Cisco Systems
Overview
 
Cisco Systems, Inc. is an American multinational corporation
Multinational corporation
A multi national corporation or enterprise , is a corporation or an enterprise that manages production or delivers services in more than one country. It can also be referred to as an international corporation...

 headquartered in San Jose
San Jose, California
San Jose is the third-largest city in California, the tenth-largest in the U.S., and the county seat of Santa Clara County which is located at the southern end of San Francisco Bay...

, California, United States, that designs and sells consumer electronics, networking, voice, and communications technology and services. Cisco has more than 70,000 employees and annual revenue of US$ 40.0 billion as of 2010. The stock was added to the Dow Jones Industrial Average
Dow Jones Industrial Average
The Dow Jones Industrial Average , also called the Industrial Average, the Dow Jones, the Dow 30, or simply the Dow, is a stock market index, and one of several indices created by Wall Street Journal editor and Dow Jones & Company co-founder Charles Dow...

 on June 8, 2009, and is also included in the S&P 500 Index, the Russell 1000 Index, NASDAQ
NASDAQ
The NASDAQ Stock Market, also known as the NASDAQ, is an American stock exchange. "NASDAQ" originally stood for "National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotations". It is the second-largest stock exchange by market capitalization in the world, after the New York Stock Exchange. As of...

 100 Index and the Russell 1000 Growth Stock Index.
Len Bosack and Sandy Lerner, a married couple who worked as computer operations staff members at Stanford University
Stanford University
The Leland Stanford Junior University, commonly referred to as Stanford University or Stanford, is a private research university on an campus located near Palo Alto, California. It is situated in the northwestern Santa Clara Valley on the San Francisco Peninsula, approximately northwest of San...

, later joined by Nicholas Pham, founded Cisco Systems in 1984.
Encyclopedia
Cisco Systems, Inc. is an American multinational corporation
Multinational corporation
A multi national corporation or enterprise , is a corporation or an enterprise that manages production or delivers services in more than one country. It can also be referred to as an international corporation...

 headquartered in San Jose
San Jose, California
San Jose is the third-largest city in California, the tenth-largest in the U.S., and the county seat of Santa Clara County which is located at the southern end of San Francisco Bay...

, California, United States, that designs and sells consumer electronics, networking, voice, and communications technology and services. Cisco has more than 70,000 employees and annual revenue of US$ 40.0 billion as of 2010. The stock was added to the Dow Jones Industrial Average
Dow Jones Industrial Average
The Dow Jones Industrial Average , also called the Industrial Average, the Dow Jones, the Dow 30, or simply the Dow, is a stock market index, and one of several indices created by Wall Street Journal editor and Dow Jones & Company co-founder Charles Dow...

 on June 8, 2009, and is also included in the S&P 500 Index, the Russell 1000 Index, NASDAQ
NASDAQ
The NASDAQ Stock Market, also known as the NASDAQ, is an American stock exchange. "NASDAQ" originally stood for "National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotations". It is the second-largest stock exchange by market capitalization in the world, after the New York Stock Exchange. As of...

 100 Index and the Russell 1000 Growth Stock Index.

Corporate history

1984-1990: Early Years

Len Bosack and Sandy Lerner, a married couple who worked as computer operations staff members at Stanford University
Stanford University
The Leland Stanford Junior University, commonly referred to as Stanford University or Stanford, is a private research university on an campus located near Palo Alto, California. It is situated in the northwestern Santa Clara Valley on the San Francisco Peninsula, approximately northwest of San...

, later joined by Nicholas Pham, founded Cisco Systems in 1984. Lerner moved on to direct computer services at Schlumberger
Schlumberger
Schlumberger Limited is the world's largest oilfield services company. Schlumberger employs over 110,000 people of more than 140 nationalities working in approximately 80 countries...

, moving full time to Cisco in 1987. The name "Cisco" was derived from the city name, San Francisco, which is why the company's engineers insisted on using the lower case "cisco" in the early days. For Cisco's first product, Bosack adapted multiple-protocol router software originally written some years before by William Yeager
William Yeager
William "Bill" Yeager is an American engineer. He is best-known for being the inventor of a packet-switched, "Ships in the Night," multiple-protocol router in 1981, during his 20 year tenure at Stanford's Knowledge Systems Laboratory.The code was licensed by upstart Cisco Systems in 1987 and...

, another Stanford employee who later joined Sun Microsystems
Sun Microsystems
Sun Microsystems, Inc. was a company that sold :computers, computer components, :computer software, and :information technology services. Sun was founded on February 24, 1982...

. The company's first CEO was Bill Graves, who held the position from 1987 to 1988. In 1988, John Morgridge
John Morgridge
John P. Morgridge is an American businessman who was the chairman of the board of Cisco Systems.- Background :Morgridge is from Wauwatosa, Wisconsin and attended Wauwatosa East High School. He graduated from the University of Wisconsin in 1955; while at Wisconsin he joined Delta Upsilon Fraternity...

 was appointed CEO.

