinary field dealing with the strategic organizational management processes used to protect critical assets of an organization from hazard risks that can cause events like disasters or catastrophes and to ensure the continuance of the...

 operations; aerospace
Aerospace
Aerospace comprises the atmosphere of Earth and surrounding space. Typically the term is used to refer to the industry that researches, designs, manufactures, operates, and maintains vehicles moving through air and space...

 education for youth and the general public; and cadet programs for teenage youth.
Encyclopedia
Civil Air Patrol is a Congressionally
United States Congress
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the federal government of the United States, consisting of the Senate and the House of Representatives. The Congress meets in the United States Capitol in Washington, D.C....

 chartered, federally supported, non-profit
Nonprofit organization
Nonprofit organization is neither a legal nor technical definition but generally refers to an organization that uses surplus revenues to achieve its goals, rather than distributing them as profit or dividends...

 corporation that serves as the official civilian auxiliary
Auxiliaries
An auxiliary force is a group affiliated with, but not part of, a military or police organization. In some cases, auxiliaries are armed forces operating in the same manner as regular soldiers...

 of the United States Air Force
United States Air Force
The United States Air Force is the aerial warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the American uniformed services. Initially part of the United States Army, the USAF was formed as a separate branch of the military on September 18, 1947 under the National Security Act of...

 (USAF). CAP is a volunteer
Volunteering
Volunteering is generally considered an altruistic activity, intended to promote good or improve human quality of life, but people also volunteer for their own skill development, to meet others, to make contacts for possible employment, to have fun, and a variety of other reasons that could be...

 organization with an aviation-minded membership that includes people from all backgrounds, lifestyles, and occupations. It performs three congressionally assigned key missions: emergency service
Emergency service
Emergency services are organizations which ensure public safety and health by addressing different emergencies. Some agencies exist solely for addressing certain types of emergencies whilst others deal with ad hoc emergencies as part of their normal responsibilities...

s, which includes search and rescue
Search and rescue
Search and rescue is the search for and provision of aid to people who are in distress or imminent danger.The general field of search and rescue includes many specialty sub-fields, mostly based upon terrain considerations...

 (by air and ground) and disaster relief
Emergency management
Emergency management is the generic name of an interdisciplinary field dealing with the strategic organizational management processes used to protect critical assets of an organization from hazard risks that can cause events like disasters or catastrophes and to ensure the continuance of the...

 operations; aerospace
Aerospace
Aerospace comprises the atmosphere of Earth and surrounding space. Typically the term is used to refer to the industry that researches, designs, manufactures, operates, and maintains vehicles moving through air and space...

 education for youth and the general public; and cadet programs for teenage youth. In addition, CAP has recently been tasked with homeland security
Homeland security
Homeland security is an umbrella term for security efforts to protect states against terrorist activity. Specifically, is a concerted national effort to prevent terrorist attacks within the U.S., reduce America’s vulnerability to terrorism, and minimize the damage and recover from attacks that do...

 and courier service missions. CAP also performs non-auxiliary missions for various governmental and private agencies, such as local law enforcement and the American Red Cross
American Red Cross
The American Red Cross , also known as the American National Red Cross, is a volunteer-led, humanitarian organization that provides emergency assistance, disaster relief and education inside the United States. It is the designated U.S...

. The program is established as an organization by Title 10 of the United States Code
Title 10 of the United States Code
Title 10 of the United States Code outlines the role of armed forces in the United States Code.It provides the legal basis for the roles, missions and organization of each of the services as well as the United States Department of Defense...

 and its purposes defined by Title 36
Title 36 of the United States Code
Title 36 of the United States Code outlines the role of Patriotic Societies and Observances in the United States Code.*Subtitle I—Patriotic and National Observances and Ceremonies*Subtitle II—Patriotic and National Organizations...

. While CAP is sponsored by the USAF, it is not an operating reserve component
Military reserve force
A military reserve force is a military organization composed of citizens of a country who combine a military role or career with a civilian career. They are not normally kept under arms and their main role is to be available to fight when a nation mobilizes for total war or to defend against invasion...

 under the Air Force or the federal government. Since CAP is not a reserve component of a uniformed service
Uniformed services of the United States
The United States has seven federal uniformed services that commission officers as defined by Title 10, and subsequently structured and organized by Title 10, Title 14, Title 33 and Title 42 of the United States Code.-Uniformed services:...

 of the military and its membership is made up of volunteer civilians, CAP members are not subject to the laws governed by the Uniform Code of Military Justice
Uniform Code of Military Justice
The Uniform Code of Military Justice , is the foundation of military law in the United States. It is was established by the United States Congress in accordance with the authority given by the United States Constitution in Article I, Section 8, which provides that "The Congress shall have Power . ....

.

Membership in the organization consists of cadets ranging from 12 to 20 years of age, and senior members 18 years of age and up. These two groups each have the opportunity to participate in a wide variety of pursuits; the Cadet program contributes to the development of the former group with a structured syllabus and an organization based upon United States Air Force ranks and pay grades, while the older members serve as instructors, supervisors, and operators. All members wear uniforms while performing their duties.

Nationwide, CAP is a major operator of single-engine general aviation
General aviation
General aviation is one of the two categories of civil aviation. It refers to all flights other than military and scheduled airline and regular cargo flights, both private and commercial. General aviation flights range from gliders and powered parachutes to large, non-scheduled cargo jet flights...

 aircraft
Aircraft
An aircraft is a vehicle that is able to fly by gaining support from the air, or, in general, the atmosphere of a planet. An aircraft counters the force of gravity by using either static lift or by using the dynamic lift of an airfoil, or in a few cases the downward thrust from jet engines.Although...

, used in the execution of its various missions, including orientation flights for cadets and the provision of significant emergency services capabilities. Because of these extensive flying opportunities, many CAP members become licensed pilots
Aviator
An aviator is a person who flies an aircraft. The first recorded use of the term was in 1887, as a variation of 'aviation', from the Latin avis , coined in 1863 by G. de la Landelle in Aviation Ou Navigation Aérienne...

.

The hierarchical and military auxiliary organization is headed by the National Headquarters (with authority over the national organization) followed by eight regional commands and 52 wings (each of the 50 states plus Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, "the District", or simply D.C., is the capital of the United States. On July 16, 1790, the United States Congress approved the creation of a permanent national capital as permitted by the U.S. Constitution....

 and Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico , officially the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico , is an unincorporated territory of the United States, located in the northeastern Caribbean, east of the Dominican Republic and west of both the United States Virgin Islands and the British Virgin Islands.Puerto Rico comprises an...

). Each wing supervises the individual groups and squadrons that comprise the basic operational unit of the organization.

History

Civil Air Patrol was conceived in the late 1930s by aviation advocate Gill Robb Wilson
Gill Robb Wilson
Gill Robb Wilson was an American pilot, Presbyterian minister, and military advocate.-Early life:Wilson was born in Clarion County, Pennsylvania to the Rev. Gill Irwin Wilson and Amanda E...

, who foresaw general aviation's potential to supplement America's military operations. With the help of New York Mayor Fiorello H. LaGuardia
Fiorello H. LaGuardia
Fiorello Henry LaGuardia was Mayor of New York for three terms from 1934 to 1945 as a liberal Republican. Previously he was elected to Congress in 1916 and 1918, and again from 1922 through 1930. Irascible, energetic and charismatic, he craved publicity and is acclaimed as one of the three or...

, in his capacity as then-Director of the Office of Civilian Defense
Office of Civilian Defense
Office of Civilian Defense was a United States federal emergency war agency set up May 20, 1941 by Executive Order 8757 to co-ordinate state and federal measures for protection of civilians in case of war emergency...

, CAP was created with Administrative Order 9, signed by LaGuardia on 1 December 1941 and published 8 December 1941. Major General John F. Curry
John F. Curry
Major General John Francis Curry was the first national commander of the Civil Air Patrol, the United States Air Force Auxiliary. He was also a Major General in the United States Army Air Corps.-Biography:...

 was appointed as the first National Commander.

During World War II, CAP was seen as a way to use America's civilian aviation resources to aid the war effort instead of grounding them. The organization assumed many missions including anti-submarine patrol and warfare
Anti-submarine warfare
Anti-submarine warfare is a branch of naval warfare that uses surface warships, aircraft, or other submarines to find, track and deter, damage or destroy enemy submarines....

, border patrols
Border guard
The border guard, frontier guard, border patrol, border police, or frontier police of a country is a national security agency that performs border control, i.e., enforces the security of the country's national borders....

, and courier
Courier
A courier is a person or a company who delivers messages, packages, and mail. Couriers are distinguished from ordinary mail services by features such as speed, security, tracking, signature, specialization and individualization of express services, and swift delivery times, which are optional for...

 services. During World War II CAP's coastal patrol had flown 24 million miles, found 173 enemy U-boat
U-boat
U-boat is the anglicized version of the German word U-Boot , itself an abbreviation of Unterseeboot , and refers to military submarines operated by Germany, particularly in World War I and World War II...

s, attacked 57, hit 10 and sank two, dropping a total of 83 bombs and depth charges throughout the conflict. By the end of the war, 64 CAP members had lost their lives in the line of duty.

