Chinese Filipino
Overview
 
A Chinese Filipino is a Philippine national of Chinese
Han Chinese
Han Chinese are an ethnic group native to China and are the largest single ethnic group in the world.Han Chinese constitute about 92% of the population of the People's Republic of China , 98% of the population of the Republic of China , 78% of the population of Singapore, and about 20% of the...

 ethnicity but born/raised in the Philippines
Philippines
The Philippines , officially known as the Republic of the Philippines , is a country in Southeast Asia in the western Pacific Ocean. To its north across the Luzon Strait lies Taiwan. West across the South China Sea sits Vietnam...

.

Many, if not all people in the Philippines
Philippines
The Philippines , officially known as the Republic of the Philippines , is a country in Southeast Asia in the western Pacific Ocean. To its north across the Luzon Strait lies Taiwan. West across the South China Sea sits Vietnam...

, including Chinese Filipinos themselves, use and accept the term "Filipino Chinese"/"Filipino-Chinese". However, this is inconsistent with US English
American English
American English is a set of dialects of the English language used mostly in the United States. Approximately two-thirds of the world's native speakers of English live in the United States....

 usage, on which Philippine English
Philippine English
Philippine English is the variety of English used in the Philippines by the media and the vast majority of educated Filipinos. English is taught in schools as one of the two official languages of the country, the other being Filipino, a standardized version of Tagalog.English is used in education,...

 is largely based. Despite its inconsistency with American English, the term remains to be the officially accepted reference in the Philippines.
The term "Chinese Filipino" may or may not be hyphenated.
Encyclopedia
A Chinese Filipino is a Philippine national of Chinese
Han Chinese
Han Chinese are an ethnic group native to China and are the largest single ethnic group in the world.Han Chinese constitute about 92% of the population of the People's Republic of China , 98% of the population of the Republic of China , 78% of the population of Singapore, and about 20% of the...

 ethnicity but born/raised in the Philippines
Philippines
The Philippines , officially known as the Republic of the Philippines , is a country in Southeast Asia in the western Pacific Ocean. To its north across the Luzon Strait lies Taiwan. West across the South China Sea sits Vietnam...

.

Many, if not all people in the Philippines
Philippines
The Philippines , officially known as the Republic of the Philippines , is a country in Southeast Asia in the western Pacific Ocean. To its north across the Luzon Strait lies Taiwan. West across the South China Sea sits Vietnam...

, including Chinese Filipinos themselves, use and accept the term "Filipino Chinese"/"Filipino-Chinese". However, this is inconsistent with US English
American English
American English is a set of dialects of the English language used mostly in the United States. Approximately two-thirds of the world's native speakers of English live in the United States....

 usage, on which Philippine English
Philippine English
Philippine English is the variety of English used in the Philippines by the media and the vast majority of educated Filipinos. English is taught in schools as one of the two official languages of the country, the other being Filipino, a standardized version of Tagalog.English is used in education,...

 is largely based. Despite its inconsistency with American English, the term remains to be the officially accepted reference in the Philippines.

Spelling

The term "Chinese Filipino" may or may not be hyphenated. The website of the organization Kaisa para sa Kaunlaran (Unity for Progress) omits the hyphen, adding that Chinese Filipino is the noun where "Chinese" is an adjective to the noun "Filipino." The Chicago Manual of Style
The Chicago Manual of Style
The Chicago Manual of Style is a style guide for American English published since 1906 by the University of Chicago Press. Its 16 editions have prescribed writing and citation styles widely used in publishing...

and the APA
APA style
American Psychological Association Style is a set of rules that authors use when submitting papers for publications in APA journals. The APA states that they were developed to assist reading comprehension in the social and behavioral sciences, for clarity of communication, and to "move the idea...

, among others, also recommend dropping the hyphen. When used as an adjective, "Chinese Filipino" may take on a hyphenated form or may remain unchanged. For instance, when hyphenated, "Chinese-Filipino community," "Chinese-Filipino Catholic," or "Chinese-Filipino student." Chicago style, on the other hand, explicitly advises against using the hyphen even when "Chinese Filipino" is used as an adjective. For instance, "Chinese Filipino student" and "Chinese Filipino community", but "Chinese-Filipino Catholic" or "Chinese-Filipino Buddhist" given that three consecutive words are capitalized and that Filipino in that sense is linked to Chinese rather than being an adjective to Catholic or Buddhist.

Terminology

Different terminologies are used to refer to Chinese Filipinos (Philippine nationals of Chinese ethnicity), as follows:
  • Of pure Chinese descent: Chinese (English), Tsino/Chino (Filipino, Spanish), and Lan-nang
    Lan-nang
    Lan-nang is the Philippine variant of Hokkien. It is a subdialect of the Amoy dialect of Xiamen, Fujian, China. Lan-nang is spoken among the Chinese and Filipino residents of the Philippines. It is characterized by loanwords from Tagalog, Spanish, and Cantonese, as well as its emphasis on...

    (Hokkien
    Hokkien
    Hokkien is a Hokkien word corresponding to Standard Chinese "Fujian". It may refer to:* Hokkien dialect, a dialect of Min Nan Chinese spoken in Southern Fujian , Taiwan, South-east Asia, and elsewhere....

    )
  • Of mixed Chinese and indigenous Filipino descent: Filipino Chinese/Chinese Filipino/Philippine Chinese (Eng.), Tsinoy/Chinoy (Fil., Sp.), and Chhut-si-ia (Hokkien)
  • Of mixed Chinese and Spanish descent: Tornatras
    Tornatras
    Tornatrás is an outdated term used in Spain to describe a person of mixed European and albino ancestry or a descendant of mestizos and specific characteristics of one of the original races...

    (Eng., Fil., Sp.; archaic)


There are also a variety of Chinese terms in use:
  • 華人 -- Huárén -- a generic term for referring to Chinese people, without implication as to nationality
  • 華僑 -- Huáqiáo -- Overseas Chinese, usually China-born Chinese who have emigrated elsewhere
  • 華裔 -- Huáyì -- People of Chinese ancestry who were born in, residents of and citizens of another country


During the Spanish Colonial Period
History of the Philippines (1521–1898)
This article covers the history of the Philippines from the arrival of European explorer Ferdinand Magellan in 1521, up to the end of Spanish rule in 1898.-Spanish expeditions and conquest:...

, the term Sangley
Sangley
Sangley , is an archaic term used in the Philippines to describe and classify a person of pure Chinese ancestry, while mestizo de sangley was used to refer to a person of mixed Chinese and indigenous ancestry Sangley (Sangleye, Sangley Mestizo, Mestisong Sangley, Mestizo de Sangley or Chinese...

 was used to refer to people of unmixed Chinese ancestry while the term Mestizo de Sangley
Sangley
Sangley , is an archaic term used in the Philippines to describe and classify a person of pure Chinese ancestry, while mestizo de sangley was used to refer to a person of mixed Chinese and indigenous ancestry Sangley (Sangleye, Sangley Mestizo, Mestisong Sangley, Mestizo de Sangley or Chinese...

 was used to classify persons of mixed Chinese and indigenous Filipino ancestry; both are now out of date in terms of usage.