On February 16, 1990, the company went public (with a market capitalization of $224 million) and was listed on the Nasdaq
NASDAQ
The NASDAQ Stock Market, also known as the NASDAQ, is an American stock exchange. "NASDAQ" originally stood for "National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotations". It is the second-largest stock exchange by market capitalization in the world, after the New York Stock Exchange. As of...

 stock exchange. On August 28, 1990, Lerner was fired; upon hearing the news, her husband Bosack resigned in protest. The couple walked away from Cisco with $170 million, 70% of which was committed to their own charity.

1991-1995: Routing and Ethernet switching

While Cisco was not the first company to develop and sell a router, it was one of the first to sell commercially successful routers supporting multiple network protocols. Classical, CPU-based architecture of early Cisco devices coupled with flexibility of operating system IOS
Cisco IOS
Cisco IOS is the software used on the vast majority of Cisco Systems routers and current Cisco network switches...

 allowed for keeping up with evolving technology needs by means of frequent software upgrades. Some models (such as Cisco 2500) managed to stay in production for 5–8 years virtually unchanged. Although Cisco products had their roots in the enterprise environment, the company was quick to capitalize in emerging service provider market as well, entering market with successful product lines such as Cisco 7500 and GSR
Cisco 12000
The Cisco 12000, also known as a Gigabit Switch Router or GSR, is a series of large network routers designed and manufactured by Cisco Systems. It is marketed primarily to large service providers, as well as for use in some enterprise networks...

.

Between 1992 and 1994, Cisco has also acquired several companies in Ethernet switching are, most notably Kalpana, Grand Junction and Crescendo Communications together forming Catalyst
Cisco Catalyst
Catalyst is the brand name for a variety of network switches sold by Cisco Systems. While commonly associated with Ethernet switches, a number of different interfaces have been available throughout the history of the brand. Cisco acquired several different companies and rebranded their products...

 product line. At the time, the company envisioned layer 3 routing and layer 2 (Ethernet
Ethernet
Ethernet is a family of computer networking technologies for local area networks commercially introduced in 1980. Standardized in IEEE 802.3, Ethernet has largely replaced competing wired LAN technologies....

, Token Ring) switching as complementary functions of different intelligence and architecture - the former was slow and complex, the latter was fast but simple.

In 1995, John Morgridge
John Morgridge
John P. Morgridge is an American businessman who was the chairman of the board of Cisco Systems.- Background :Morgridge is from Wauwatosa, Wisconsin and attended Wauwatosa East High School. He graduated from the University of Wisconsin in 1955; while at Wisconsin he joined Delta Upsilon Fraternity...

 was succeeded by John Chambers
John Chambers (CEO)
John T. Chambers is Chairman of the Board and CEO of Cisco Systems, Inc. Chambers joined Cisco in 1991 as senior vice president, Worldwide Sales and Operations. Since January 1995, when he assumed the role of CEO, the company has grown from $1.2 billion in annual revenues to its current run-rate...


1996-2005: Internet and silicon intelligence

The phenomenal growth of Internet
Internet
The Internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks that use the standard Internet protocol suite to serve billions of users worldwide...

 in mid-to late 1990s quickly changed telecom landscape. As the Internet Protocol
Internet Protocol
The Internet Protocol is the principal communications protocol used for relaying datagrams across an internetwork using the Internet Protocol Suite...

 (IP) became widely adopted, the importance of multi-protocol routing declined. Nevertheless, Cisco managed to capitalize on the Internet wave, with wide range of products that became vital to Internet service providers and by 1998 gave Cisco de-facto monopoly in this critical market segment.

In late March 2000, at the height of the dot-com boom, Cisco became the most valuable company in the world, with a market capitalization
Market capitalization
Market capitalization is a measurement of the value of the ownership interest that shareholders hold in a business enterprise. It is equal to the share price times the number of shares outstanding of a publicly traded company...

 of more than US$500 billion. In November 2011, with a market cap of about US$94 billion, it is still one of the most valuable companies.

Meanwhile, the growth of Internet bandwidth requirements kept challenging traditional, software-based packet processing architectures. The perceived complexity of programming routing functions in silicon led to formation of several startups determined to find new ways to process IP
Internet Protocol
The Internet Protocol is the principal communications protocol used for relaying datagrams across an internetwork using the Internet Protocol Suite...

 and MPLS
Mpls
MPLS or Mpls can refer to:* Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States* Multiprotocol Label Switching, a data-carrying mechanism in computer networking...

 packets entirely in hardware and blur boundaries between routing and switching. One of them, Juniper Networks
Juniper Networks
Juniper Networks is an information technology and computer networking products multinational company, founded in 1996. It is head quartered in Sunnyvale, California, USA. The company designs and sells high-performance Internet Protocol network products and services...

, shipped their first product in 1999 and by 2000 chipped away about 30% from Cisco SP Market share. Cisco answered the challenge with homegrown ASIC
ASIC
ASIC may refer to:* Application-specific integrated circuit, an integrated circuit developed for a particular use, as opposed to a customised general-purpose device.* ASIC programming language, a dialect of BASIC...

s and fast processing cards for GSR
Cisco 12000
The Cisco 12000, also known as a Gigabit Switch Router or GSR, is a series of large network routers designed and manufactured by Cisco Systems. It is marketed primarily to large service providers, as well as for use in some enterprise networks...

 routers and Catalyst 6500
Catalyst 6500
The Catalyst 6500 is a modular chassis network switch manufactured by Cisco Systems since 1999, capable of delivering speeds of up to "400 million packets per second"....

 switches. In 2004, Cisco also started migration to new high-end hardware CRS-1 and software architecture IOS-XR.