After the end of World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

, CAP became the civilian auxiliary of the United States Air Force, and its incorporating charter declared that it would never again be involved in direct combat activities, but would be of a benevolent nature. The "supervisory" USAF organization overseeing CAP has changed several times. This has included the former Continental Air Command
Continental Air Command
Continental Air Command was a Major Command of the United States Air Force responsible primarily for administering the Air National Guard and Air Force Reserve.-Lineage:...

 in 1959, the former Headquarters Command, USAF in 1968, to the Air University (AU) in 1976. Following Air University's reassignment as a subordinate command to the Air Education and Training Command
Air Education and Training Command
Air Education and Training Command was established July 1, 1993, with the realignment of Air Training Command and Air University. It is one of the U.S. Air Force's ten major commands and reports to Headquarters, United States Air Force....

 (AETC) in 1993, USAF oversight of CAP has flowed from AETC at the 4-star level, to AU at the 3-star level, to AU's Jeanne M. Holm Center for Officer Accessions and Citizen Development at the 1-star level, to a subordinate unit of the Holm Center, Civil Air Patrol-U.S. Air Force, at the Colonel (O-6) level. Since its incorporation charter, CAP has maintained its relationship with the USAF, and has continued its three congressionally mandated missions.

Missions

Civil Air Patrol has three congressionally mandated missions: Emergency Services, Aerospace Education and the Cadet Program.

Emergency Services

Civil Air Patrol covers several Emergency Services areas. The principal categories include search and rescue
Search and rescue
Search and rescue is the search for and provision of aid to people who are in distress or imminent danger.The general field of search and rescue includes many specialty sub-fields, mostly based upon terrain considerations...

 missions, disaster relief, humanitarian services, and Air Force
United States Air Force
The United States Air Force is the aerial warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the American uniformed services. Initially part of the United States Army, the USAF was formed as a separate branch of the military on September 18, 1947 under the National Security Act of...

 support. Other services, such as homeland security
Homeland security
Homeland security is an umbrella term for security efforts to protect states against terrorist activity. Specifically, is a concerted national effort to prevent terrorist attacks within the U.S., reduce America’s vulnerability to terrorism, and minimize the damage and recover from attacks that do...

 and actions against drug-trafficking
War on Drugs
The War on Drugs is a campaign of prohibition and foreign military aid and military intervention being undertaken by the United States government, with the assistance of participating countries, intended to both define and reduce the illegal drug trade...

 operations, are becoming increasingly important.

Civil Air Patrol is well-known for its search activities in conjunction with search and rescue (SAR) operations. CAP is involved with approximately three quarters of inland SAR missions directed by the United States Air Force Rescue Coordination Center at Tyndall Air Force Base
Tyndall Air Force Base
Tyndall Air Force Base is a United States Air Force Base located east of Panama City, Florida. The base was named in honor of World War I pilot 1st Lt Frank Benjamin Tyndall...

, Florida
Florida
Florida is a state in the southeastern United States, located on the nation's Atlantic and Gulf coasts. It is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the north by Alabama and Georgia and to the east by the Atlantic Ocean. With a population of 18,801,310 as measured by the 2010 census, it...

. Outside of the continental United States, CAP directly supports the Joint Rescue Coordination Centers
Joint Rescue Coordination Centers
The National Search and Rescue Plan or National SAR Plan is a policy document of the Federal government of the United States that establishes the responsibilities for search and rescue within the United States....

 in Alaska
Alaska
Alaska is the largest state in the United States by area. It is situated in the northwest extremity of the North American continent, with Canada to the east, the Arctic Ocean to the north, and the Pacific Ocean to the west and south, with Russia further west across the Bering Strait...

, Hawaii
Hawaii
Hawaii is the newest of the 50 U.S. states , and is the only U.S. state made up entirely of islands. It is the northernmost island group in Polynesia, occupying most of an archipelago in the central Pacific Ocean, southwest of the continental United States, southeast of Japan, and northeast of...

, and Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico , officially the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico , is an unincorporated territory of the United States, located in the northeastern Caribbean, east of the Dominican Republic and west of both the United States Virgin Islands and the British Virgin Islands.Puerto Rico comprises an...

. CAP is credited with saving an average of 100 lives per year.

CAP is active in disaster relief operations, especially in areas such as Florida
Florida
Florida is a state in the southeastern United States, located on the nation's Atlantic and Gulf coasts. It is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the north by Alabama and Georgia and to the east by the Atlantic Ocean. With a population of 18,801,310 as measured by the 2010 census, it...

, Mississippi
Mississippi
Mississippi is a U.S. state located in the Southern United States. Jackson is the state capital and largest city. The name of the state derives from the Mississippi River, which flows along its western boundary, whose name comes from the Ojibwe word misi-ziibi...

 and Louisiana
Louisiana
Louisiana is a state located in the southern region of the United States of America. Its capital is Baton Rouge and largest city is New Orleans. Louisiana is the only state in the U.S. with political subdivisions termed parishes, which are local governments equivalent to counties...

 that are frequently struck by hurricanes. CAP aircrews and ground personnel provide transportation for cargo and officials, aerial imagery to aid emergency managers in assessing damage, and donations of personnel and equipment to local, state and federal disaster relief organizations during times of need. In 2004
2004 Atlantic hurricane season
The 2004 Atlantic hurricane season officially began on June 1, 2004, and lasted until November 30, 2004. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Atlantic basin...

, several hurricanes hit the southeast coast of the United States, with Florida being the worst damaged; CAP was instrumental in providing help to affected areas.

Civil Air Patrol conducts humanitarian
Humanitarianism
In its most general form, humanitarianism is an ethic of kindness, benevolence and sympathy extended universally and impartially to all human beings. Humanitarianism has been an evolving concept historically but universality is a common element in its evolution...

 service missions, usually in support of the Red Cross
International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement
The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement is an international humanitarian movement with approximately 97 million volunteers, members and staff worldwide which was founded to protect human life and health, to ensure respect for all human beings, and to prevent and alleviate human...

. CAP aircrews transport time-sensitive medical materials, including blood
Blood
Blood is a specialized bodily fluid in animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells....

 and human tissue
Tissue (biology)
Tissue is a cellular organizational level intermediate between cells and a complete organism. A tissue is an ensemble of cells, not necessarily identical, but from the same origin, that together carry out a specific function. These are called tissues because of their identical functioning...

, when other means of transportation (such as ambulance
Ambulance
An ambulance is a vehicle for transportation of sick or injured people to, from or between places of treatment for an illness or injury, and in some instances will also provide out of hospital medical care to the patient...

s) are not practical or possible. Following the September 11 attacks on the World Trade Center
World Trade Center
The original World Trade Center was a complex with seven buildings featuring landmark twin towers in Lower Manhattan, New York City, United States. The complex opened on April 4, 1973, and was destroyed in 2001 during the September 11 attacks. The site is currently being rebuilt with five new...

 in New York City
New York City
New York is the most populous city in the United States and the center of the New York Metropolitan Area, one of the most populous metropolitan areas in the world. New York exerts a significant impact upon global commerce, finance, media, art, fashion, research, technology, education, and...

 when all general aviation
General aviation
General aviation is one of the two categories of civil aviation. It refers to all flights other than military and scheduled airline and regular cargo flights, both private and commercial. General aviation flights range from gliders and powered parachutes to large, non-scheduled cargo jet flights...

 was grounded, one of the first planes to fly over the destroyed World Trade Center was a CAP aircraft taking photographs.

CAP performs several missions that are not combat-related in support of the United States Air Force
United States Air Force
The United States Air Force is the aerial warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the American uniformed services. Initially part of the United States Army, the USAF was formed as a separate branch of the military on September 18, 1947 under the National Security Act of...

, including damage assessment, transportation of officials, communications support and low-altitude route surveys.

As a humanitarian service organization, CAP assists federal, state and local agencies in preparing for and responding to homeland security needs. In particular, the CAP fleet is used in training exercises to prepare USAF pilots to intercept enemy aircraft over the Continental United States. Civil Air Patrol aircraft are flown into restricted airspace, where Air Force F-16 Fighting Falcon
F-16 Fighting Falcon
The General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon is a multirole jet fighter aircraft originally developed by General Dynamics for the United States Air Force . Designed as an air superiority day fighter, it evolved into a successful all-weather multirole aircraft. Over 4,400 aircraft have been built since...

 and F-15 Eagle
F-15 Eagle
The McDonnell Douglas F-15 Eagle is a twin-engine, all-weather tactical fighter designed by McDonnell Douglas to gain and maintain air superiority in aerial combat. It is considered among the most successful modern fighters with over 100 aerial combat victories with no losses in dogfights...

 pilots may practice high-speed intercepts.

The Red Cross, Salvation Army
The Salvation Army
The Salvation Army is a Protestant Christian church known for its thrift stores and charity work. It is an international movement that currently works in over a hundred countries....

 and other civilian agencies frequently ask Civil Air Patrol aircraft to transport vital supplies including medical technicians, medication, and other vital supplies. They often rely on CAP to provide airlift
Airlift
Airlift is the act of transporting people or cargo from point to point using aircraft.Airlift may also refer to:*Airlift , a suction device for moving sand and silt underwater-See also:...

 and communications for disaster relief operations. CAP also assists the United States Coast Guard
United States Coast Guard
The United States Coast Guard is a branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven U.S. uniformed services. The Coast Guard is a maritime, military, multi-mission service unique among the military branches for having a maritime law enforcement mission and a federal regulatory agency...

 and Coast Guard Auxiliary
United States Coast Guard Auxiliary
The United States Coast Guard Auxiliary is the uniformed volunteer component of the United States Coast Guard and was established on June 23, 1939 by an act of Congress as the United States Coast Guard Reserve, and was re-designated as the United States Coast Guard Auxiliary on February 19, 1941...