"Indigenous Filipino" is used in this article to refer to the Austronesian
Filipino people
The Filipino people or Filipinos are an Austronesian ethnic group native to the islands of the Philippines. There are about 92 million Filipinos in the Philippines, and about 11 million living outside the Philippines ....

 inhabitants prior to the Spanish Conquest of the islands. During the Spanish Colonial Period, the term Indio
Indio
Indio may refer to:* Indio, California* Indio, person of indigenous peoples of the Americas* The Spanish Colonial racial term for the native Austronesian peoples of the Philippines between the 16th and 19th centuriesSpecific people:...

 was used.

Overview

The Chinese Filipinos has always been one of the largest ethnic Filipino groups in the country
Ethnic groups in the Philippines
The Philippine islands are inhabited by number of different ethnic groups. The majority of the population is composed of ethnolinguistic groups whose languages are Austronesian in origin. Many of these groups converted to Christianity, and adopted many foreign elements of culture...

 with Chinese immigrants comprising the largest group of immigrant settlers in the Philippines. They are one of the three major ethnic groupings in the Philippines, namely: Christian Filipinos (73% of the population-including indigenous ethnic minorities), Muslim Filipinos (5% of the population) and Chinese Filipinos (22% of the population-including Chinese Mestizos
Sangley
Sangley , is an archaic term used in the Philippines to describe and classify a person of pure Chinese ancestry, while mestizo de sangley was used to refer to a person of mixed Chinese and indigenous ancestry Sangley (Sangleye, Sangley Mestizo, Mestisong Sangley, Mestizo de Sangley or Chinese...

). [For correction the Chinese Filipinos are of Han ethnicity to be compared with the Tagalog and Tausug and Pampango ethnicities. Religion is not an ethnicity]. Today, most Chinese Filipinos are locally born. The rate of intermarriage between Chinese settlers and indigenous Filipinos is among the highest in Southeast Asia, exceeded only by Thailand
Thailand
Thailand , officially the Kingdom of Thailand , formerly known as Siam , is a country located at the centre of the Indochina peninsula and Southeast Asia. It is bordered to the north by Burma and Laos, to the east by Laos and Cambodia, to the south by the Gulf of Thailand and Malaysia, and to the...

. However, intermarriages occurred mostly during the Spanish colonial period because Chinese immigrants to the Philippines up to the 19th century were predominantly male. It was only in the 20th century that Chinese women and children came in comparable numbers. Today, Chinese Filipino male and female populations are practically equal in numbers. These Chinese mestizos, products of intermarriages during the Spanish colonial period, then often opted to marry other Chinese or Chinese mestizos. Generally, Chinese mestizos is a term referring to people with a partial Chinese ancestry.

By this definition, the ethnically Chinese Filipinos comprise 1.3% (1.1 million) of the population. This figure however does not include the Chinese mestizos who since Spanish times have formed a part of the middle class in Philippine society nor does it include Chinese immigrants from the People's Republic of China since 1949.

Ethnicity

Most Chinese in the Philippines belong to either the Fujianese or Cantonese dialect groups of the Han Chinese ethnicity. Most unmixed Chinese in the Philippines come from the province of Fujian in China and are thus called Fujianese, or Hoklo. They speak the Lan-nang
Lan-nang
Lan-nang is the Philippine variant of Hokkien. It is a subdialect of the Amoy dialect of Xiamen, Fujian, China. Lan-nang is spoken among the Chinese and Filipino residents of the Philippines. It is characterized by loanwords from Tagalog, Spanish, and Cantonese, as well as its emphasis on...

 (Philippine) variant of the Minnan Chinese dialect, which is further subdivided into several sub-dialects. The most common Minnan (Southern Fujianese) dialect in the Philippines is the Xiamen
Xiamen
Xiamen , also known as Amoy , is a major city on the southeast coast of the People's Republic of China. It is administered as a sub-provincial city of Fujian province with an area of and population of 3.53 million...

 dialect, which is mutually intelligible with the Quanzhou
Quanzhou
Quanzhou is a prefecture-level city in Fujian province, People's Republic of China. It borders all other prefecture-level cities in Fujian but two and faces the Taiwan Strait...

 dialect, another common dialect in the Philippines. The rest of the unmixed Chinese in the Philippines are mostly of Cantonese origin, with large numbers of descendants originally from the Taishan
Taishan
Taishan is a coastal county-level city in Guangdong Province, China. The city is part of the Greater Taishan Region....

 city of Guangdong
Guangdong
Guangdong is a province on the South China Sea coast of the People's Republic of China. The province was previously often written with the alternative English name Kwangtung Province...

 province in Southern China. They speak the Cantonese dialect group/language, although many are raised to speak only the Minnan dialect. Most are not as economically prosperous as their Fujianese cousins in Philippine society. Some ghettoes of the Cantonese people are found in Santa Mesa, Manila
Santa Mesa, Manila
Santa Mesa is one of the 16 geographical districts of the city of Manila, which is primarily a residential, commercial and educational center. Santa Mesa is bounded by several districts and cities...

 and in Tondo
Tondo, Manila
Tondo is a district of Manila, Philippines. The locale has existed prior to the arrival of the Spanish, referred to as "Tundun" in the Laguna Copperplate Inscription. One of the most densely populated areas of land in the world, Tondo is located in the northwest portion of the city and is primarily...

. There are also a minority of Cantonese who have Portuguese
Portuguese people
The Portuguese are a nation and ethnic group native to the country of Portugal, in the west of the Iberian peninsula of south-west Europe. Their language is Portuguese, and Roman Catholicism is the predominant religion....

 ancestry - they are the Macanese
Macanese
Macanese may refer to:* Macanese people, the people of Macau* Macanese people , an ethnic group in Macau of mainly Portuguese, and some with African, Cantonese, South Asian, Southeast Asian or other origins...

 from Macau
Macau
Macau , also spelled Macao , is, along with Hong Kong, one of the two special administrative regions of the People's Republic of China...

. Other non-resident Chinese in the Philippines, such as expatriates and envoys are of Beijing, Shanghainese
Shanghainese
Shanghainese , or the Shanghai language , is a dialect of Wu Chinese spoken in the city of Shanghai and the surrounding region. It is classified as part of the Sino-Tibetan family of languages. Shanghainese, like other Wu dialects, is largely not mutually intelligible with other Chinese varieties...

, or origin from other Provinces of China.

Mestizos

Chinese mestizo
Mestizo
Mestizo is a term traditionally used in Latin America, Philippines and Spain for people of mixed European and Native American heritage or descent...

s are persons of mixed Chinese and either indigenous Malay or Spanish (or both) ancestry. They make up 20% of the country's total population (those who are pure blooded or at least 50% Chinese make up at least 2% of the population). A number of Chinese mestizos have surnames that reflect their heritage, mostly two or three syllables that have Chinese roots (e.g., the full name of a Chinese ancestor) with a Hispanized phonetic spelling. The Chinese mestizos may also be known as Tsinoys (alternatively spelled as "Chinoy"), although this term may also refer to the full-blooded Chinese Filipinos; and/or Chinito, a term that largely denotes physical characteristics (referring to slanted eyes) rather than ethnic origin or cultural orientation. During Spanish times, they were legally classified as Mestizo de Sangley
Sangley
Sangley , is an archaic term used in the Philippines to describe and classify a person of pure Chinese ancestry, while mestizo de sangley was used to refer to a person of mixed Chinese and indigenous ancestry Sangley (Sangleye, Sangley Mestizo, Mestisong Sangley, Mestizo de Sangley or Chinese...

 which was printed on their cedulas or community tax certificates.