2006-current: The Human Network

As part of the massive rebranding campaign of 2006, Cisco Systems adopted the shortened name "Cisco" and created "The Human Network" advertising campaign. These efforts were meant to make Cisco a "household" brand - a strategy designed to support the low-end Linksys products and future consumer products (such as Flip Video
Flip Video
The Flip Video camera is a tapeless camcorder for digital video created by Pure Digital Technologies, a company bought by Cisco Systems in March 2009...

 camera acquired by Cisco in 2009).

As part of the company's overseas strategy, Cisco built substantial presence in India. It has established its Globalization Centre East in Bangalore
Bangalore
Bengaluru , formerly called Bengaluru is the capital of the Indian state of Karnataka. Bangalore is nicknamed the Garden City and was once called a pensioner's paradise. Located on the Deccan Plateau in the south-eastern part of Karnataka, Bangalore is India's third most populous city and...

 for $1 billion planning that 20% of Cisco's leaders will be based there. However, Cisco continued to be challenged by both domestic Alcatel-Lucent
Alcatel-Lucent
Alcatel-Lucent is a global telecommunications corporation, headquartered in the 7th arrondissement of Paris, France. It provides telecommunications solutions to service providers, enterprises, and governments around the world, enabling these customers to deliver voice, data, and video services...

, Juniper Networks
Juniper Networks
Juniper Networks is an information technology and computer networking products multinational company, founded in 1996. It is head quartered in Sunnyvale, California, USA. The company designs and sells high-performance Internet Protocol network products and services...

 and overseas competitors Huawei
Huawei
Huawei is a Chinese multinational networking and telecommunications equipment and services company headquartered in Shenzhen, Guangdong, China...

.

Due to lower than expected profit in 2011, Cisco was forced to reduce annual expenses by $1 billion. The company cut around 3,000 employees with an early-retirement program who accepted buyout and planned to eliminate as many as 10,000 jobs (around 14 percent of the 73,400 total employees before curtailment). During the 2011 analyst call, Cisco's CEO John Chambers called out several competitors by name, including Juniper and HP.

Media and awards

Cisco products, most notably IP phones and Telepresence are frequently sighted in movies and TV series The company itself and its history was featured in the documentary film Something Ventured which premiered in 2011.

Cisco was a 2002–03 recipient of the Ron Brown Award
Ron Brown Award
The Ron Brown Award for Corporate Leadership is a U.S. presidential honor to recognize companies "for the exemplary quality of their relationships with employees and communities"...

, a U.S. presidential honor to recognize companies "for the exemplary quality of their relationships with employees and communities". Cisco commonly stays on top of Fortune "100 Best Companies to work for", with position No. 20 in 2011

Major Acquisitions

Cisco acquired a variety of companies to bring in products and talent into the company. In 1995–1996 the company completed 11 acquisitions. Several acquisitions, such as Stratacom
StrataCom
StrataCom, Inc. was founded in Cupertino, California, USA, in January 1986 by 26 former employees of the failing Packet Technologies, Inc. StrataCom produced the first commercial cell switch, also known as a fast-packet switch. Its product was the working proof of the technology which became...

, were the biggest deals in the industry when they occurred. During the Internet boom in 1999, the company acquired Cerent Corporation
Cerent Corporation
Cerent Corporation was an optical equipment maker based in Petaluma, California. It was founded in 1997 as Fiberlane Communications with three divisions: Systems in Petaluma, Chip Design in Redwood City, California and Network Management Systems in Burnaby, British Columbia...

, a start-up company located in Petaluma, California
Petaluma, California
Petaluma is a city in Sonoma County, California, in the United States. In the 2010 Census the population was 57,941.Located in Petaluma is the Rancho Petaluma Adobe, a National Historic Landmark. It was built beginning in 1836 by General Mariano Guadalupe Vallejo, then Commandant of the San...

, for about US$7 billion. It was the most expensive acquisition made by Cisco to date, and only the acquisition of Scientific Atlanta has been larger. Several acquired companies have grown into $1Bn+ business units for Cisco, including LAN switching, Enterprise Voice over Internet Protocol (VOIP) platform Webex
WebEx
WebEx Communications Inc. is a Cisco company that provides on-demand collaboration, online meeting, web conferencing and videoconferencing applications...

, and home networking. The latter came as result of Cisco acquiring Linksys
Linksys
Linksys by Cisco, commonly known as Linksys, is a brand of home and small office networking products now produced by Cisco Systems, though once a separate company founded in 1995 before being acquired by Cisco in 2003...

 in 2003 and in 2010 was supplemented with new product line dubbed Cisco Valet.