.

Civil Air Patrol assists the U.S. Customs and Border Protection
U.S. Customs and Border Protection
U.S. Customs and Border Protection is a federal law enforcement agency of the United States Department of Homeland Security charged with regulating and facilitating international trade, collecting import duties, and enforcing U.S. regulations, including trade, customs and immigration. CBP is the...

, Drug Enforcement Administration
Drug Enforcement Administration
The Drug Enforcement Administration is a federal law enforcement agency under the United States Department of Justice, tasked with combating drug smuggling and use within the United States...

, and United States Forest Service
United States Forest Service
The United States Forest Service is an agency of the United States Department of Agriculture that administers the nation's 155 national forests and 20 national grasslands, which encompass...

 in the War on Drugs
War on Drugs
The War on Drugs is a campaign of prohibition and foreign military aid and military intervention being undertaken by the United States government, with the assistance of participating countries, intended to both define and reduce the illegal drug trade...

. In 2005, CAP flew over 12,000 hours in support of this mission and led these agencies to the confiscation of illegal substances valued at over US$
United States dollar
The United States dollar , also referred to as the American dollar, is the official currency of the United States of America. It is divided into 100 smaller units called cents or pennies....

400 million. Civil Air Patrol makes extensive use of the Airborne Real-time Cueing Hyperspectral Enhanced Reconnaissance
Airborne Real-time Cueing Hyperspectral Enhanced Reconnaissance
The Airborne Real-time Cueing Hyperspectral Enhanced Reconnaissance, also known by the acronym ARCHER, is an aerial imaging system that produces ground images far more detailed than plain sight or ordinary aerial photography can....

 system, mounted on the Gippsland GA8
Gippsland GA8
The Gippsland GA8 Airvan is a single-engined utility aircraft manufactured by Gippsland Aeronautics of Victoria, Australia. It can seat eight including one pilot.-Development:...

 Airvan. The system is able to evaluate spectral signatures given off by certain objects, allowing the system to identify, for example, a possible marijuana
Cannabis (drug)
Cannabis, also known as marijuana among many other names, refers to any number of preparations of the Cannabis plant intended for use as a psychoactive drug or for medicinal purposes. The English term marijuana comes from the Mexican Spanish word marihuana...

 crop.

Aerospace Education

The Aerospace Education Program provides aviation related education and educational activities for members, including formal, graded courses about all aspects of aviation
Aviation
Aviation is the design, development, production, operation, and use of aircraft, especially heavier-than-air aircraft. Aviation is derived from avis, the Latin word for bird.-History:...

 including flight physics, dynamics, history, and application. Courses covering the space program, and new technologies and advances in aviation and space exploration
Space exploration
Space exploration is the use of space technology to explore outer space. Physical exploration of space is conducted both by human spaceflights and by robotic spacecraft....

, are also available. There are several programs for CAP pilots to improve their flying skills and earn Federal Aviation Administration
Federal Aviation Administration
The Federal Aviation Administration is the national aviation authority of the United States. An agency of the United States Department of Transportation, it has authority to regulate and oversee all aspects of civil aviation in the U.S...

 ratings.

The Cadet Program has a mandatory aerospace education program; in order to progress, a cadet must take a number of courses and tests relating to aviation. Cadets also have educational opportunities through museum tours, National Cadet Special Activities, military and civilian orientation rides, and guest speakers.

Senior members may study aerospace through the Senior Member Professional Development Program. CAP encourages its senior members to learn about aviation and its history, although this is not mandatory. Those who complete the Aerospace Education Program for Senior Members may earn the Charles E. "Chuck" Yeager
Chuck Yeager
Charles Elwood "Chuck" Yeager is a retired major general in the United States Air Force and noted test pilot. He was the first pilot to travel faster than sound...

 Aerospace Education Award.

Through outreach programs, including the External Aerospace Education program, CAP helps schoolteachers integrate aviation and aerospace into the classroom by providing seminars, course materials and through sponsorship of the National Congress on Aviation and Space Education
National Congress on Aviation and Space Education
The National Congress on Aviation and Space Education is an annual conference sponsored by Civil Air Patrol designed to enhance and expand educational opportunities and support for teachers throughout the United States. The event is co-sponsored with the Federal Aviation Administration and NASA.-...

. Members also provide their communities with resources for better management of airports and other aviation-related facilities, and promote the benefits of such facilities. The organization also works with other groups, such as the Boy Scouts of America
Boy Scouts of America
The Boy Scouts of America is one of the largest youth organizations in the United States, with over 4.5 million youth members in its age-related divisions...

, the Girl Scouts of the USA
Girl Scouts of the USA
The Girl Scouts of the United States of America is a youth organization for girls in the United States and American girls living abroad. It describes itself as "the world's preeminent organization dedicated solely to girls". It was founded by Juliette Gordon Low in 1912 and was organized after Low...

 and 4-H
4-H
4-H in the United States is a youth organization administered by the National Institute of Food and Agriculture of the United States Department of Agriculture , with the mission of "engaging youth to reach their fullest potential while advancing the field of youth development." The name represents...

 to fulfill the education goal set down in the organizations congressional charter - to "encourage and foster civil aviation in local communities."

Cadet Programs

Civil Air Patrol's first cadet program was started during World War II as a way to provide training for future pilots. Since then, the program has flourished, combining Aerospace Education with Leadership and Career training.

Today, CAP cadets are those members who join from age 12 through age 18. Cadets who turn 18 may either become a Senior Member or remain a cadet until their 21st birthday at their own discretion. Cadets who join the military must become senior members when they begin active duty. Cadets who join the National Guard or Reserve may remain cadets until they are activated for a purpose other than training.

As a Cadet progresses through the cadet program, they earn various achievements by successfully passing both Leadership and Aerospace Education tests. Test questions are derived from reading materials supplied to cadets, but the program is also designed to allow cadets to fill ever increasing leadership roles that are pertinent to their Leadership Studies questions.

As cadets advance through the ranks, they also progress through four stages of development. The first phase, The Learning Phase, introduces cadets to the CAP program, and cadets who pass all requirements receive the Wright Brothers award. The second phase, The Leadership Phase, begins placing more responsibility on cadets as leaders of newer cadets. Cadets who complete The Leadership Phase receive their Mitchell Award, and are eligible for advanced promotion upon enlisting in the military. The third phase, The Command Phase, places cadets directly in command of other cadets, allowing cadets to accomplish tasks through their staff members for the first time. Cadets who complete The Command Phase are awarded the Earhart Award. The Executive Phase is the last phase of the cadet program, and focus cadets on the operations of an entire unit. Cadets completing the command phase are awarded the Eaker Award. The highest cadet award is the Spaatz Award and is awarded upon passing an extensive cumulative test.

As cadets progress through the program, they are placed in charge of lower ranking cadets. Cadets aren't given full reign over the others, but instead are expected to instruct classes and mentor each other. Senior Members, the adults of the program, also play a large role in mentoring and evaluating cadets. The numerous awards, achievements, and opportunities available to Civil Air Patrol cadets allows them to foster their leadership in an academic and forgiving environment.

Civil Air Patrol also has several cadet squadrons located in middle schools. CAP's School Enrichment Program (formerly known as Middle School Initiative) is a ready-to-use program for teachers and other mentors conduct leadership training through Aerospace Education classes. Students are introduced to the principles of flight, model rocketry, and also leadership. CAP's SEP program is similar to a Junior ROTC program. CAP has 47 units located in Middle School classrooms throughout the country.

Membership

As of 2011, CAP has 34,800 senior members and 26,000 cadets in over 1,600 local units in all fifty states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico , officially the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico , is an unincorporated territory of the United States, located in the northeastern Caribbean, east of the Dominican Republic and west of both the United States Virgin Islands and the British Virgin Islands.Puerto Rico comprises an...

 and at numerous overseas Air Force installations. CAP members are civilians and are not paid by the US government for their service. Rather, members are responsible for paying annual membership fees, and must pay for their own uniforms and other related expenses.

Senior membership is open to all US Citizens, and resident aliens
Alien (law)
In law, an alien is a person in a country who is not a citizen of that country.-Categorization:Types of "alien" persons are:*An alien who is legally permitted to remain in a country which is foreign to him or her. On specified terms, this kind of alien may be called a legal alien of that country...

 aged 18 and over who are able to pass an FBI
Federal Bureau of Investigation
The Federal Bureau of Investigation is an agency of the United States Department of Justice that serves as both a federal criminal investigative body and an internal intelligence agency . The FBI has investigative jurisdiction over violations of more than 200 categories of federal crime...

 background check. There is no upper age limit, nor membership restrictions for physical disabilities, due to the number of different tasks which members may be called on to perform. Cadet membership is open to those aged between 12 and 18 who maintain satisfactory progress in school, as determined by the cadet's unit commander; upon their 18th birthday, cadets may become senior members or remain in the Cadet Program until they are 21.

The Civil Air Patrol motto, to which all members ascribe, is "Semper Vigilans", Latin
Latin
Latin is an Italic language originally spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. It, along with most European languages, is a descendant of the ancient Proto-Indo-European language. Although it is considered a dead language, a number of scholars and members of the Christian clergy speak it fluently, and...

 for "Always Vigilant". All CAP members are also obligated by their service to the organization to abide by its core values: integrity, volunteer service, excellence, and respect.