During the Spanish colonial period, the Spanish authorities encouraged the Chinese male immigrants to convert to Catholicism. Those who converted got baptized and their names Hispanized, and were allowed to intermarry with indigenous Malay women. They and their mestizo offspring became colonial subjects of the Spanish crown, and as such were granted several privileges and afforded numerous opportunities denied to the unconverted Chinese. Starting as traders, they branched out into land leasing, money lending and later landholding.

Chinese mestizo men and women were encouraged to marry Spanish and Malay women and men, by means of dowries, in a policy to mix the races of the Philippines so it would be impossible to expel the Spanish.

Language

Most of the Chinese in the Philippines trace their ancestry to the southern part of Fujian
Fujian
' , formerly romanised as Fukien or Huguing or Foukien, is a province on the southeast coast of mainland China. Fujian is bordered by Zhejiang to the north, Jiangxi to the west, and Guangdong to the south. Taiwan lies to the east, across the Taiwan Strait...

 province in China, also known as the Min-nan region. The Lan-nang
Lan-nang
Lan-nang is the Philippine variant of Hokkien. It is a subdialect of the Amoy dialect of Xiamen, Fujian, China. Lan-nang is spoken among the Chinese and Filipino residents of the Philippines. It is characterized by loanwords from Tagalog, Spanish, and Cantonese, as well as its emphasis on...

  variant of Hokkien
Hokkien
Hokkien is a Hokkien word corresponding to Standard Chinese "Fujian". It may refer to:* Hokkien dialect, a dialect of Min Nan Chinese spoken in Southern Fujian , Taiwan, South-east Asia, and elsewhere....

 is the lingua franca of the Chinese Filipino community. The rest are descendants of migrants from Guangdong
Guangdong
Guangdong is a province on the South China Sea coast of the People's Republic of China. The province was previously often written with the alternative English name Kwangtung Province...

, Hong Kong
Hong Kong
Hong Kong is one of two Special Administrative Regions of the People's Republic of China , the other being Macau. A city-state situated on China's south coast and enclosed by the Pearl River Delta and South China Sea, it is renowned for its expansive skyline and deep natural harbour...

, or Taiwan
Taiwan
Taiwan , also known, especially in the past, as Formosa , is the largest island of the same-named island group of East Asia in the western Pacific Ocean and located off the southeastern coast of mainland China. The island forms over 99% of the current territory of the Republic of China following...

. The other Chinese dialect
Varieties of Chinese
Chinese comprises many regional language varieties sometimes grouped together as the Chinese dialects, the primary ones being Mandarin, Wu, Cantonese, and Min. These are not mutually intelligible, and even many of the regional varieties are themselves composed of a number of...

s that can be heard in the Chinese-Filipino communities are Mandarin Chinese (which is taught in Chinese schools in the Philippines and spoken in varying degrees of fluency by Chinese Filipinos), Taiwanese (which is mutually intelligible with the Quanzhou
Quanzhou
Quanzhou is a prefecture-level city in Fujian province, People's Republic of China. It borders all other prefecture-level cities in Fujian but two and faces the Taiwan Strait...

 and Xiamen
Xiamen
Xiamen , also known as Amoy , is a major city on the southeast coast of the People's Republic of China. It is administered as a sub-provincial city of Fujian province with an area of and population of 3.53 million...

 dialects), and Cantonese. The vast majority of the Chinese in the Philippines are also fluent in English
English language
English is a West Germanic language that arose in the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of England and spread into what was to become south-east Scotland under the influence of the Anglian medieval kingdom of Northumbria...

 as well as Tagalog
Tagalog language
Tagalog is an Austronesian language spoken as a first language by a third of the population of the Philippines and as a second language by most of the rest. It is the first language of the Philippine region IV and of Metro Manila...

, and for those residing outside of Metro Manila, the local language of the region, like Ilokano
Ilokano language
Ilokano or Ilocano is the third most-spoken language of the Republic of the Philippines....

, Hiligaynon
Hiligaynon language
Hiligaynon, often referred to as Ilonggo, is an Austronesian language spoken in the Western Visayas region of the Philippines.Hiligaynon is concentrated in the provinces of Iloilo, Negros Occidental and Capiz but is also spoken in the other provinces of the Panay Island group, including Antique,...

, Cebuano
Cebuano language
Cebuano, referred to by most of its speakers as Bisaya , is an Austronesian language spoken in the Philippines by about 20 million people mostly in the Central Visayas. It is the most widely spoken of the languages within the so-named Bisayan subgroup and is closely related to other Filipino...

 (Cebu, Davao, and Iligan), and Chabacano
Chavacano language
Chavacano or Chabacano, sometimes referred to by linguists as Philippine Creole Spanish, is a Spanish-based creole language spoken in the Philippines...

 (Zamboanga), Waray-Waray
Waray-Waray language
Wáray-Wáray or Samarnon is a language spoken in the provinces of Samar, Northern Samar, Eastern Samar, and in some parts of the Leyte and Biliran in the Philippines...

 (Calbayog and Tacloban).

Lifestyle

The Chinese in the Philippines are mostly business owners and their life centers mostly in the family business. These mostly small or medium enterprises play a significant role in the Philippine economy. A handful of these entrepreneurs run large companies and are respected as some of the most prominent business tycoons in the Philippines. Chinese Filipinos attribute their success in business to frugality and hard work, Confucian values and their traditional Chinese customs and traditions. They are very business-minded and entrepreneurship is highly valued and encouraged among the young.

Most Chinese Filipinos are urban dwellers. An estimated 50% of the Chinese Filipinos live within Metro Manila
Metro Manila
Metropolitan Manila , the National Capital Region , or simply Metro Manila, is the metropolitan region encompassing the City of Manila and its surrounding areas in the Philippines...

, with the rest in the other major cities of the Philippines. They are practically everywhere. In contrast with the Chinese mestizos, few Chinese are plantation owners. This is partly due to the fact that until recently when the Chinese Filipinos became Filipino citizens, the law prohibited the Chinese from owning land.

As with other Southeast Asian nations, the Chinese community in the Philippines has become a repository of traditional Chinese culture. Whereas in mainland China many cultural traditions and customs were suppressed during the Cultural Revolution
Cultural Revolution
The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, commonly known as the Cultural Revolution , was a socio-political movement that took place in the People's Republic of China from 1966 through 1976...

 or simply regarded as old-fashioned nowadays, these traditions have remained largely untouched in the Philippines. Many new cultural twists have evolved within the Chinese community in the Philippines, distinguishing it from other overseas Chinese communities in Southeast Asia. These cultural variations are highly evident during festivals such as Chinese New Year
Chinese New Year
Chinese New Year – often called Chinese Lunar New Year although it actually is lunisolar – is the most important of the traditional Chinese holidays. It is an all East and South-East-Asia celebration...

 and Mid-Autumn Festival
Mid-Autumn Festival
The Mid-Autumn Festival , also known as the Moon Festival or Mooncake Festival or Zhongqiu Festival, is a popular lunar harvest festival celebrated by Chinese and Vietnamese people. A description of the festival first appeared in Rites of Zhou, a written collection of rituals of the Western Zhou...