In the recent merger deals, Cisco bought Starent Networks (a mobile technology company) and Moto Development Group, a product design consulting firm that helped develop Cisco's Flip video camera. Also in 2010, Cisco became a key stakeholder in e-Skills Week. In March 2011, Cisco completed the acquisition of privately held network configuration and change management solutions company Pari Networks.

Although many buy-ins (such as Crescendo Networks
Crescendo Networks
Crescendo Networks, Ltd. was a privately held computer networking company headquartered in Sunnyvale, California with regional offices in EMEA and APAC...

) in 1993 resulted in acquisition of flagship technology (e.g. Catalyst 6500
Catalyst 6500
The Catalyst 6500 is a modular chassis network switch manufactured by Cisco Systems since 1999, capable of delivering speeds of up to "400 million packets per second"....

) to Cisco, many others have failed - partially or completely. For instance, in 2010 Cisco occupied a meaningful share of the packet-optical market, revenues were still not on par with US$7 billion price tag paid in 1999 for Cerent
Cerent Corporation
Cerent Corporation was an optical equipment maker based in Petaluma, California. It was founded in 1997 as Fiberlane Communications with three divisions: Systems in Petaluma, Chip Design in Redwood City, California and Network Management Systems in Burnaby, British Columbia...

. Some of acquired technologies (such as Pure Digital
Flip Video
The Flip Video camera is a tapeless camcorder for digital video created by Pure Digital Technologies, a company bought by Cisco Systems in March 2009...

 in 2010) saw their products discontinued, while others like Cisco ūmi are receiving significant criticism.

Products and services

Cisco's current portfolio of products and services is focused upon three market segments – Enterprise and Service Provider, Small Business and the Home. The solutions for each market are segmented into Architectures, which form the basis for how Cisco approaches each market.
  • Corporate market: Enterprise networking and Service Providers
  • Borderless networks: for their range of routers, switches, wireless systems, security systems, WAN acceleration, energy and building management systems and media aware networks.
  • Collaboration: IP video and phones, TelePresence, HealthPresence, Unified Communications, Call Center systems, Enterprise social networks and Mobile applications
  • Datacenter and Virtualization: Unified Computing, Unified Fabric, Data Centre Switching, Storage Networking and Cloud services.
  • IP NGN (Next Generation Networks): High-end routing and switching for fixed and mobile service provider networks, broadcast video contribution/distribution, entitlement and content delivery systems.
  • Small businesses
  • Routers and switches
  • Security and surveillance: IP cameras, data and network security solutions etc.
  • Voice and conferencing solutions: VOIP phones and gateway-systems, WebEx, video conferencing
  • Wireless: WiFi Access points
  • Network storage systems
  • Home user
  • Linksys
    Linksys
    Linksys by Cisco, commonly known as Linksys, is a brand of home and small office networking products now produced by Cisco Systems, though once a separate company founded in 1995 before being acquired by Cisco in 2003...

     product line of access points, switches etc.
  • Broadband: cable modems
  • Cisco ūmi – video conferencing


Cisco also attempted to enter consumer market with a line of video recording devices dubbed "Flip". This move did not go well and on April 12, 2011, Cisco announced they were discontinuing all Flip camera production. It will no longer carry the making of Flip cameras.

Architectures

In an effort to allow their sales team to have more business-focused conversations with customers, as opposed to focussing on discussions around products, Cisco announced a new focus around six ‘Architectures’ in 2009. These are:
  • Borderless networks
  • Collaboration
  • Data center and virtualization
  • IP NGN (Next generation networks)
  • Small business
  • Consumer

Under these architectures, Cisco intends to gradually knit together its various products, and introduce new products and features in order to provide a complete set of capabilities in each area.

Hardware

  • Datacenter products: Nexus Switches (1000v, 2000, 4000, 5000, 7000
    Nexus 7000
    The Cisco Nexus Series switches are modular network switches designed for the data center. Cisco Systems introduced the Nexus Series of switches on January 28, 2008. The first chassis in the Nexus 7000 family is a 10-slot chassis with two supervisor engine slots and eight I/O module slots at the...

    ), MDS, Unified Computing System (UCS)
  • Flip
    Flip Video
    The Flip Video camera is a tapeless camcorder for digital video created by Pure Digital Technologies, a company bought by Cisco Systems in March 2009...

     pocket camera (Discontinued in April 2011)
  • Cisco SPA500 Series IP Phones
  • Linksys SPA900 Series IP Phones
  • Cisco Unified IP Phones (7945, 7965, 7942, 8900 series, 9900 series, 6900 series)
  • Cisco Application Control Engine (ACE): Application Delivery Controller
  • Routers, including: 837
    Cisco 837
    Cisco 837 is a router manufactured by Cisco Systems intended for SOHO network use. The device is typically used as an internet router via its ADSL WAN port...

    , 1000 Series
    Cisco 1000
    The Cisco 1000 Series were low end branch office routers. Available in fixed configurations supporting 10baseT ethernet, ISDN and serial interfaces. These routers are no longer supported and are replaced by the Cisco 800 Series routers...

    , 2500 Series
    Cisco 2500 series
    The Cisco 2500 series of routers are a series of 19" rack mount access routers typically used to connect Ethernet or token ring networks via ISDN or leased serial connections . The routers are based on a Motorola 68EC030 CISC processor. This line of routers is no longer sold or supported by Cisco...