Senior members

Grade Insignia
Major General
Major General
Major general or major-general is a military rank used in many countries. It is derived from the older rank of sergeant major general. A major general is a high-ranking officer, normally subordinate to the rank of lieutenant general and senior to the ranks of brigadier and brigadier general...


Maj Gen
Brigadier General
Brigadier General
Brigadier general is a senior rank in the armed forces. It is the lowest ranking general officer in some countries, usually sitting between the ranks of colonel and major general. When appointed to a field command, a brigadier general is typically in command of a brigade consisting of around 4,000...


Brig Gen
Colonel
Colonel
Colonel , abbreviated Col or COL, is a military rank of a senior commissioned officer. It or a corresponding rank exists in most armies and in many air forces; the naval equivalent rank is generally "Captain". It is also used in some police forces and other paramilitary rank structures...


Col
Lieutenant Colonel
Lieutenant colonel
Lieutenant colonel is a rank of commissioned officer in the armies and most marine forces and some air forces of the world, typically ranking above a major and below a colonel. The rank of lieutenant colonel is often shortened to simply "colonel" in conversation and in unofficial correspondence...


Lt Col
Major
Major
Major is a rank of commissioned officer, with corresponding ranks existing in almost every military in the world.When used unhyphenated, in conjunction with no other indicator of rank, the term refers to the rank just senior to that of an Army captain and just below the rank of lieutenant colonel. ...


Maj
Captain
Capt
First Lieutenant
First Lieutenant
First lieutenant is a military rank and, in some forces, an appointment.The rank of lieutenant has different meanings in different military formations , but the majority of cases it is common for it to be sub-divided into a senior and junior rank...


1st Lt
Second Lieutenant
Second Lieutenant
Second lieutenant is a junior commissioned officer military rank in many armed forces.- United Kingdom and Commonwealth :The rank second lieutenant was introduced throughout the British Army in 1871 to replace the rank of ensign , although it had long been used in the Royal Artillery, Royal...


2d Lt
Senior Flight Officer
Flight officer
The title flight officer was a military rank used by the United States Armed Forces where it was an air force warrant officer rank. It was also an air force rank in several Commonwealth nations where it was used for female officers and was equivalent to the rank of flight lieutenant...


SFO
Technical Flight Officer
Flight officer
The title flight officer was a military rank used by the United States Armed Forces where it was an air force warrant officer rank. It was also an air force rank in several Commonwealth nations where it was used for female officers and was equivalent to the rank of flight lieutenant...


TFO
Flight Officer
Flight officer
The title flight officer was a military rank used by the United States Armed Forces where it was an air force warrant officer rank. It was also an air force rank in several Commonwealth nations where it was used for female officers and was equivalent to the rank of flight lieutenant...


FO
Senior Member
SM
None


Senior members are members who are over 21 years old, who joined CAP for the first time past the age of 18, or who are former cadets who transferred to the senior member program. Senior members who have not yet turned 21 years are eligible for Flight Officer grades, which include Flight Officer, Technical Flight Officer, and Senior Flight Officer. There is no mandatory retirement age for CAP members, and there are no physical requirements for joining. Members may enter retired status after twenty years of service. The only physical requirements an officer must follow are the grooming and weight standards required of members who wear the Air Force-style uniforms (these do not apply to members who choose to wear those uniform designs unique to Civil Air Patrol).

Grades up to Lieutenant Colonel
Lieutenant colonel
Lieutenant colonel is a rank of commissioned officer in the armies and most marine forces and some air forces of the world, typically ranking above a major and below a colonel. The rank of lieutenant colonel is often shortened to simply "colonel" in conversation and in unofficial correspondence...

 reflect progression in training and organizational seniority, rather than command authority. Because of this, it is not uncommon for senior members commanding groups and squadrons to have members of superior grades serving under them. Current, retired and former members of the United States Armed Forces
United States armed forces
The United States Armed Forces are the military forces of the United States. They consist of the Army, Navy, Marine Corps, Air Force, and Coast Guard.The United States has a strong tradition of civilian control of the military...

 may be promoted directly to the CAP grade equivalent to their military grade, although some choose to follow the same standards as non-prior-service members. Except for a few exceptional cases, senior members are only promoted to the grade of CAP Colonel upon appointment as Wing Commander, responsible for the administration of CAP units across an entire state.

Senior members are provided with an optional Senior Member Professional Development program and are encouraged to progress within it. The professional development program consists of five levels, corresponding with grades from Second Lieutenant to Lieutenant Colonel. Each level of development has components of leadership training, corporate familiarization and aerospace education, as well as professional development within chosen "Specialty Tracks". There are many Specialty Tracks and they are designed both to support the organization and to provide opportunities for senior members to take advantage of skills they have from their private lives. Available Specialty Tracks include Logistics
Logistics
Logistics is the management of the flow of goods between the point of origin and the point of destination in order to meet the requirements of customers or corporations. Logistics involves the integration of information, transportation, inventory, warehousing, material handling, and packaging, and...

, Communications
Telecommunication
Telecommunication is the transmission of information over significant distances to communicate. In earlier times, telecommunications involved the use of visual signals, such as beacons, smoke signals, semaphore telegraphs, signal flags, and optical heliographs, or audio messages via coded...

, Cadet Programs, Public Affairs
Public affairs (military)
Public Affairs is a term for the formal offices of the branches of the United States Department of Defense whose purpose is to deal with the media and community issues. The term is also used for numerous media relations offices that are created by the U.S. military for more specific limited purposes...

, Legal
Law
Law is a system of rules and guidelines which are enforced through social institutions to govern behavior, wherever possible. It shapes politics, economics and society in numerous ways and serves as a social mediator of relations between people. Contract law regulates everything from buying a bus...

, Administration, Emergency Services, Finance
Finance
"Finance" is often defined simply as the management of money or “funds” management Modern finance, however, is a family of business activity that includes the origination, marketing, and management of cash and money surrogates through a variety of capital accounts, instruments, and markets created...

, and many more. Additionally senior members with specific civilian professional qualifications may be awarded grade on the basis of their professional qualifications. Examples include FAA Certified Flight Instructors, attorneys, medical professionals and clergy, who are often promoted directly to First Lieutenant
First Lieutenant
First lieutenant is a military rank and, in some forces, an appointment.The rank of lieutenant has different meanings in different military formations , but the majority of cases it is common for it to be sub-divided into a senior and junior rank...

 or Captain.

Cadet members

Civil Air Patrol's cadet program is a traditional military-style cadet
Cadet
A cadet is a trainee to become an officer in the military, often a person who is a junior trainee. The term comes from the term "cadet" for younger sons of a noble family.- Military context :...

 program, and is one of the three main missions of the Civil Air Patrol. CAP cadets wear modified versions of Air Force uniforms, hold rank and grade, and practice military customs and courtesies
Military courtesy
Military courtesy is one of the defining features of a professional military force. These courtesies form a strict and sometimes elaborate code of conduct....

. They are required to maintain physical fitness
Physical fitness
Physical fitness comprises two related concepts: general fitness , and specific fitness...

 standards, and are tested on their knowledge of leadership
Leadership
Leadership has been described as the “process of social influence in which one person can enlist the aid and support of others in the accomplishment of a common task". Other in-depth definitions of leadership have also emerged.-Theories:...

 and aerospace subjects at each promotion opportunity.

Concept

The current CAP Cadet Program was designed by John V. "Jack" Sorenson who held the position of Civil Air Patrol's Director of Aerospace Education in the 1960s. This program is composed of four phases (Learning, Leadership, Command, and Executive) each of which is divided into several achievements. Achievements generally correspond to grade promotions, while phases are tied to levels of responsibility. The Cadet Program operates at a local unit (squadron) level with weekly meetings and weekend activities, but also has national and wing-sponsored events, including week-long and multi-week summer activities and camps.

As Cadets progress through the program, they are given additional responsibility for scheduling, teaching, guiding and commanding the other cadets in their units. They also assist their Senior Staff in executing the Cadet Program. It is not unusual for a cadet officer to command an encampment of hundreds of junior Cadets. Cadets are given many opportunities to lead and to follow; they may hold leadership positions at squadron and wing activities, and are often involved in planning these activities. Cadets may complete paperwork, command other cadets, and teach at weekly meetings and at weekend and summer events. The U.S. Congress
United States Congress
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the federal government of the United States, consisting of the Senate and the House of Representatives. The Congress meets in the United States Capitol in Washington, D.C....

 stated in the Recruiting, Retention, and Reservist Promotion Act of 2000 that CAP and similar programs "provide significant benefits for the Armed Forces, including significant public relations benefits".

Organization

The Cadet Program is overseen and administered by senior members, who generally specialize in the Cadet Program. At the squadron level, the Cadet Commander's chain of command passes through the Deputy Commander for Cadets before reaching the squadron commander. There are 'Director of Cadet Programs' positions at all command levels higher than squadron. In addition to the Deputy Commander for Cadets, squadrons also have a Leadership Officer, a senior member whose job is to see to the military aspects of the Cadet program, such as uniforms, customs and courtesies.