. The Chinese Filipinos have developed unique funerary and wedding customs as well.

While the older generation practiced the ancient customs of imperial and feudal China, the younger generation have adapted to more modern lifestyles. Traditional customs such as ancestor worship are still practiced today through family shrines and clans associations, as well as placing Catholic imagery alongside Taoists idols such as the Santo Nino or the Crucifix placing beside the Buddha or any other Chinese Traditional Religious figure.

Religion

The Chinese Filipinos are unique in Southeast Asia in being overwhelmingly Christian. Almost all Chinese Filipinos, including the Chinese Mestizo but excluding the recent immigrants, had or will have their marriages in a Christian church. This proves that the majority of Chinese Filipinos have been baptized in a Christian church, with Catholics forming the largest group.

However, many of Chinese-Filipino Catholics still tend to practice the traditional Chinese religions side by side with Catholicism, although a small number of people practising solely traditional Chinese religions do exist as well. Mahayana Buddhism, Taoism and ancestor worship (including Confucianism
Confucianism
Confucianism is a Chinese ethical and philosophical system developed from the teachings of the Chinese philosopher Confucius . Confucianism originated as an "ethical-sociopolitical teaching" during the Spring and Autumn Period, but later developed metaphysical and cosmological elements in the Han...

) are the traditional Chinese beliefs that continue to have adherents among the Chinese Filipinos. Some may even have Jesus Christ as well as Buddha statues or Taoist gods in their altars. It is not unheard of to venerate the blessed Virgin Mary using joss sticks and Buddhist offerings, much as one would have done for Mazu
Matsu (goddess)
Mazu , also spelt Matsu, is the indigenous goddess of the sea who is said to protect fishermen and sailors, and is invoked as the patron deity of all Southern Chinese and East Asian persons...

. Buddhist-Taoist temples can be found where the Chinese live, especially in urban areas like Manila
Manila
Manila is the capital of the Philippines. It is one of the sixteen cities forming Metro Manila.Manila is located on the eastern shores of Manila Bay and is bordered by Navotas and Caloocan to the north, Quezon City to the northeast, San Juan and Mandaluyong to the east, Makati on the southeast,...

, and the Chinese have the tendency to go to pay respects to their ancestors at least once a year, either by going to the temple, or going to the Chinese burial grounds, often burning incense and bringing offerings like fruits and accessories made from paper. Some Chinese-Filipino Catholics do have problems with this religious duality, but due to Christian proselytization, the elderly vastly outnumber the young in the Chinese temples in the Philippines.

A comparatively large number of Chinese Filipinos are also Protestants
Protestantism
Protestantism is one of the three major groupings within Christianity. It is a movement that began in Germany in the early 16th century as a reaction against medieval Roman Catholic doctrines and practices, especially in regards to salvation, justification, and ecclesiology.The doctrines of the...

. Chinese Filipinos comprise a large percentage of membership in some of the largest evangelical
Evangelicalism
Evangelicalism is a Protestant Christian movement which began in Great Britain in the 1730s and gained popularity in the United States during the series of Great Awakenings of the 18th and 19th century.Its key commitments are:...

 churches in the Philippines like Christ's Commission Fellowship and Greenhills Christian Fellowship. The United Evangelical Church of the Philippines, was founded by Chinese Filipinos, and they form the majority of worshippers.

Civil Society

Aside from their family businesses, Chinese Filipinos are active in civic organizations related to education, health care, public safety, social welfare and public charity. As most Chinese Filipinos are reluctant to participate in politics and government, they have instead turned to civic organizations as their primary means of contributing to the general welfare of the Chinese-Filipino community and to the betterment of Philippine society. Beyond the traditional family and clan associations, Chinese Filipinos tend to be active members of numerous alumni associations holding annual reunions for the benefit of their Chinese-Filipino secondary schools.
Outside of secondary schools catering to Chinese Filipinos, some Chinese Filipino businessmen have established charitable foundations to benefit Philippine society. Notable ones include the Gokongwei Brothers Foundation, Metrobank Foundation, Tan Yan Kee Foundation, Angelo King Foundation, Jollibee Foundation, Alfonso Yuchengco Foundation, Cityland Foundation, etc. Some Chinese-Filipino benefactors have also contributed to the creation of several centers of scholarship in prestigious Philippine Universities, including the John Gokongwei School of Management at Ateneo de Manila, the Yuchengco Center at De La Salle University
De La Salle University
De La Salle University is a private Lasallian university in Malate, Manila, Philippines. It was founded in 1911 by De La Salle Brothers as the De La Salle College in Paco, Manila with Blimond Pierre serving as its first director...

, and the Ricardo Leong Center of Chinese Studies at Ateneo de Manila. Coincidentally, both Ateneo and La Salle
De La Salle University
De La Salle University is a private Lasallian university in Malate, Manila, Philippines. It was founded in 1911 by De La Salle Brothers as the De La Salle College in Paco, Manila with Blimond Pierre serving as its first director...

 enroll a large number of Chinese-Filipino students. In health care, Chinese Filipinos were instrumental in establishing and building renowned medical centers in the country including the Chinese General Hospital and Medical Center
Chinese General Hospital College of Nursing and Liberal Arts
The Chinese General Hospital College of Nursing and Liberal Arts was established in 1921 as the Chinese General Hospital School of Nursing . The idea was conceived by Dr. Jose Tee Han Kee, who was then the Director of the Chinese General Hospital. With him were three physicians who organized the...

, the Metropolitan Hospital, the Angelo King Medical Center at the De La Salle Health Sciences Institute, Chong-Hua Hospital and the St. Luke's Medical Center, one of Asia's leading health care institutions. In public safety, Teresita Ang See's Kaisa, a Chinese-Filipino civil rights group, organized the Citizens Action Against Crime and the Movement for the Restoration of Peace and Order at the height of a wave of anti-Chinese kidnapping incidents in the early 1990s. In addition to fighting crime, Chinese Filipinos have organized volunteer fire brigades all over the country, reportedly the best in the nation. In the arts and culture, the Bahay Tsinoy and the Yuchengco Museum were established by Chinese Filipinos to showcase the arts, culture and history of Chinese Filipinos and the Philippines.

Surnames

Most Chinese Filipinos today have single syllable Chinese surnames, the most common of which are Tan
Chen (surname)
Chén or Chan is one of the most common East Asian family names. It ranks as the 5th most common surname in China, as of 2007 and the most common surname in Singapore and Taiwan . Chen is also the most common family name in Guangdong, Zhejiang, Fujian, Hong Kong...

 (陳),]Ong
Wang (surname)
Wang is a Chinese family name and one of the most common surnames in the world. It is ranked 8th in the Hundred Family Surnames, and first in the People's Republic of China's National Citizen ID Information System . Wang is ranked as the most common surname in mainland China, with 92.88 million...