    , 7600
    Cisco 7600
    The Cisco 7600 series is a series of large network routers designed and manufactured by Cisco Systems.-Key Features:* Chassis ranges: 3-slot , 4-slot , 6-slot , 9-slot and 13-slot ....

    , 12000
    Cisco 12000
    The Cisco 12000, also known as a Gigabit Switch Router or GSR, is a series of large network routers designed and manufactured by Cisco Systems. It is marketed primarily to large service providers, as well as for use in some enterprise networks...

    , 3600 Series, ASR Series and CRS-1 and CRS-3
    Carrier Routing System
    Carrier Routing System is a large-scale core router, developed by Cisco Systems, Inc. It runs IOS XR which is a train of IOS built upon the QNX microkernel. A single chassis holds a maximum of 16 line cards, and can run an OC-768 SONET interface...

  • Cisco Security Manager
    Cisco Security Manager
    Cisco Security Manager is an Enterprise software management application designed to configure firewall, VPN, and Intrusion-prevention system security services on Cisco network and security devices...

  • Security appliances: ASA 5500, PIX 500 series
    Cisco PIX
    Cisco PIX is a popular IP firewall and network address translation appliance. It was one of the first products in this market segment....

  • Unified Computing: Cisco Unified Computing System
    Cisco Unified Computing System
    The Cisco Unified Computing System is a computer data center marketing program composed of computing hardware, virtualization software, switching fabric, and management software. The idea behind the system is to reduce total cost of ownership and improve scalability by integrating the different...

     (UCS) virtual server platform: with VMWare
    VMware
    VMware, Inc. is a company providing virtualization software founded in 1998 and based in Palo Alto, California, USA. The company was acquired by EMC Corporation in 2004, and operates as a separate software subsidiary ....

     virtualization system run servers on Cisco hardware
  • Catalyst switch
    Catalyst switch
    Catalyst is the brand name for a variety of network switches sold by Cisco Systems. While commonly associated with Ethernet switches, a number of different interfaces have been available throughout the history of the brand. Cisco acquired several different companies and rebranded their products...

    es: Cisco Catalyst 2900 Series, Cisco Catalyst 3000 Series, Catalyst 4500
    Cisco Catalyst 4500 Series Switches
    The Cisco Catalyst 4500 is a mid-range modular chassis network switch manufactured by Cisco Systems. A Cisco Catalyst 4500 comprises a chassis, power supplies, one or two supervisors, line cards and service modules. The Cisco Catalyst 4500 Series includes two series of Catalyst chassis: The Classic...

    , Cisco Catalyst 6500 Series
    Catalyst 6500
    The Catalyst 6500 is a modular chassis network switch manufactured by Cisco Systems since 1999, capable of delivering speeds of up to "400 million packets per second"....

  • Collaboration systems such as Cisco TelePresence
    Cisco Telepresence
    Cisco TelePresence, first introduced in October 2006, is a product developed by Cisco Systems which provides high-definition 1080p video, spatial audio, and a setup designed to link two physically separated rooms so they resemble a single conference room even though the two rooms may be on opposite...

    , Cisco Manufacturing Mobile Video Collaboration with Librestream
    Librestream
    Librestream Technologies Inc. is a privately-owned, venture capital backed company based in Winnipeg, Canada. Librestream provides technologies that enable mobile enterprise collaboration....

    , Cisco acquired Tandberg
    Tandberg
    This article is about the video-conferencing vendor, a Cisco company. Other companies with the same name such as Tandberg Television or Tandberg Data for data storage: see here and here...

    , the world leader in Telepresence systems
  • VOIP: Wireless IP Phone 7920
    Cisco Wireless IP Phone 7920
    The Wireless IP Phone 7920 is a mobile phone branded by Cisco Systems, Inc. that communicates via IEEE 802.11b technology. According to C. Giancarlo, senior vice-president of switching, voice, and carrier systems at Cisco , the 7920 was not intended to replace traditional mobile phones...

  • CLEO: Low Earth Orbit router
  • Cisco Wireless LAN
  • Cisco Cius: a new Android-based collaboration tablet
  • Cisco Wide Area Application Services
    Wide area application services
    Cisco Wide Area Application Services is technology developed by Cisco Systems that optimizes the performance of any TCP-based application operating in a wide area network environment while preserving and strengthening branch security...

     (WAAS)
  • Set Top Boxes (High Definition PVRs)- Cable/IP

Software

  • Internetwork Operating System (IOS)
  • NX-OS
    NX-OS
    NX-OS is a network operating system designed by Cisco Systems for their own Nexus series Ethernet switches and MDS series Fibre Channel storage area network switches. NX-OS is designed to support high performance, high reliability server access switches used in the data center...

  • IOS-XR
    IOS XR
    IOS XR is a train of Cisco Systems' widely deployed Internetworking Operating System , used on their high-end carrier-grade routers such as the CRS-1, 12000, and ASR9000 series.-Architecture:...