Cadets have a rank structure
Cadet grades and insignia of the Civil Air Patrol
Cadet grades and insignia of the Civil Air Patrol are a series of military grades awarded to cadets in the Civil Air Patrol. Each grade and insignia corresponds to United States Air Force enlisted and officer grade insignia...

 similar to the United States Air Force
United States Air Force
The United States Air Force is the aerial warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the American uniformed services. Initially part of the United States Army, the USAF was formed as a separate branch of the military on September 18, 1947 under the National Security Act of...

 enlisted
Enlisted rank
An enlisted rank is, in most Militaries, any rank below a commissioned officer or warrant officer. The term can also be inclusive of non-commissioned officers...

 and officer
Officer (armed forces)
An officer is a member of an armed force or uniformed service who holds a position of authority. Commissioned officers derive authority directly from a sovereign power and, as such, hold a commission charging them with the duties and responsibilities of a specific office or position...

 grades, excluding those of General Officers. A Cadet starts as a Cadet Airman Basic, and is promoted as he or she completes each achievement. Unlike the regular Armed Forces, where it is possible to enter as either a commissioned or non-commissioned officer
Non-commissioned officer
A non-commissioned officer , called a sub-officer in some countries, is a military officer who has not been given a commission...

, a cadet must be promoted through every enlisted grade in order to achieve the rank of Cadet Second Lieutenant. To complete an achievement, a cadet must pass a physical fitness test as well as two written tests, one for leadership and one for aerospace education. The only exceptions to this rule are the promotion to Cadet Airman and Cadet Staff Sergeant, which have no aerospace test. For some achievements, an additional test of drill proficiency is required.

The milestones in the Civil Air Patrol Cadet Program are the Major General John F. Curry
John F. Curry
Major General John Francis Curry was the first national commander of the Civil Air Patrol, the United States Air Force Auxiliary. He was also a Major General in the United States Army Air Corps.-Biography:...

 Award, Wright brothers
Wright brothers
The Wright brothers, Orville and Wilbur , were two Americans credited with inventing and building the world's first successful airplane and making the first controlled, powered and sustained heavier-than-air human flight, on December 17, 1903...

 Award, the General Billy Mitchell Award, the Amelia Earhart
Amelia Earhart
Amelia Mary Earhart was a noted American aviation pioneer and author. Earhart was the first woman to receive the U.S. Distinguished Flying Cross, awarded for becoming the first aviatrix to fly solo across the Atlantic Ocean...

 Award, the General Ira C. Eaker Award and the General Carl A. Spaatz Award. As of 29 January 2009, 1,721 Spaatz Awards had been earned since the first was awarded to Cadet Douglas Roach in 1964. Cadet Roach went on to an Air Force career and later became a pilot in the US Air Force Thunderbirds aerial demonstration team.

Each milestone award in Civil Air Patrol confers upon a cadet various benefits. Upon earning the Mitchell Award and the grade of Cadet Second Lieutenant, a cadet will automatically be given the rank of Airman First Class (E-3)
Airman First Class
Airman first class is the third enlisted rank in the United States Air Force, just above airman and below senior airman. The rank of airman first class is considered a junior enlisted rank, with the non-commissioned officers and senior non-commissioned officers above it.Airman first class is a...

 upon enlistment in the United States Air Force
United States Air Force
The United States Air Force is the aerial warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the American uniformed services. Initially part of the United States Army, the USAF was formed as a separate branch of the military on September 18, 1947 under the National Security Act of...

. Along with being awarded the Earhart Award and being promoted to C/Capt a cadet may attend International Air Cadet Exchange
International Air Cadet Exchange
The International Air Cadet Exchange is an annual student exchange program designed to promote character, good-will, and cooperation among the world's civilian auxiliary aviation programs...

.

According to the CAP Knowledgebase website, the percentages for cadets receiving the milestone awards are estimated to be as follows:
  • Mitchell: 15%
  • Earhart: 5%
  • Eaker: 2%
  • Spaatz: ~0.5%


Cadets that transfer to the senior member side between the ages of 18 and 20 receive the grade of Flight Officer (if the highest cadet award earned was the Mitchell), Technical Flight Officer (if the highest cadet award earned was the Earhart) or Senior Flight Officer (if the highest cadet award earned was the Spaatz). If the cadet waits until their 21st birthday, at which point they are required to transfer to the senior member program, they are eligible for the grade of Second Lieutenant (if the highest cadet award was the Mitchell), First Lieutenant (if the highest cadet award was the Earhart), or Captain (if the highest cadet award was the Spaatz).

Activities

Cadets under the age of 18 are eligible for ten orientation flights in CAP aircraft
Aircraft
An aircraft is a vehicle that is able to fly by gaining support from the air, or, in general, the atmosphere of a planet. An aircraft counters the force of gravity by using either static lift or by using the dynamic lift of an airfoil, or in a few cases the downward thrust from jet engines.Although...

, including five glider
Glider aircraft
Glider aircraft are heavier-than-air craft that are supported in flight by the dynamic reaction of the air against their lifting surfaces, and whose free flight does not depend on an engine. Mostly these types of aircraft are intended for routine operation without engines, though engine failure can...

 and airplane
Fixed-wing aircraft
A fixed-wing aircraft is an aircraft capable of flight using wings that generate lift due to the vehicle's forward airspeed. Fixed-wing aircraft are distinct from rotary-wing aircraft in which wings rotate about a fixed mast and ornithopters in which lift is generated by flapping wings.A powered...

 flights. Glider flights can be replaced by "Powered" flights at the discretion of the Wing Commander, depending on the availability of the aircraft. Cadets over 18 years of age can still participate in military orientation flights, and some CAP wings have flight academies where cadets can learn to fly. The US Air Force and US Army
United States Army
The United States Army is the main branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for land-based military operations. It is the largest and oldest established branch of the U.S. military, and is one of seven U.S. uniformed services...

 also frequently schedule orientation flights for CAP cadets in transport aircraft such as the KC-10 Extender
KC-10 Extender
The McDonnell Douglas KC-10 Extender is the military adaptation of the three-engined DC-10 airliner for the United States Air Force . The KC-10 incorporates military-specific equipment for its primary roles of transport and aerial refueling. It was developed to supplement the KC-135 Stratotanker...

, C-130 Hercules
C-130 Hercules
The Lockheed C-130 Hercules is a four-engine turboprop military transport aircraft designed and built originally by Lockheed, now Lockheed Martin. Capable of using unprepared runways for takeoffs and landings, the C-130 was originally designed as a troop, medical evacuation, and cargo transport...

 and the C-17 Globemaster III
C-17 Globemaster III
The Boeing C-17 Globemaster III is a large military transport aircraft. Developed for the United States Air Force from the 1980s to the early 1990s by McDonnell Douglas, the C-17 is used for rapid strategic airlift of troops and cargo to main operating bases or forward operating bases throughout...

 or, in the case of the Army, UH-60 Black Hawk and CH-47 Chinook
CH-47 Chinook
The Boeing CH-47 Chinook is an American twin-engine, tandem rotor heavy-lift helicopter. Its top speed of 170 knots is faster than contemporary utility and attack helicopters of the 1960s...

 helicopter
Helicopter
A helicopter is a type of rotorcraft in which lift and thrust are supplied by one or more engine-driven rotors. This allows the helicopter to take off and land vertically, to hover, and to fly forwards, backwards, and laterally...

s.

Civil Air Patrol's core cadet activity is the summer encampment. Typically a week to ten day long event, cadets are put into an intense, military-structured environment similar in certain respects to USAF Basic Military Training (BMT) for enlisted personnel, or the first few weeks of USAFA
United States Air Force Academy
The United States Air Force Academy is an accredited college for the undergraduate education of officer candidates for the United States Air Force. Its campus is located immediately north of Colorado Springs in El Paso County, Colorado, United States...

 4th class cadet training, college Air Force ROTC summer Field Training, or USAF OTS
OTS
OTS may refer to:* Anacortes Airport in Anacortes, Washington by IATA airport code* Oakley Training School, a juvenile correctional facility in Hinds County, Mississippi...

 for officers, with emphasis on physically and mentally demanding tasks and required classes and activities. These classes include aerospace education, Air Force organization, cadet programs, and drug demand reduction. Activities include the classroom courses, physical training, and drill & ceremonies. Encampments are usually held at the wing (state) level and, when available are usually at military installations, preferably active Air Force, Air Force Reserve Command
Air Force Reserve Command
The Air Force Reserve Command is a major command of the U.S. Air Force with its headquarters at Robins AFB, Georgia.It stood up as a major command of the Air Force on 17 February 1997....

 or Air National Guard
Air National Guard
The Air National Guard , often referred to as the Air Guard, is the air force militia organized by each of the fifty U.S. states, the commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the territories of Guam and the U.S. Virgin Islands, and the District of Columbia of the United States. Established under Title 10 and...

 installations, with military support.

The Region Cadet Leadership Schools (RCLS) provide training to increase knowledge, skills, and attitudes as they pertain to leadership and management. To be eligible to attend, cadets must be serving in, or preparing to enter, cadet leadership positions within their squadron. RCLSs are conducted at region level, or at wing level with region approval. The RCLS programs are more or less modeled on USAFA upper classmen programs, the college Air Force ROTC Professional Officer Course (POC) and latter stages of OTS. One variation on this theme are CAP Cadet Non-Commissioned Officer Schools and Academies, which are Cadet NCO schools designed to teach basic leadership and principles to cadet leaders during their earlier duty positions in the Cadet Program.

Oath

Cadets ascribe to the following oath during their membership:
I pledge that I will serve faithfully in the Civil Air Patrol Cadet Program, and that I will attend meetings regularly, participate actively in unit activities, obey my officers, wear my uniform properly, and advance my education and training rapidly to prepare myself to be of service to my community, state, and nation.


One requirement for promotion in the Cadet Program is the ability to recite this oath, verbatim, from memory.