 (王), Lim
Lin (surname)
Lín Lin is the second most common surname in Taiwan at 9% of the population, second only to Chen. In mainland China , Lin is generally less common.-Name origin:...

 (林), Go/Ngo
Wu (surname)
Wu is the Pinyin transliteration of the Chinese surname 吳 , 吴 , which is the tenth most common surname in Mainland China. Several other, less common Chinese surnames with different pronunciations are also transliterated into English as "Wu": 武, 伍, 仵, 烏, 鄔 and 巫...

 (吳), Ng/Uy/Wong
Huang
Huang is a Chinese surname that means "golden yellow", or literally "yellow." While Huáng is the pinyin romanisation of the word, it may also be romanised as Huong, Houang, Hoang, Wong, Hwong, Vong, Hung, Hong, Bong, Eng, Ng, Uy, Wee, Oi, Oei, Oey, or Ooi, Ong, Hwang, or Ung due to pronunciations...

 (黃), Gao/Kao
Gao (surname)
Gao is a Chinese family name. There are approximately 16 million living people with this surname. Some places, such as Taiwan, usually romanize this family name into Kao. In Hong Kong, it is romanized to Ko....

 (高), Chua/Cua
Cai (surname)
Cài is a Chinese surname that derives from the name of the ancient Cai state. It is regionally more common in China's Fujian Province and in countries settled by ethnic Chinese from that province than in China as a whole...

 (蔡), Sy/See/Si
Shi
Shi may refer to:* Shi , the Chinese term for poetry * Shi , a ceremonial "corpse" in Chinese ancestral sacrifices* Shi , a kana in Japanese syllabaries...

 (施), Co
Xu
Xu can be a pinyin transliteration of one of several Chinese surnames:#, also spelled Hsu or Chui or Tsui or Tu or Eu#, also spelled Hui or Hii...

 (許) and Lee/Dy (李), Ching/Chong(莊). Chinese Filipinos as well as Chinese mestizos who trace their roots back to Chinese immigrants to the Philippines during the Spanish Colonial Period usually have multiple syllable Chinese surnames such as Chuacuco, Chuatoco, Cojuangco, Colico, Dyloco, Dytoc, Dy-Cok, Dytioco, Gueco, Gokongwei, Kimpo/Quimpo, Limcuando, Ongpin, Quebengco, Sycip, Tambengco, Tambunting, Tanbonliong, Tantoco, Tiongson, Yuchengco, Tanciangco, and Yupangco, among such others. These were originally full Chinese names which were transliterated into Spanish and adopted as surnames. There are also multiple syllable Chinese surnames that are Spanish translations of Hokkien words. Surnames like Tuazon (Eldest Grandson), Dizon (Second Grandson), Samson (Third Grandson), Singson (Fourth Grandson), Gozon (Fifth Grandson), Lacson (Sixth Grandson) are examples of Hokkien words with Spanish translations used as surnames for some Chinese Filipinos who trace their ancestry from Chinese immigrants to the Philippines during the Spanish Colonial Period also. In contrast, more recent immigrants have single syllable Chinese surnames. Many Chinese mestizos (as well as Spanish-Chinese and Tornatrás
Tornatras
Tornatrás is an outdated term used in Spain to describe a person of mixed European and albino ancestry or a descendant of mestizos and specific characteristics of one of the original races...

) have also either inherited or took on Spanish or indigenous surnames, such as Martines, Madrigal, Santos, or Zarate. A lot of Chinese Filipinos also took on Filipino surnames the moment they were naturalized. Today, it is difficult to identify who are Chinese Filipinos based on surnames alone. To determine who Chinese Filipinos are, one should know their background and family history and culture.

History

These ethnic Chinese sailed down and frequently interacted and even created settlements including CALABARZON
CALABARZON
CALABARZON is one of the regions of the Philippines. It is also designated as Region IV-A and its regional center is Calamba City in Laguna...

 region such as Rizal
Rizal
Rizal is a province located in the CALABARZON , just 16 kilometers east of Manila. The province was named after the country's national hero, José Rizal. Rizal Governor Casimiro A. Ynares III on June 17, 2008 announced the transfer of the Capitol from Pasig. Its P 270-million capitol building,...

  which carried on trade with the Arab traders long before the Spanish conquest. As evidenced by a collection of priceless Chinese artifacts found in the Philippines, dating back right up to the 10th century.

Prehistoric evidence attest to the fact that many datu
Datu
Datu is the title for tribal chiefs, sovereign princes, and monarchs in the Visayas and Mindanao Regions of the Philippines. Together with Lakan , Apo in Central and Northern Luzon, Sultan and Rajah, they are titles used for native royalty, and are still currently used in the Philippines...

s, raja
Raja
Raja is an Indian term for a monarch, or princely ruler of the Kshatriya varna...

hs, and Lakan
Lakan
Lakan originally referred to a rank in the pre-Hispanic Filipino nobility in the island of Luzon, which means "paramount ruler." It has been suggested that this rank is equivalent to that of Rajah, and that different ethnic groups either used one term or the other, or used the two words...

s (indigenous rulers) in the Philippines were of mixed Filipino and Chinese ancestry. They formed the group which is to be called Principalia
Principalia
The Principalía or noble class was the ruling and, usually, the educated upper class in the towns of colonial Philippines, composed of the Gobernadorcillo , and the Cabezas de Barangay who governed the districts. The distinction or status of being part of the Principalía is a heriditary right...

 during the Spanish period, and were given privileges by the Spanish colonial authorities.

The arrival of the Spaniards to the Philippines
Philippines
The Philippines , officially known as the Republic of the Philippines , is a country in Southeast Asia in the western Pacific Ocean. To its north across the Luzon Strait lies Taiwan. West across the South China Sea sits Vietnam...

 attracted many Chinese male immigrants from China
China
Chinese civilization may refer to:* China for more general discussion of the country.* Chinese culture* Greater China, the transnational community of ethnic Chinese.* History of China* Sinosphere, the area historically affected by Chinese culture...

, but there was already a significant population of Chinese immigrants long before Spanish knowledge of the archipelago due to the relationship between the various kingdoms in what is now known as Luzon, and the Ming dynasty. The Spanish authorities restricted the activities of the Chinese immigrants and confined them to the Parían near Intramuros
Intramuros
Intramuros is the oldest district in the present day city of Manila, the capital of the Republic of the Philippines. Nicknamed the "Walled City", Intramuros is the historic fortified city of Manila, the seat ot the government during the Spanish Colonial Period. Its name in Latin, intramuros,...

. With low chances of employment and prohibited from owning land, most of them engaged in retail trades or acted as skilled artisans to the Spanish colonial authorities. Many of the Chinese who arrived during the Spanish period were Cantonese, who worked as stevedores and porters, but there were also Fujianese, who entered the retail trades.

The Chinese outnumbered the Spanish colonizers by ten to one, and at least in two occasions tried to grab the power, but their revolts were quickly put down by joint forces composed of indigenous Filipinos, Japanese,and Spanish. As it were, the Chinese rulers at the time disapproved of the revolts and termed those who had abandoned their homeland to settle in foreign lands as traitors who ceased to be Chinese.