  • Cisco Active Network Abstraction
  • Cisco Fabric Manager
  • Cisco AnyConnect Secure Mobility Client
  • Cisco Systems VPN Client
    Cisco Systems VPN Client
    The Cisco Systems VPN Client enables computers to connect to a virtual private network. The client makes remote resources of another network available in a secure way as if the user was connected directly to that "private" network.- Installation :...

  • CiscoView
  • Data Center Management and Automation – Cisco Intelligent Automation
  • CiscoWorks Network Management
    Network management
    Network management refers to the activities, methods, procedures, and tools that pertain to the operation, administration, maintenance, and provisioning of networked systems....

     software
  • Clean Access Agent, Cisco NAC Appliance
    Cisco NAC Appliance
    Cisco NAC Appliance, formerly Cisco Clean Access , is a network admission control system developed by Cisco Systems designed to produce a secure and clean network environment -- the NAC appliance is however still referred to as Cisco Clean Access by some in the industry or Universities such as...

  • Cisco Eos
    Cisco Eos
    Cisco Eos was a software platform for Media & Entertainment companies developed by the Cisco Media Solutions GroupUnlike the Canon EOS product, Cisco says that "Eos" is not an acronym, but is pronounced as a word Eos is reported to be focused on helping M&E companies connect with online fans...

  • Packet Tracer
    Packet Tracer
    Packet Tracer is a Cisco router simulator that can be utilized in training and education, but also in research for simple computer network simulations. The tool is created by Cisco Systems and provided for free distribution to faculty, students, and alumni who are or have participated in the Cisco...

    , didactic network simulator
  • Cisco Network Magic Pro
  • Cisco Unified Communications Manager
  • Cisco IP Communicator
    Cisco IP Communicator
    Cisco IP Communicator is a VoIP softphone software application. It can register with a Cisco Unified Communications Manager or Cisco Unified Communications Manager Express using either SIP or Cisco's proprietary Skinny Client Control Protocol....

  • Cisco Quad
  • Cisco Security Manager
    Cisco Security Manager
    Cisco Security Manager is an Enterprise software management application designed to configure firewall, VPN, and Intrusion-prevention system security services on Cisco network and security devices...

  • WebEx
    WebEx
    WebEx Communications Inc. is a Cisco company that provides on-demand collaboration, online meeting, web conferencing and videoconferencing applications...

     Collaboration Tools

VoIP services

Cisco became a major provider of Voice over IP
Voice over IP
Voice over Internet Protocol is a family of technologies, methodologies, communication protocols, and transmission techniques for the delivery of voice communications and multimedia sessions over Internet Protocol networks, such as the Internet...

 to enterprises, and is now moving into the home user market through its acquisitions of Scientific Atlanta and Linksys
Linksys
Linksys by Cisco, commonly known as Linksys, is a brand of home and small office networking products now produced by Cisco Systems, though once a separate company founded in 1995 before being acquired by Cisco in 2003...

. Scientific Atlanta provides VoIP equipment to cable service providers such as Time Warner
Time Warner
Time Warner is one of the world's largest media companies, headquartered in the Time Warner Center in New York City. Formerly two separate companies, Warner Communications, Inc...

, Cablevision, Rogers Communications
Rogers Communications
Rogers Communications Inc. is one of Canada's largest communications companies, particularly in the field of wireless communications, cable television, home phone and internet with additional telecommunications and mass media assets...

, UPC, and others; Linksys
Linksys
Linksys by Cisco, commonly known as Linksys, is a brand of home and small office networking products now produced by Cisco Systems, though once a separate company founded in 1995 before being acquired by Cisco in 2003...

 has partnered with companies such as Skype
Skype
Skype is a software application that allows users to make voice and video calls and chat over the Internet. Calls to other users within the Skype service are free, while calls to both traditional landline telephones and mobile phones can be made for a fee using a debit-based user account system...

 and Yahoo to integrate consumer VoIP services with wireless and cordless phones.

Hosted Collaboration Solution

Cisco partners can now offer cloud-based services based on Cisco's virtualized Unified Computing System (UCS). A part of the Cisco Unified Services Delivery Solution, it will include hosted versions of Cisco Unified Communications Manager (UCM), Cisco Unified Contact Center, Cisco Unified Mobility, Cisco Unified Presence, Cisco Unity Connection (unified messaging), and Cisco Webex Meeting Center.

Network Emergency Response

The company maintains several Network Emergency Response Vehicles (NERV)s which are staffed by Cisco employees during natural disasters and other public crises. The vehicles are self contained and provide wired and wireless services including voice and radio interoperability, voice over IP, network based video surveillance and secured high definition video conferencing for leaders and first responders in crisis areas with up to 5 Mbps of bandwidth via a 1.8-meter satellite antenna. NERVs are normally stored at Cisco facilities in San Jose, California and Research Triangle Park, North Carolina for strategic deployment in North America and are capable of being fully operational within 15 minutes of arrival, running for 72 hours continuously. The NERV has been deployed to incidents such as the October 2007 California wildfires
October 2007 California wildfires
The October 2007 California wildfires were a series of wildfires that began burning across Southern California on October 20. At least 1,500 homes were destroyed and over 500,000 acres of land burned from Santa Barbara County to the U.S.–Mexico border...