Relationship to the military

As stated by , the Secretary of the Air Force may use the services of the Civil Air Patrol to fulfill the non-combat programs and missions of the Department of the Air Force. Additionally, the Civil Air Patrol shall be deemed to be an instrumentality of the United States with respect to any act or omission of the Civil Air Patrol, including any member of the Civil Air Patrol, in carrying out a mission assigned by the Secretary of the Air Force.

Civil Air Patrol members are not subject to the Uniform Code of Military Justice
Uniform Code of Military Justice
The Uniform Code of Military Justice , is the foundation of military law in the United States. It is was established by the United States Congress in accordance with the authority given by the United States Constitution in Article I, Section 8, which provides that "The Congress shall have Power . ....

 and therefore do not have command or authority over any members of the United States military. Similarly, military officers have no command authority over CAP members. As part of recognition of CAP's service to the USAF, however, senior members in the grade of Second Lieutenant and above are allowed to wear "U.S." collar insignia as an official part of their dress blue uniform. All CAP members are required to render military courtesies to all members of the US military and those of friendly foreign nations; however, as CAP Officers are not commissioned by the President of the United States
President of the United States
The President of the United States of America is the head of state and head of government of the United States. The president leads the executive branch of the federal government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces....

, military personnel are not required to render military courtesies to CAP personnel, though this can be done as a courtesy. CAP members are expected to render military courtesies to one another, though the implementation of this varies widely. Some squadrons are more military-orientated, with saluting and addressing by rank, while others are more informal.

Although CAP retains the title "United States Air Force Auxiliary", clarifies that this Auxiliary status is only applicable when CAP members and resources are on an Air Force-assigned mission with an Air Force-assigned mission number. When CAP resources are engaged in an Air Force mission they are reimbursed by the Air Force for communications expenses, fuel and oil, and a share of aircraft maintenance expenses. In addition, CAP members are covered by the Federal Employees Compensation Act (FECA)
Employees' Compensation Appeals Board
The Employees' Compensation Appeals Board was created in 1946 by statute to hear appeals taken from determinations and awards under the Federal Employees' Compensation Act with respect to claims of federal employees injured in the course of their employment...

 in the event of injury while participating in the mission. At all other times, such as when aiding civilian authorities, the CAP remains and acts as a private, non-profit corporation.

The USAF's Air Education and Training Command
Air Education and Training Command
Air Education and Training Command was established July 1, 1993, with the realignment of Air Training Command and Air University. It is one of the U.S. Air Force's ten major commands and reports to Headquarters, United States Air Force....

 (AETC), through the Air University, is the parent command of CAP. In October 2002, the USAF announced plans to move CAP into a new office for homeland security
Homeland security
Homeland security is an umbrella term for security efforts to protect states against terrorist activity. Specifically, is a concerted national effort to prevent terrorist attacks within the U.S., reduce America’s vulnerability to terrorism, and minimize the damage and recover from attacks that do...

. While remaining under the command of the AETC, CAP has a memorandum of understanding
Memorandum of understanding
A memorandum of understanding is a document describing a bilateral or multilateral agreement between parties. It expresses a convergence of will between the parties, indicating an intended common line of action. It is often used in cases where parties either do not imply a legal commitment or in...

 with the 1st Air Force
First Air Force
The First Air Force is a numbered air force of the United States Air Force Air Combat Command . It is headquartered at Tyndall Air Force Base, Florida....

 (1 AF), the Air Combat Command
Air Combat Command
Air Combat Command is a major command of the United States Air Force. ACC is one of ten major commands , reporting to Headquarters, United States Air Force ....

 (ACC) numbered air force with responsibility for both continental air defense and the Air Force Rescue Coordination Center. This memorandum allows each organization to provide the other with mutual assistance.

Uniforms

In order to wear USAF-style uniforms, CAP members must meet Air Force grooming standards and slightly modified weight standards. Since these grooming and weight standards are not necessary for CAP membership, CAP has also developed a range of "corporate" (or "CAP distinctive") uniforms for wear only by senior members and cadets over the age of 18. While these uniforms are an option available to all senior members, they are the only uniforms available to those who do not meet the grooming standards.

There are over ten uniform combinations. The basic ones worn by most members are:
  • Air Force-style uniforms
    United States Air Force uniform
    The United States Air Force uniform is the standardized military attire worn by Airmen of the United States Air Force. Specific Air Force Instructions address standardized wear that is identical for both members of the Active Component , and that of the service's two reserve components that...

    :
    • Service Dress Uniform – the Air Force's service dress uniform, consisting of dark blue trousers, light blue shirt with tie, dark blue jacket, and a flight or service cap. Rank is indicated on CAP-distinctive gray shoulder marks (for senior member officers) or sleeve stripes (for senior member non-commissioned officers). Cadets wear rank either on shoulder marks or on pin-on insignia (according to rank).
    • Blues Uniform – identical to the service dress uniform, except without the dark blue jacket. The tie is optional when in short sleeves.
    • Battle Dress Uniform
      Battle Dress Uniform
      The Battle Dress Uniform were the fatigues that the armed forces of the United States used as their standard uniform for combat situations from September 1981 to April 2005. Since then, it has been replaced in every branch of the U.S. military. Only the U.S. Navy currently authorizes wear of the...

       (BDU) - the old style Air Force "woodland camouflage" field uniform, or blue field uniform, with blue name tapes, and metal insignia on the collar for enlisted grade cadets, cloth insignia for cadet officers and senior members.
    • Flight Dress Uniform – a green Nomex
      Nomex
      Nomex is a registered trademark for flame resistant meta-aramid material developed in the early 1960s by DuPont and first marketed in 1967.- Properties:...

       one-piece flight suit worn by Air Force flight crews, styled in a manner similar to Air Mobility Command
      Air Mobility Command
      Air Mobility Command is a Major Command of the U.S. Air Force. AMC is headquartered at Scott AFB, Illinois, east of St. Louis....

       flight crews, but with CAP insignia. This is worn by CAP flight personnel only.
    • Mess Dress Uniform – the dark blue Air Force mess dress uniform with CAP-distinctive insignia and sleeve braid. This is worn by senior members only.
  • Corporate ("CAP distinctive") uniforms:
    • Field Uniform – a dark blue version of the battle dress uniform
    • Aviator Shirt Uniform – an aviator white shirt with epaulettes, worn with gray shoulder marks and gray trousers.
    • Flight Uniform – A dark blue version of the one-piece flight suit. This is worn by CAP flight personnel only.
    • Utility Uniform – A dark blue one-piece uniform similar to, but distinct from, the Flight Uniform. Worn for similar duty to the Field Uniform.
    • Blazer Uniform – A dark blue jacket worn with a white shirt, gray trousers, and a CAP or Air Force tie.
    • Golf Shirt Uniform – A dark blue short-sleeve golf shirt with the CAP seal screened or embroidered on the chest. This is worn with gray trousers.


In March 2006, a number of new "corporate" uniforms were introduced for senior members, with white shirts, Air Force blue trousers and Air Force officer epaulettes without the "CAP" titling. Notably, this uniform has a nameplate that only says "Civil Air Patrol" with the member's last name; there is no mention of "United States Air Force Auxiliary." At the 2006 National Executive Committee meeting, a matching double-breasted blue service coat was approved, with metal rank insignia and "CAP" collar insignia to match the metal nameplate and CAP buttons. Only CAP ribbons and devices are permitted; prior-service military ribbons and devices are not be authorized for wear on this uniform (unless authorized to be worn on civilian clothing by the awarding authority). The service and flight caps will continue to be worn with CAP-distinctive variations.

As of 7 November 2009, the National Executive Committee passed a motion to rescind wear of the blue Corporate Service Uniform (phase-out date January 2011). Major General Amy Courter
Amy Courter
Major General Amelia S. "Amy" Courter, CAP, is the former National Commander of the Civil Air Patrol. She was elected by a unanimous decision of CAP's National Board on 7 August 2008.-Education:...

, then-National Commander of Civil Air Patrol, issued an Interim Change Letter allowing wear of the CSU through January 2012, but with modifications of the standard grey CAP epaulettes and nameplate.http://www.ohwg.cap.gov/16%20Feb%202010%20Uniform%20ICL.pdf

Equipment

Civil Air Patrol operates and maintains fixed-wing aircraft, training gliders
Glider aircraft
Glider aircraft are heavier-than-air craft that are supported in flight by the dynamic reaction of the air against their lifting surfaces, and whose free flight does not depend on an engine. Mostly these types of aircraft are intended for routine operation without engines, though engine failure can...

, ground vehicles, and a national radio communications network.

Civil Air Patrol owns and operates a fleet of over 550 single-engine aircraft, predominantly Cessna 172
Cessna 172
The Cessna 172 Skyhawk is a four-seat, single-engine, high-wing fixed-wing aircraft. First flown in 1955 and still in production, more Cessna 172s have been built than any other aircraft.-Design and development:...

 Skyhawk and Cessna 182
Cessna 182
The Cessna 182 Skylane is an American four-seat, single-engine, light airplane, built by Cessna of Wichita, Kansas. It has the option of adding two child seats, installed in the baggage area....

 Skylane aircraft.

In 2003, the Australian designed and built eight-seat Gippsland GA8
Gippsland GA8
The Gippsland GA8 Airvan is a single-engined utility aircraft manufactured by Gippsland Aeronautics of Victoria, Australia. It can seat eight including one pilot.-Development:...