The Spanish authorities differentiated the Chinese immigrants into two groups: Parían (unconverted) and Binondo (converted). Many immigrants converted to Catholicism, and due to the lack of Chinese women, intermarried with indigenous women, and adopted Hispanized names and customs. The children of unions between indigenous Filipinos and Chinese were called Mestizos de Sangley
Sangley
Sangley , is an archaic term used in the Philippines to describe and classify a person of pure Chinese ancestry, while mestizo de sangley was used to refer to a person of mixed Chinese and indigenous ancestry Sangley (Sangleye, Sangley Mestizo, Mestisong Sangley, Mestizo de Sangley or Chinese...

 or Chinese mestizos, while those between Spaniards and Chinese were called Tornatrás
Tornatras
Tornatrás is an outdated term used in Spain to describe a person of mixed European and albino ancestry or a descendant of mestizos and specific characteristics of one of the original races...

. The Chinese population originally occupied to the Binondo area although eventually they spread all over the islands, and became traders, moneylenders and landowners.

During the American colonial period, the Chinese Exclusion Act in the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 was also put into effect in the Philippines
Philippines
The Philippines , officially known as the Republic of the Philippines , is a country in Southeast Asia in the western Pacific Ocean. To its north across the Luzon Strait lies Taiwan. West across the South China Sea sits Vietnam...

. Nevertheless, the Chinese were able to settle in the Philippines, despite strict American law enforcement. Following World War II and the fall of the Chinese mainland to the Chinese Communist Party, many Chinese migrated from Fujian province in China to the Philippines. This group formed the bulk of the current population of Chinese Filipinos.

Beginning World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

, Chinese Filipino soldiers and guerrillas joined in the fight against the Japanese Imperial Forces during the Japanese Occupation in the Philippines (1941–1945). On April 9, 1942, many Chinese Filipino Prisoners of War were killed by Japanese Forces during the Bataan Death March
Bataan Death March
The Bataan Death March was the forcible transfer, by the Imperial Japanese Army, of 75,000 American and Filipino prisoners of war after the three-month Battle of Bataan in the Philippines during World War II, which resulted in the deaths of thousands of prisoners.The march was characterized by...

 after the fall of Bataan
Bataan
Bataan is a province of the Philippines occupying the whole of the Bataan Peninsula on Luzon. The province is part of the Central Luzon region. The capital of Bataan is Balanga City and it is bordered by the provinces of Zambales and Pampanga to the north...

 and Corregidor
Corregidor
Corregidor Island, locally called Isla ng Corregidor, is a lofty island located at the entrance of Manila Bay in southwestern part of Luzon Island in the Philippines. Due to this location, Corregidor was fortified with several coastal artillery and ammunition magazines to defend the entrance of...

 in 1942. Chinese Filipinos were integrated in the U.S. Armed Forces of the First & Second Filipino Infantry Regiments of the United States Army
United States Army
The United States Army is the main branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for land-based military operations. It is the largest and oldest established branch of the U.S. military, and is one of seven U.S. uniformed services...

. After the Fall of Bataan and Corregidor in 1942, when Chinese Filipinos was joined the soldiers is a military unit of the Philippine Commonwealth Army
Military history of the Philippines during World War II
The Commonwealth of the Philippines was invaded by the Empire of Japan in December 1941 shortly after Japan's declaration of war upon the United States of America, which controlled the Philippines at the time and possessed important military bases there. The combined American-Filipino army was...

 under the U.S. military command is a ground arm of the Armed Forces of the Philippines
Armed Forces of the Philippines
The Armed Forces of the Philippines is composed of the Philippine Army, Philippine Navy and Philippine Air Force...

 (AFP) was started the battles between the Japanese Counter-Insurgencies and Allied Liberators
Philippines campaign (1944-45)
The Philippines campaign of 1944–45, the Battle of the Philippines 1944–45, or the Liberation of the Philippines was the American and Filipino campaign to defeat and expel the Imperial Japanese forces occupying the Philippines, during World War II. The Japanese Army had overrun all of the...

 from 1942 to 1945 to fought against the Japanese Imperial forces. Some Chinese-Filipinos joined the soldiers were integrated of the 11th, 14th, 15th, 66th & 121st Infantry Regiment of the U.S. Armed Forces in the Philippines - Northern Luzon (USAFIP-NL) under the military unit of the Philippine Commonwealth Army started the Liberation in Northern Luzon and aided the provinces of Ilocos Norte
Ilocos Norte
Ilocos Norte is a province of the Philippines located in the Ilocos Region in Luzon. Its capital is Laoag City and is located at the northwest corner of Luzon Island, bordering Cagayan and Apayao to the east, and Abra and Ilocos Sur to the south...

, Ilocos Sur
Ilocos Sur
Ilocos Sur is a province of the Philippines located in the Ilocos Region in Luzon. Vigan City, located on the mouth of the Mestizo River is the provincial capital...

, La Union
La Unión
La Union or La Unión may refer to:-Colombia:*La Unión, Antioquia*La Unión, Nariño*La Unión, Sucre*La Unión, Valle del Cauca-Peru:*La Unión Province, Peru...

, Abra
Abra
- Places :* Abra, Burkina Faso* Abra, Côte d'Ivoire* Abra , a province of the Philippines* Abra River, in the Philippines* El Abra, an archaeological excavation site in Colombia* Abra, Lebanon, a municipality of Lebanon- Other uses :...

, Mountain Province
Mountain Province
Mountain Province is a landlocked province of the Philippines in the Cordillera Administrative Region in Luzon. Its capital is Bontoc and borders, clockwise from the south, Ifugao, Benguet, Ilocos Sur, Abra, Kalinga, and Isabela.Mountain Province is sometimes incorrectly named Mountain in some...

, Cagayan
Cagayan
Cagayan , the "Land of Smiling Beauty", is a province of the Philippines in the Cagayan Valley region in Luzon. Its capital is Tuguegarao City and is located at the northeastern corner of the island of Luzon. Cagayan also includes the Babuyan Islands to the north. The province borders Ilocos Norte...

, Isabela
Isabela
-Places:* Isabela, Puerto Rico* Isabela Island of the Galápagos Islands* La Isabela in the Dominican Republic, first settlement of Columbus in the New World* Isabela , Philippines* Isabela City, Basilan, Philippines...

 and Nueva Vizcaya
Nueva Vizcaya
Nueva Vizcaya is a province of the Philippines located in the Cagayan Valley region in Luzon. Its capital is Bayombong. It is bordered by, clockwise from the north, Ifugao, Isabela, Quirino, Aurora, Nueva Ecija, Pangasinan, and Benguet.-History, people and culture:The name was derived from the...

 and attacking Imperial Japanese forces. Many Chinese-Filipinos joined the guerrilla movement of the Philippine-Chinese Anti-Japanese guerrilla resistance fighter unit or Wa Chi Movement, the Ampaw Unit under by Colonel Chua Sy Tiao and the Chinese-Filipino 48th Squadron since 1942 to 1946 to attacking Japanese forces. Thousands of Chinese Filipino soldiers and guerrillas died of heroism in the Philippines
Philippines
The Philippines , officially known as the Republic of the Philippines , is a country in Southeast Asia in the western Pacific Ocean. To its north across the Luzon Strait lies Taiwan. West across the South China Sea sits Vietnam...

 from 1941 to 1945 during World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

. Over hundreds of thousands of the Chinese Filipino soldiers and guerrillas were attacked by Japanese Imperial Forces during the liberation of the Philippines. Thousands of Chinese Filipino Veterans are interred in the Shrine of Martyr's Freedom of the Filipino Chinese in World War II located in Manila.