; hurricanes Gustav
Hurricane Gustav
The name Gustav has been used for five tropical cyclones in the Atlantic Ocean:* 1984's Tropical Storm Gustav - Spent most of its existence as a tropical depression hovering over Bermuda, no major damage was reported....

, Ike
Hurricane Ike
Hurricane Ike was the second-costliest hurricane ever to make landfall in the United States, the costliest hurricane ever to impact Cuba and the second most active hurricane to reach the Canadian mainland in the Great Lakes Region after Hurricane Hazel in 1954...

, and Katrina
Hurricane Katrina
Hurricane Katrina of the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season was a powerful Atlantic hurricane. It is the costliest natural disaster, as well as one of the five deadliest hurricanes, in the history of the United States. Among recorded Atlantic hurricanes, it was the sixth strongest overall...

; the 2010 San Bruno gas pipeline explosion
2010 San Bruno pipeline explosion
The 2010 San Bruno pipeline explosion occurred at 6:11 p.m. PDT on September 9, 2010, in San Bruno, California, a suburb of San Francisco, when a 30 inch diameter steel natural gas pipeline owned by Pacific Gas & Electric exploded in flames in the Crestmoor residential neighborhood west of...

; and tornado outbreaks in North Carolina
April 14–16, 2011 tornado outbreak
One of the largest single-system tornado outbreaks in United States history occurred from April 14 to 16, 2011, resulting in 178 confirmed tornadoes across 16 states and severe destruction on all three days of the outbreak. A total of 38 people were killed from tornadoes and an additional five...

 and Alabama
April 25–28, 2011 tornado outbreak
An extremely large and violent tornado outbreak, the largest tornado outbreak ever recorded, and popularly known as the 2011 Super Outbreak, occurred from April 25 to 28, 2011. The outbreak affected the Southern, Midwestern, and Northeastern United States, leaving catastrophic destruction in...

 in 2011. In 2011, Cisco received the Innovation Preparedness award from the American Red Cross
American Red Cross
The American Red Cross , also known as the American National Red Cross, is a volunteer-led, humanitarian organization that provides emergency assistance, disaster relief and education inside the United States. It is the designated U.S...

, Silicon Valley Chapter for its development and use of these vehicles in disasters.

Cisco Career Certifications

Cisco Systems also sponsors a line of IT Professional certifications
Professional certification (Computer technology)
Professional certifications in computer technology are non-degree awards made to those who have achieved qualifications specified by a certifying authority. Depending on the particular certification, qualifications may include completing a course of study, proof of professional accomplishments,...

 for Cisco products. There are five levels of certification: Entry, Associate, Professional, Expert, and recently Architect, as well as eight different paths, Routing & Switching, Design, Network Security, Service Provider, the newly introduced Service Provider Operations, Storage Networking, Voice, and Wireless.

Cisco also provides training for these certifications via a portal called the Cisco Networking Academy. Qualifying schools can become members of the Cisco Networking Academy and then provide CCNA level or other level courses. Cisco Academy Instructors must be CCNA certified to be a CCAI certified instructor.

Shareholder relations

A class action lawsuit filed on April 20, 2001 accused Cisco of making misleading statements that "were relied on by purchasers of Cisco stock" and of insider trading
Insider trading
Insider trading is the trading of a corporation's stock or other securities by individuals with potential access to non-public information about the company...

. While Cisco denied all allegations in the suit, on August 18, 2006, Cisco's liability insurers, its directors, and officers paid the plaintiffs US$91.75 million to settle the suit.

Intellectual property disputes

On December 11, 2008, the Free Software Foundation
Free Software Foundation
The Free Software Foundation is a non-profit corporation founded by Richard Stallman on 4 October 1985 to support the free software movement, a copyleft-based movement which aims to promote the universal freedom to create, distribute and modify computer software...

 filed suit against Cisco regarding Cisco's failure to comply with the GPL and LGPL license models and make the applicable source code publicly available. On May 20, 2009, Cisco settled this lawsuit by complying with FSF licensing terms and making a monetary contribution to the FSF.

Censorship in China

Cisco has been criticized for its involvement in censorship in the People's Republic of China
Censorship in the People's Republic of China
Censorship in the People's Republic of China is implemented or mandated by the PRC's ruling party, the Communist Party of China . The special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau have their own legal systems and are largely self-governing, so these censorship policies do not apply...

. According to author Ethan Gutmann, Cisco and other telecommunications equipment providers supplied the Chinese government
People's Republic of China
China , officially the People's Republic of China , is the most populous country in the world, with over 1.3 billion citizens. Located in East Asia, the country covers approximately 9.6 million square kilometres...

 with surveillance and Internet infrastructure equipment that is used to block Internet websites and track Chinese on-line activities. Cisco says that it does not customize or develop specialized or unique filtering capabilities to enable governments to block access to information and that it sells the same equipment in China as it sells worldwide.