 Airvan was added to the corporate fleet. 16 of Civil Air Patrol's fleet of 18 Airvans carry the Airborne Real-time Cueing Hyperspectral Enhanced Reconnaissance
Airborne Real-time Cueing Hyperspectral Enhanced Reconnaissance
The Airborne Real-time Cueing Hyperspectral Enhanced Reconnaissance, also known by the acronym ARCHER, is an aerial imaging system that produces ground images far more detailed than plain sight or ordinary aerial photography can....

 (ARCHER) system, which can be used to search for aircraft wreckage based on its spectral signature. Other aircraft types include the Cessna 206 and the Maule MT-235. CAP also has a number of gliders, such as the L-23 Super-Blanik
LET L-23
-See also:-References:*...

, the Schleicher ASK 21 and the Schweizer SGS 2-33
Schweizer SGS 2-33
The Schweizer SGS 2-33 is a United States two-seat, high-wing, strut-braced, training glider built by Schweizer Aircraft of Elmira, New York....

, used mainly for cadet orientation flights.

In addition to CAP's own corporate fleet, many member-owned aircraft are made available for official tasking by CAP's volunteers should the need arise. Aircraft on search missions are generally crewed by at least three qualified aircrew members: a Mission Pilot
Aviator
An aviator is a person who flies an aircraft. The first recorded use of the term was in 1887, as a variation of 'aviation', from the Latin avis , coined in 1863 by G. de la Landelle in Aviation Ou Navigation Aérienne...

, responsible for the safe flying of the aircraft; a Mission Observer
Mission Observer
In the Civil Air Patrol the mission observer is the aircrew member responsible for coordinating the aspects of a mission.The duties of the observer consist of, but are not limited to:*Aircraft navigation*Communications operations...

, responsible for navigation
Navigation
Navigation is the process of monitoring and controlling the movement of a craft or vehicle from one place to another. It is also the term of art used for the specialized knowledge used by navigators to perform navigation tasks...

, communications and coordination of the mission as well as ground observation; and a Mission Scanner who is responsible for looking for crash sites and damage clues. Additionally, the Mission Scanner may double as an Satellite Digital Imaging System
Satellite Digital Imaging System
The Satellite Digital Imaging System is a simple system composed of Commercial Off-the-Shelf hardware and custom integration software, which allows the operator to transmit digital photos from an aircraft in flight to a ground station...

 (SDIS) operator. Larger aircraft may have additional scanners aboard, providing greater visual coverage. Because of the additional ARCHER equipment, the crew of a Civil Air Patrol GA8 Airvan may also include an operator of the ARCHER system, depending upon the requirements of the mission and the capabilities of the aircraft.

CAP owns over 1,000 vehicles (mostly vans for carrying personnel) and assigns them to units for use in the organization's missions. Members who use their own vehicles are reimbursed for fuel, oil and communications costs during a USAF-assigned emergency services mission.

CAP operates a national radio network of HF
High frequency
High frequency radio frequencies are between 3 and 30 MHz. Also known as the decameter band or decameter wave as the wavelengths range from one to ten decameters . Frequencies immediately below HF are denoted Medium-frequency , and the next higher frequencies are known as Very high frequency...

 (SSB) and VHF
Very high frequency
Very high frequency is the radio frequency range from 30 MHz to 300 MHz. Frequencies immediately below VHF are denoted High frequency , and the next higher frequencies are known as Ultra high frequency...

 (FM) radio repeater
Repeater
A repeater is an electronic device that receives asignal and retransmits it at a higher level and/or higher power, or onto the other side of an obstruction, so that the signal can cover longer distances.-Description:...

s. There are over 500 of these repeaters strategically located across the United States. Radio communications are now facilitated under NTIA
National Telecommunications and Information Administration
The National Telecommunications and Information Administration is an agency of the United States Department of Commerce that serves as the President's principal adviser on telecommunications policies pertaining to the United States' economic and technological advancement and to regulation of the...

 specifications, to which Civil Air Patrol directorates have applied even more stringent standards. CAP's radio network is designed for use during a national or regional emergency when existing telephone and Internet communications infrastructure is not available. Outside of such emergencies, most of CAP's internal communications are conducted on the Internet. CAP frequencies and specific repeater locations are designated by the Department of Defense
United States Department of Defense
The United States Department of Defense is the U.S...

 as Unclassified - For Official Use Only
Sensitive but unclassified
Sensitive But Unclassified is a designation of information in the United States federal government that, though unclassified, often requires strict controls over its distribution...

 information, and as such may only be released to those individuals who have a recognized "need-to-know."

Some aircraft in the CAP fleet are equipped with the SDIS
Satellite Digital Imaging System
The Satellite Digital Imaging System is a simple system composed of Commercial Off-the-Shelf hardware and custom integration software, which allows the operator to transmit digital photos from an aircraft in flight to a ground station...

. This system allows CAP to send back real-time images of a disaster or crash site to anyone with an e-mail address, allowing the mission coordinators to make more informed decisions. There are approximately 100 federally funded SDIS systems strategically located across the United States, with more than 20 additional systems funded by state and local governments.

The ARCHER imaging system, mounted aboard the GA8 Airvan
Gippsland GA8
The Gippsland GA8 Airvan is a single-engined utility aircraft manufactured by Gippsland Aeronautics of Victoria, Australia. It can seat eight including one pilot.-Development:...

, uses visible and near-infrared light to examine the surface of the Earth and find suspected crash sites, evaluate areas affected by disasters, or examine foliage from an airborne perspective in order to flag possible marijuana
Cannabis (drug)
Cannabis, also known as marijuana among many other names, refers to any number of preparations of the Cannabis plant intended for use as a psychoactive drug or for medicinal purposes. The English term marijuana comes from the Mexican Spanish word marihuana...

 plantations. Both the SDIS and ARCHER systems were used to great success in the response to Hurricane Katrina
Hurricane Katrina
Hurricane Katrina of the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season was a powerful Atlantic hurricane. It is the costliest natural disaster, as well as one of the five deadliest hurricanes, in the history of the United States. Among recorded Atlantic hurricanes, it was the sixth strongest overall...

; ARCHER may be used in coordination with the SDIS system.

A hand-held radio direction finder, the L-Tronics
L-Tronics
L-Tronics is a company based in Santa Barbara, California that specializes in the design and manufacture of direction finding equipment for search and rescue applications, used to locate signals originating from distress radiobeacons...

 Little L-Per, is used by ground teams to search for downed aircraft.
The ground teams carry equipment on their person that they use while in the field. This equipment includes flashlights, signal mirrors, tactical vests, safety vests, and food that will last them at least 24 hours. The equipment carried by ground teams varies much by the mission at hand. Urban Direction Finding (UDF) missions necessitate only a small kit of gear. But intensive mountain search and rescue can require packs that provide for up to 72 hours of operational supplies and tool for the location, rescue and extraction of lost or crashed parties. This gear includes the above, plus additional water, meals, and survival gear. Although a standardized list is provided by the national command, many teams modify the list to match the needs of the mission.

Organization

Civil Air Patrol is organized along a military model, with a streamlined and strictly hierarchical chain of command
Chain of Command
Chain of Command may refer to:* Chain of command, in a military context, the line of authority and responsibility along which orders are passed* "Chain of Command" , the fifth episode of the first season of Beast Wars...

. There are several distinct echelons in this structure: National Headquarters, regions, wings, and squadrons or flights. An additional group echelon may be used that is placed between the wing and the squadrons/flights, at the wing commander's discretion.

Civil Air Patrol is headed by a National Commander, currently Major General Charles Carr. The organization is governed by a Board of Governors, established by federal law in 2001 and consisting of 11 members: four Civil Air Patrol members (currently the National Commander, National Vice Commander, and two members-at-large appointed by the CAP National Executive Committee), four Air Force representatives appointed by the Secretary of the Air Force, and three members from the aviation community jointly appointed by the CAP National Commander and the Secretary of the Air Force. The Board of Governors generally meets two or three times annually and primarily provides strategic vision and guidance to the volunteer leadership and corporate staff. The volunteer leadership consists of the National Commander
National Commanders of the Civil Air Patrol
Since 1975, the National Commander of the Civil Air Patrol is the senior elected official within the Civil Air Patrol. From 1941 until August 1975, the National Commander of CAP was an appointed active duty USAAF or USAF officer, typically a General Officer. In September 1975, this became a...

 and his staff, comprising a Vice Commander, Chief of Staff, National Legal Officer, National Comptroller
Comptroller
A comptroller is a management level position responsible for supervising the quality of accounting and financial reporting of an organization.In British government, the Comptroller General or Comptroller and Auditor General is in most countries the external auditor of the budget execution of the...

, the Chief of the CAP Chaplain
Chaplain
Traditionally, a chaplain is a minister in a specialized setting such as a priest, pastor, rabbi, or imam or lay representative of a religion attached to a secular institution such as a hospital, prison, military unit, police department, university, or private chapel...

 Service, and the CAP Inspector General
Inspector General
An Inspector General is an investigative official in a civil or military organization. The plural of the term is Inspectors General.-Bangladesh:...

. The National Commander holds the grade of CAP Major General; the National Vice Commander holds the grade of CAP Brigadier General. The rest of the National Commander's staff hold the grade of CAP Colonel.