After independence, successive Philippine presidents have had ambivalent attitudes about the Chinese Filipinos. Presidents Ramon Magsaysay
Ramon Magsaysay
Ramón del Fierro Magsaysay was the third President of the Republic of the Philippines from December 30, 1953 until his death in a plane crash in 1957. He was elected President under the banner of the Nacionalista Party.-Early life:Ramon F...

 and Carlos P. Garcia
Carlos P. Garcia
Carlos Polistico García was a Filipino teacher, poet, orator, lawyer, public official, political economist and guerrilla leader...

 promoted the Filipino First policies, and put in tough government directives to hinder the ownership of businesses by Chinese Filipinos who were still citizens of the Republic of China
Republic of China
The Republic of China , commonly known as Taiwan , is a unitary sovereign state located in East Asia. Originally based in mainland China, the Republic of China currently governs the island of Taiwan , which forms over 99% of its current territory, as well as Penghu, Kinmen, Matsu and other minor...

. During the Martial Law
Martial law
Martial law is the imposition of military rule by military authorities over designated regions on an emergency basis— only temporary—when the civilian government or civilian authorities fail to function effectively , when there are extensive riots and protests, or when the disobedience of the law...

 Period, Chinese language schools were ordered closed or else to limit the time alloted for Chinese language, history, and culture subjects from 4 hours to 2 hours, and instead devote them to the study of Filipino languages and culture. This method of teaching persists to this very day. Marcos' policy eventually led to the formal assimilation of the Chinese Filipinos into mainstream Filipino society. Following People Power Revolution (EDSA 1), the Chinese Filipinos quickly gained national spotlight as Cory Aquino, a Chinese mestiza, eventually became president. She encouraged free press and cultural harmony, a process which led to the burgeoning of the Chinese language media. Mild racist riots occurred during 1992 when several Filipinos, led by Armando Ducat, Jr., a businessman, campaigned for 'kicking-out the Chinese-Filipinos instead of the Americans', referring to the formal closure of the American military bases in the Philippines, and during 1998, when a Chinese mestizo, Senator Alfredo Lim
Alfredo Lim
Alfredo Siojo Lim is the incumbent Mayor of the City of Manila and a former senator of the Philippines. A widower, he first served as mayor of Manila from 1992 to 1998 and returned to that post after winning in the 2007 mayoral election.-Early life and career:Born on December 21, 1929 in 1324 J...

, entered the candidacy for president. Also, numerous incidents of crimes such kidnap-for-ransom, extortion and other forms of harassment were committed against the Chinese Filipino community starting in the early 1990s and lasting to this day. Senior members of the Philippine Military were allegedly involved.

Current and future trends

Most of the Chinese Filipinos are descendants of Chinese who migrated three or four generations ago. In the case of most Chinese mestizos, this can be as far back as five, six, or up to eight generations ago. Unlike in Malaysia and Indonesia where intermarriage is uncommon and people can generally be classified ethnically just by physical appearance, the Philippine definition of who is Chinese Filipino and who is Chinese mestizo can be based on one's language usage and cultural values. A full-blooded Chinese who can no longer speak Chinese and no longer practice Chinese culture or beliefs is more often than not identified as a Chinese mestizo. By the same token, a Chinese biological mestizo who still speaks fluent Chinese and practices Chinese culture might be reintegrated into the Chinese-Filipino culture. As "mestizo" often evokes a person of higher social status, there is also a tendency to not identify those in the lower class as "mestizo" even if they are in fact of mixed descent.

The Chinese in the Philippines cannot be simplistically classified. But generally, some observers claim they can be classified into three types, based on when their ancestors first arrived. Most of the Chinese mestizos, especially the landed gentry trace their ancestry to the Spanish era. They are the "First Chinese" or Sangley
Sangley
Sangley , is an archaic term used in the Philippines to describe and classify a person of pure Chinese ancestry, while mestizo de sangley was used to refer to a person of mixed Chinese and indigenous ancestry Sangley (Sangleye, Sangley Mestizo, Mestisong Sangley, Mestizo de Sangley or Chinese...

 whose descendants nowadays are mostly either the Chinese mestizos or have integrated into the indigenous population. The largest group of Chinese Filipinos in the Philippines are the "Second Chinese," who are descendants of migrants in the first half of the 20th century, between the anti-Manchu 1911 Revolution in China and the Chinese Civil War
Chinese Civil War
The Chinese Civil War was a civil war fought between the Kuomintang , the governing party of the Republic of China, and the Communist Party of China , for the control of China which eventually led to China's division into two Chinas, Republic of China and People's Republic of...

. This group accounts for most of the "full-blooded" Chinese. The "Third Chinese" are the recent immigrants from mainland China, after the Chinese economic reform
Chinese economic reform
The Chinese economic reform refers to the program of economic reforms called "Socialism with Chinese characteristics" in the People's Republic of China that were started in December 1978 by reformists within the Communist Party of China led by Deng Xiaoping.China had one of the world's largest...

 of the 1980s. Generally, the "Third Chinese" are the most entrepreneurial and have not totally lost their Chinese identity in its purest form and seen by some "Second Chinese" as a business threat. On the other hand, the "First Chinese" or Sangley
Sangley
Sangley , is an archaic term used in the Philippines to describe and classify a person of pure Chinese ancestry, while mestizo de sangley was used to refer to a person of mixed Chinese and indigenous ancestry Sangley (Sangleye, Sangley Mestizo, Mestisong Sangley, Mestizo de Sangley or Chinese...

 had largely intermarried and assimilated into a Hispanized Catholic culture since the 17th century. After the end of Spanish rule, their descendants, the Chinese mestizos, managed to invent a cosmopolitan mestizo culture coupled with an extravagant Mestizo de Sangley
Sangley
Sangley , is an archaic term used in the Philippines to describe and classify a person of pure Chinese ancestry, while mestizo de sangley was used to refer to a person of mixed Chinese and indigenous ancestry Sangley (Sangleye, Sangley Mestizo, Mestisong Sangley, Mestizo de Sangley or Chinese...

 lifestyle.