Wired News
Wired News
Wired News is an online technology news website, formerly known as HotWired, that split off from Wired magazine when the magazine was purchased by Condé Nast Publishing in the 1990s. Wired News was owned by Lycos not long after the split, until Condé Nast purchased Wired News on July 11, 2006...

 had uncovered a leaked, confidential Cisco powerpoint presentation that details the commercial opportunities of the Golden Shield Project
Golden Shield Project
The Golden Shield Project , colloquially referred to as the Great Firewall of China is a censorship and surveillance project operated by the Ministry of Public Security division of the government of the People's Republic of China...

 of Internet control. In her article, journalist Sarah Stirland accuses Cisco of marketing its technology "specifically as a tool of repression."

Tax fraud investigation

On October 16, 2007, the Brazilian Federal Police
Brazilian Federal Police
The Polícia Federal is the federal police force of Brazil subordinate to the Ministry of Justice, whose main assignments are the investigations of crimes against the Federal Government or its organs and companies, the combat of international drug trafficking and terrorism, and immigration and...

 and Brazilian Receita Federal (equivalent to the American IRS
Internal Revenue Service
The Internal Revenue Service is the revenue service of the United States federal government. The agency is a bureau of the Department of the Treasury, and is under the immediate direction of the Commissioner of Internal Revenue...

) under the "Persona Operation" uncovered an alleged tax fraud scheme employed by Cisco Systems since 2002 that exempted the company from paying over R$
Brazilian real
The real is the present-day currency of Brazil. Its sign is R$ and its ISO code is BRL. It is subdivided into 100 centavos ....

1.5 billion (US$824 million) in taxes.

Antitrust lawsuit

On December 1, 2008, Multiven
Multiven
Multiven, Inc. provides multi-vendor Internet Protocol network infrastructure technical support, maintenance and consulting services. to Large Enterprises, Internet Service Providers, Small, Medium Businesses, and Government agencies.- History :...

 filed an antitrust
Antitrust
The United States antitrust law is a body of laws that prohibits anti-competitive behavior and unfair business practices. Antitrust laws are intended to encourage competition in the marketplace. These competition laws make illegal certain practices deemed to hurt businesses or consumers or both,...

 lawsuit against Cisco Systems, Inc. in an effort to open up the network maintenance services marketplace for Cisco equipment, promote competition and ensure consumer choice and value. Multiven's complaint alleges that Cisco harmed Multiven and consumers by bundling and tying bug
Software bug
A software bug is the common term used to describe an error, flaw, mistake, failure, or fault in a computer program or system that produces an incorrect or unexpected result, or causes it to behave in unintended ways. Most bugs arise from mistakes and errors made by people in either a program's...

 fixes/patches and updates for its operating system
Operating system
An operating system is a set of programs that manage computer hardware resources and provide common services for application software. The operating system is the most important type of system software in a computer system...

 software to its maintenance services (SMARTnet
Smartnet
Smartnet IBC LTD is a company with a portfolio filled with web sites specialized at helping communities of graphic artists, sculptors and painters from all over the world. The main idea of the project is to focus on the needs of artists for photographical references for creating and texturing 3D...

) and through a series of other illegal exclusionary and anticompetitive acts designed to maintain Cisco's alleged monopoly in the network maintenance services market for Cisco networking equipment. Cisco responded by accusing the person who filed the anti-trust suit, British born Peter Alfred-Adekeye, with hacking and pressured the US government to extradite him from Canada where he was giving evidence against Cisco in an anti-trust hearing. Canadian Judge Ronald McKinnon, who oversaw the extradition hearing, stated the real reason for the extradition proceedings was because Alfred-Adekeye "dared to take on a multinational giant." He also condemned the US prosecutor for hiding the fact that Alfred-Adekeye was in legal proceedings against Cisco Systems, for stating that Alfred-Adekeye had left the USA in a time period when he had not and a formal request for extradition was not filed against Alfred-Adekeye when he was taken into custody. Judge McKinnon described the information provided by Cisco and the US prosecutor as "full of innuendo, half-truths and falsehoods" adding "This speaks volumes for Cisco's duplicity" and accused them of "unmitigated gall" in using such a heavy-handed move as an unsupportable arrest and jailing to pressure Alfred-Adekeye to drop or settle his civil antitrust complaint.

See also


Further reading

  • Bunnell, D. & Brate, A. (2001). Die Cisco Story (in German). Moderne Industrie. ISBN 3-478-35995-3.
  • Bunnell, D. (2000). Making the Cisco Connection: The Story Behind the Real Internet Superpower. Wiley. ISBN 0-471-35711-1.
  • Paulson, E. (2001). Inside Cisco: The Real Story of Sustained M&A Growth. Wiley. ISBN 0-471-41425-5.
  • Slater, R. (2003). The Eye of the Storm: How John Chambers Steered Cisco Through the Technology Collapse. HarperCollins. ISBN 0-06-018887-1.
  • Stauffer, D. (2001). Nothing but Net Business the Cisco Way. Wiley. ISBN 1-84112-087-1.
  • Waters, J. K. (2002). John Chambers and the Cisco Way: Navigating Through Volatility. Wiley. ISBN 0-471-00833-8.
  • Young, J. S. (2001). Cisco Unauthorized: Inside the High-Stakes Race to Own the Future. Prima Lifestyles. ISBN 0-7615-2775-3.


External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
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