CAP National Headquarters is located at Maxwell Air Force Base
Maxwell Air Force Base
Maxwell Air Force Base , officially known as Maxwell-Gunter Air Force Base, is a United States Air Force installation under the Air Education and Training Command . The installation is located in Montgomery, Alabama, US. It was named in honor of Second Lieutenant William C...

 outside Montgomery, Alabama
Montgomery, Alabama
Montgomery is the capital of the U.S. state of Alabama, and is the county seat of Montgomery County. It is located on the Alabama River southeast of the center of the state, in the Gulf Coastal Plain. As of the 2010 census, Montgomery had a population of 205,764 making it the second-largest city...

. The headquarters employs a professional staff of over 100 and is led by the CAP Executive Director (analogous to a corporate Chief Operating Officer
Chief operating officer
A Chief Operating Officer or Director of Operations can be one of the highest-ranking executives in an organization and comprises part of the "C-Suite"...

), who reports to the Board of Governors. The National Headquarters staff provides program management for the organization and membership support for the 1,700+ volunteer field units across the country.

Below the National Headquarters level there are eight geographic Regions and a handful of overseas squadrons at various military installations worldwide. Each region, commanded by a CAP Colonel, encompasses several state-wide organizations referred to as Wings
Wing (air force unit)
Wing is a term used by different military aviation forces for a unit of command. The terms wing, group or Staffel are used for different-sized units from one country or service to another....

. The eight regions are the Northeast, Middle East, Southeast, Great Lakes, Southwest, North Central, Rocky Mountain, and Pacific Regions.

The CAP units in each of the fifty states, and Puerto Rico and the District of Columbia, are coordinated by the CAP Wing for that state; each Wing has a commander who is a CAP Colonel and the sole corporate officer for each state. Each wing commander oversees a wing headquarters staff made up of experienced volunteer members. Larger Wings may have an optional subordinate echelon of Groups
Group (air force)
A group is a military aviation unit, a component of military organization and a military formation. Usage of the terms group and wing differ from one country to another, as well as different branches of a defence force, in some cases...

, at the discretion of the Wing Commander. Each Group encompasses at least five squadrons or flights.

Local units are called squadron
Squadron (aviation)
A squadron in air force, army aviation or naval aviation is mainly a unit comprising a number of military aircraft, usually of the same type, typically with 12 to 24 aircraft, sometimes divided into three or four flights, depending on aircraft type and air force...

s or flights
Flight (military unit)
A flight is a military unit in an air force, naval air service, or army air corps. It usually comprises three to six aircraft, with their aircrews and ground staff; or, in the case of a non-flying ground flight, no aircraft and a roughly equivalent number of support personnel. In most usages,...

; the latter normally reserved for smaller units. Squadrons are the main functioning body of Civil Air Patrol. Civil Air Patrol squadrons are designated as either cadet, senior, or composite squadrons. A CAP composite squadron consists of both cadets and senior members, who may be involved in any of the three missions of Civil Air Patrol. Composite squadrons have two deputy commanders to assist the squadron commander: a Deputy Commander for Seniors and a Deputy Commander for Cadets. A senior squadron includes only senior members, who participate in the emergency services or aerospace education missions of Civil Air Patrol. A cadet squadron is largely made up of cadets, with a small number of senior members as necessary for supervision of cadets and the proper execution of the cadet program. Overseas squadrons operate independently of this structure, reporting directly to the National Headquarters.

A CAP flight is a semi-independent unit that is used mainly as a stepping-stone for a new unit until they are large enough to be designated a squadron. Due to their transitory nature, there are very few flights within the CAP structure at any one time. A flight will be assigned to a squadron 'parent', and it is the job of the flight and squadron commanders to work together to build the flight into a full and independent squadron.

Civil Air Patrol-United States Air Force (CAP-USAF) is an active duty unit that operates under the joint jurisdiction of CAP National Headquarters and the USAF Air University
Air University
The United States Air Force Air University is a component of the United States Air Force's Air Education and Training Command, headquartered at Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama. Air University is the U.S. Air Force's primary center for professional military education.-Organization:Air Force...

. Approximately 350 active duty, reserve, and civilian Air Force personnel (all of whom are CAP members), 22 of whom are stationed at National Headquarters, staff CAP-USAF. These members advise, assist, and oversee Civil Air Patrol's operations and provide liaison between CAP and the USAF. As of 2009, the commander of CAP-USAF is USAF Colonel William R. Ward.

Funding

Civil Air Patrol is a non-profit
Non-profit organization
Nonprofit organization is neither a legal nor technical definition but generally refers to an organization that uses surplus revenues to achieve its goals, rather than distributing them as profit or dividends...

 corporation established by Public Law 79-476
Public Law 476
Public Law 79-476 was passed by the 79th U.S. Congress in 1946. The Civil Air Patrol, the auxiliary of the United States Air Force, was to be "solely of a benevolent character". In other words, the Civil Air Patrol was to never participate in combat operations, nor to carry arms, sink submarines,...

. It receives its funding from four major sources: membership dues, corporate donations, Congressional appropriations, and private donation
Donation
A donation is a gift given by physical or legal persons, typically for charitable purposes and/or to benefit a cause. A donation may take various forms, including cash, services, new or used goods including clothing, toys, food, and vehicles...

s.

Squadrons and Groups financial support comes from donations and fund raisings. A few units do charge their own membership dues above and beyond CAP membership dues. These donations and fund raisers are how the squadrons and groups pay for their equipment, rent for facilities, and activities at the local level.

Today, apart from member dues, Civil Air Patrol receives funding from donations and grants from individuals, foundations and corporations; from grants and payments from state governments for patrolling and other tasks as agreed by Memorandums of Understanding; and from federal funding for reimbursement of fuel, oil and maintenance plus capital expenses for aircraft, vehicles and communications equipment.

There are very few paid positions in Civil Air Patrol. Most are located at National Headquarters, but a few wings have paid administrators or accountants.

See also

  • Awards and decorations of the Civil Air Patrol
    Awards and decorations of the Civil Air Patrol
    The awards and decorations of the Civil Air Patrol are "designed to recognize heroism, service, and program achievements" of members of the Civil Air Patrol of the United States of America. The CAP is the official auxiliary of the United States Air Force, and these awards are made to improve the...

  • Civil Air Patrol National Cadet Competition
    Civil Air Patrol National Cadet Competition
    The Civil Air Patrol National Cadet Competition is the highest echelon of competition for Civil Air Patrol Color Guards and Drill Teams including all 52 Wings and 8 regions of the Civil Air Patrol. The National Cadet Competition is typically rotated every two years to a new aerospace venue...

  • Other search and rescue organizations
    • United States Coast Guard Auxiliary
      United States Coast Guard Auxiliary
      The United States Coast Guard Auxiliary is the uniformed volunteer component of the United States Coast Guard and was established on June 23, 1939 by an act of Congress as the United States Coast Guard Reserve, and was re-designated as the United States Coast Guard Auxiliary on February 19, 1941...

    • United States Search And Rescue Task Force
      United States Search And Rescue Task Force
      The United States Search And Rescue Task Force is a voluntary organization located in the north east United States devoted to search and rescue and disaster relief. The organization covers the states of Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New York, Delaware, Maryland and the District of Columbia. The...

    • Explorer Search and Rescue
      Explorer Search and Rescue
      Explorer Search and Rescue are teams of Explorers in the Learning for Life program of the Boy Scouts of America who are trained and deployed for search and rescue missions. Well-developed ESAR programs emerged in the state of Washington in the mid 1950s and were followed by others in California...

       - Boy Scouts of America program
    • Sky Watch
      Sky Watch
      Sky Watch, also known as Sky Watch Civil Air Patrol , is a volunteer civil aviation organisation founded in 2000 in the United Kingdom...

       - United Kingdom civil aviation program
  • Other air force auxiliaries
    • Royal Observer Corps
      Royal Observer Corps
      The Royal Observer Corps was a civil defence organisation operating in the United Kingdom between 29 October 1925 and 31 December 1995, when the Corps' civilian volunteers were stood down....

       - former United Kingdom civil defence service
  • Civil Air Guard
    Civil Air Guard
    The Civil Air Guard was a 1938 scheme in which the UK government subsidized training fees for members of flying clubs, in return for future military call-up commitments.-History:...

  • Other Air Cadet Organisations
    • Air Training Corps
      Air Training Corps
      The Air Training Corps , commonly known as the Air Cadets, is a cadet organisation based in the United Kingdom. It is a voluntary youth group which is part of the Air Cadet Organisation and the Royal Air Force . It is supported by the Ministry of Defence, with a regular RAF Officer, currently Air...

       - U.K.
    • Royal Canadian Air Cadets
      Royal Canadian Air Cadets
      Royal Canadian Air Cadets is a Canadian national youth program for persons aged 12 to 18. It is administered by the Canadian Forces and funded through the Department of National Defence with additional support from the civilian Air Cadet League of Canada...

    • New Zealand Air Training Corps
      New Zealand Air Training Corps
      The Air Training Corps or ATC is one of the three corps in the New Zealand Cadet Forces, the other two being the New Zealand Cadet Corps and Sea Cadet Corps. It is funded in partnership between the RNZAF and communities, and its members are civilians. Members have no obligation to head into the...

    • Australian Air Force Cadets
      Australian Air Force Cadets
      The Australian Air Force Cadets , known as the Air Training Corps until 2001, is a Federal Government funded youth organisation. The parent force of the AAFC is the Royal Australian Air Force...

    • Hong Kong Air Cadet Corps
      Hong Kong Air Cadet Corps
      The Hong Kong Air Cadet Corps is a voluntary uniformed group subsidised by the Home Affairs Bureau of the Hong Kong government and is registered under the Societies Ordinance as a non-profit making charitable organisation...


External links

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