As of the present day, due to the effects of globalization in the Philippines, there has been a marked tendency to acculturate to North American lifestyles, without losing Chinese culture and identity. This is especially true for younger Chinese Filipinos living in wealthy suburbs like Greenhills, San Juan, Metro Manila
San Juan, Metro Manila
The City of San Juan or simply San Juan is a city in Metro Manila in the Philippines. Before the creation of Metro Manila, it was part of Rizal Province. Currently the smallest city in the region and the country in terms of area, San Juan is one of the smallest among the cities and municipalities...

 who are gradually shifting to English as their preferred language, thus identifying more with North American culture, at the same time speaking Chinese among themselves. There is also a renewed tendency and interest to study and practice the use of Chinese language. More and more Chinese mestizos tend also to reintegrate into Chinese societies by attending Chinese schools, learning to speak Chinese and adopting Chinese customs. Although at a slower pace than Thailand, assimilation
Cultural assimilation
Cultural assimilation is a socio-political response to demographic multi-ethnicity that supports or promotes the assimilation of ethnic minorities into the dominant culture. The term assimilation is often used with regard to immigrants and various ethnic groups who have settled in a new land. New...

 is gradually taking place in the Philippines.

With the onset of globalization since the 1990s, increasing numbers of well-to-do Chinese Filipino families are acquiring North American or Australasian passports and sending their children abroad to attend prestigious North America or Australasian Universities. Many are opting to remain after graduation to start professional careers in North America or Australasia. Philippine-educated Chinese Filipinos from middle-class families are also migrating en masse to North America and Australasia. Those who have family businesses regularly commute between North America (or Australasia) and the Philippines. In this way, they follow the well-known pattern of other Chinese immigrants to North America who lead "astronaut" lifestyles: family in North America, business in Asia. Furthermore, many Chinese-Filipino entrepreneurs and professionals have flocked to their ancestral homeland to partake of business and employment opportunities opened up by China's emergence as a global economic superpower.

Notable people

  • Don Benedicto Dimaculangan Tuazon the illegitimate son of Don Antonio Tuason of Fukien China.
  • Corazon Cojuangco-Aquino
    Corazon Aquino
    Maria Corazon Sumulong Cojuangco-Aquino was the 11th President of the Philippines and the first woman to hold that office in Philippine history. She is best remembered for leading the 1986 People Power Revolution, which toppled Ferdinand Marcos and restored democracy in the Philippines...

      became 11th President of the Philippines in 1986 and moral leader of the People Power uprising against the Marcos authoritarian regime; her ancestral roots are in Hong Chiam Village in Tung-An county
    Tong'an District
    Tong'an District is a northern mainland district of Xiamen which faces Jinmen. Tong'an is located on the southeast of Fujian province. To the north is Anxi and Nan'an, to the south is Jimei. Tong'an is also east of Lianxiang and Changqin to the West...

     near Xiamen
    Xiamen
    Xiamen , also known as Amoy , is a major city on the southeast coast of the People's Republic of China. It is administered as a sub-provincial city of Fujian province with an area of and population of 3.53 million...

     City of Fujian province, China
  • Dee C. Chuan
    Dee C. Chuan
    Dee C. Chuan was a Chinese Filipino businessperson. He was a lumber manufacturer and a co-founder of China Banking Corporation.He was born in Fujian province, China.-References:*...

     Pre-war 20th century Chinese community leader, "Lumber King" of the Philippines, leader of the Chinese community efforts to support China's war of resistance against Japanese military invasion, civic leader, President of the Philippine Chinese General Chamber of Commerce, founder of "Chinese Commercial News" and "Fookien Times", grand-nephew of 19th century lumber pioneer entrepreneur Dy Han Kia.
  • Henry Sy
    Henry Sy
    Henry Sy is a Chinese Filipino businessman and the founder of SM Group and chairman of SM Prime Holdings, the largest retailer and shopping mall operator in the Philippines. He earned his Associate of Arts degree in Commercial Studies at Far Eastern University in 1950...

     – founder of the giant SM Shopping mall
    SM Supermalls
    SM Supermalls, owned by SM Prime Holdings, Inc., is a chain of shopping malls in the Philippines, with 42 malls across the Philippines as well as branches in China....

     outlets found all across the country.
  • General Jose Ignacio Paua – pure-blooded Chinese general (from the village of Lao-Na) who supported the Katipuneros in the fight against the Spaniards and later joined Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo’s
    Emilio Aguinaldo
    Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy was a Filipino general, politician, and independence leader. He played an instrumental role during the Philippines' revolution against Spain, and the subsequent Philippine-American War or War of Philippine Independence that resisted American occupation...

     army in the short-lived war against the Americans.
  • José Rizal
    José Rizal
    José Protacio Rizal Mercado y Alonso Realonda , was a Filipino polymath, patriot and the most prominent advocate for reform in the Philippines during the Spanish colonial era. He is regarded as the foremost Filipino patriot and is listed as one of the national heroes of the Philippines by...

     – Filipino national hero, polymath, physician, novelist, nationalist, propagandist, martyr.
  • Kim Chiu
    Kim Chiu
    Kimberly Sue Yap Chiu , better known as simply Kim Chiu, is a Chinese Filipino actress,singer and model. She lived in Cebu City before she went to Manila for Pinoy Big Brother...

     – model and actress currently work at ABS-CBN as a contract artist.
  • Leon O. Chua
    Leon O. Chua
    Leon Ong Chua is an IEEE Fellow and a professor in the electrical engineering and computer sciences department at the University of California, Berkeley, which he joined in 1971...

     – Professor of Electrical Engineering at UC Berkeley. World-renowned pioneer in neural networks, chaos theory, and nonlinear circuits. Father of Amy Chua
    Amy Chua
    Amy L. Chua is the John M. Duff, Jr. Professor of Law at Yale Law School. She joined the Yale faculty in 2001 after teaching at Duke Law School. Prior to starting her teaching career, she was a corporate law associate at Cleary, Gottlieb, Steen & Hamilton...

    .
  • Limahong
    Limahong
    Limahong, Lim Hong or also called Lin Feng was a notorious Chinese pirate and warlord who invaded the northern Philippine Islands in 1574. He built up a reputation for his constant raids to ports in Guangdong, Fujian and southern China...

     – A Chinese pirate and warlord who invaded the northern Philippine Islands in 1574.
  • Lucio Tan
    Lucio Tan
    Lucio Tan is a prominent Chinese Filipino business magnate and is one of the most prominent business magnates in the Philippines...

     – Billionaire and patron of Chinese language education.
  • Tony Tan Caktiong
    Tony Tan Caktiong
    Tony Tan Caktiong is the founder and current Chairman and CEO of Philippine fast food chain Jollibee. He attended high school at Chiang Kai Shek College and graduated from the University of Santo Tomas with a degree in chemical engineering...

     – founder of the nation's most popular food chain, Jolibee.

See also

  • Chinese-Filipinos who migrated to Mexico during the galleon trade
  • Tornatrás
    Tornatras
    Tornatrás is an outdated term used in Spain to describe a person of mixed European and albino ancestry or a descendant of mestizos and specific characteristics of one of the original races...

  • Sangley
    Sangley
    Sangley , is an archaic term used in the Philippines to describe and classify a person of pure Chinese ancestry, while mestizo de sangley was used to refer to a person of mixed Chinese and indigenous ancestry Sangley (Sangleye, Sangley Mestizo, Mestisong Sangley, Mestizo de Sangley or Chinese...

  • :Category:Chinese schools in the Philippines
  • Chinoy TV, a TV program broadcast in Net25, featuring the Chinese community in the Philippines.
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