Chelmsford
Overview
Chelmsford is the county town
County town
A county town is a county's administrative centre in the United Kingdom or Ireland. County towns are usually the location of administrative or judicial functions, or established over time as the de facto main town of a county. The concept of a county town eventually became detached from its...

 of Essex
Essex
Essex is a ceremonial and non-metropolitan county in the East region of England, and one of the home counties. It is located to the northeast of Greater London. It borders with Cambridgeshire and Suffolk to the north, Hertfordshire to the west, Kent to the South and London to the south west...

, England
England
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west; the Irish Sea is to the north west, the Celtic Sea to the south west, with the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south separating it from continental...

 and the principal settlement of the borough of Chelmsford
Chelmsford (borough)
Chelmsford is a local government district and borough in Essex, England. It is named after its main settlement, Chelmsford, which is also the county town of Essex.-History:...

. It is located in the London commuter belt
London commuter belt
The London commuter belt is the metropolitan area surrounding London, England from which it is practical to commute to work in the capital. It is alternatively known as the Greater South East, the London metropolitan area or the Southeast metropolitan area...

, approximately 32 miles (51 km) northeast of Charing Cross
Charing Cross
Charing Cross denotes the junction of Strand, Whitehall and Cockspur Street, just south of Trafalgar Square in central London, England. It is named after the now demolished Eleanor cross that stood there, in what was once the hamlet of Charing. The site of the cross is now occupied by an equestrian...

, London, and approximately the same distance from the once provincial Roman capital at Colchester
Colchester
Colchester is an historic town and the largest settlement within the borough of Colchester in Essex, England.At the time of the census in 2001, it had a population of 104,390. However, the population is rapidly increasing, and has been named as one of Britain's fastest growing towns. As the...

. The town currently has a population of approximately 157,072 however this is thought to be rapidly increasing on a year by year basis with many people from Essex and the London borders re-locating to the county town.

The main conurbation
Conurbation
A conurbation is a region comprising a number of cities, large towns, and other urban areas that, through population growth and physical expansion, have merged to form one continuous urban and industrially developed area...

 incorporates all or part of the former parishes of Broomfield
Broomfield, Essex
Broomfield is a village and residential suburb situated immediately to the north of Chelmsford, in central Essex. It is the site of a major Accident & Emergency hospital. There are two public houses as well as primary and secondary schools and sports clubs....

, Great Baddow
Great Baddow
Great Baddow is an urban village in the Chelmsford borough of Essex, England. It is close to the county town, Chelmsford and, with a population of over 13,000, is one of the largest villages in the country....

, Moulsham
Moulsham
Moulsham is a suburb of Chelmsford, Essex, England. It is located to the south of the town centre and has two distinct areas: Old Moulsham and Moulsham Lodge.-History:...

, Widford
Widford, Essex
Widford is a parish of Chelmsford approximately to the south/ south west of the city’s train station. The current parish boundary encloses a mixed residential, industrial and rural area south of the River Can, east of the River Wid and mostly to the west of the Great Eastern Main...

 and Springfield
Springfield, Essex
Springfield has been a civil parish of the Borough of Chelmsford, Essex, England since 1907. The parish takes in the portion of the town north of river Chelmer and west of the A12 bypass and originally comprised the manors of Springfield Hall, Springfield Barnes, Cuton Hall, and in part New Hall...

, including Springfield Barnes, now more commonly known as Chelmer Village
Chelmer village
Chelmer Village is a suburb in the east of Chelmsford, Essex. Chelmsford Borough Council names it "Chelmer Village & Beaulieu Park". Chelmer Village is a ward in Chelmsford....

.

The town is surrounded by many small villages: Galleywood
Galleywood
Galleywood is a village surrounded by countryside in Essex, about 30 miles from London, and close to the town of Chelmsford. It is off the A12 which connects to the M25 in London...

, Danbury
Danbury, Essex
Danbury is a village in Essex, England. It is located northeast of Charing Cross, London and has a population of 6,500. It is situated on a hill above sea level.-Origins:The village was built on the site of a megalithic hill fort noted for its oval shape....

, Writtle
Writtle
The village of Writtle lies a mile west of Chelmsford, Essex, England, it has a traditional village green, complete with duck pond and a Norman church; and was once described as: 'one of the loveliest villages in England, with a ravishing variety of ancient cottages'...

, Good and High Easter, Roxwell, Mashbury
Mashbury
Mashbury is a civil parish in the Chelmsford district of Essex.- External links :**...

, Chignal Smealy, Little Baddow
Little Baddow
Little Baddow is a large thriving village to the east of Chelmsford, Essex. The name Baddow comes from an Old English word meaning 'bad water', although this probably refers to the meadow area in Great Baddow as opposed to any water mass in Little Baddow...

, Great and Little Waltham
Little Waltham
Little Waltham is a village just north of Chelmsford. It is adjacent to the village of Great Waltham. The Domesday Book refers to the two villages as Waltham consisting of several manors. The site of an Iron Age village was excavated before upgrading the main road north between the current...

, Howe Street, Pleshey
Pleshey
The village of Pleshey lies in Essex, England, just to the northwest of Chelmsford.William the Conqueror gave Pleshey, in the parish of High Easter to Geoffrey de Mandeville in appreciation of his services; Mandeville was one of William's battle commanders at the Battle of Hastings in 1066...

 and Bicknacre
Bicknacre
Bicknacre is a village in Essex, England. It is approximately north of South Woodham Ferrers and southeast of the county town of Chelmsford. The village is in the borough of Chelmsford and in the parliamentary constituency of Maldon & East Chelmsford...

.

The communities of Chelmsford, Massachusetts
Chelmsford, Massachusetts
Chelmsford is a suburban town in Middlesex County, Massachusetts in the Greater Boston area. As of the 2010 United States Census, the town's population was 33,802. The Census Bureau's 2008 population estimate for the town was 34,409, ranking it 14th in population among the 54 municipalities in...

, Chelmsford, Ontario and Chelmsford, New Brunswick
Chelmsford, New Brunswick
Chelmsford is a community in the Canadian province of New Brunswick....

 are named after the town.

Chelmsford's population consists of a large number of City
City of London
The City of London is a small area within Greater London, England. It is the historic core of London around which the modern conurbation grew and has held city status since time immemorial. The City’s boundaries have remained almost unchanged since the Middle Ages, and it is now only a tiny part of...

 and Docklands
Docklands
Docklands is the semi-official name for an area in east London, England. It forms part of the boroughs of Southwark, Tower Hamlets, Newham and Greenwich. The docks were formerly part of the Port of London, at one time the world's largest port. They have now been redeveloped principally for...

 commuters, attracted by the 30-35 minute journey from Central London via the Great Eastern Main Line
Great Eastern Main Line
The Great Eastern Main Line is a 212 Kilometre major railway line of the British railway system, which connects Liverpool Street in the City of London with destinations in east London and the East of England, including Chelmsford, Colchester, Ipswich, Norwich and several coastal resorts such as...

.
Quotations

To conceal anything from those to whom I am attached, is not in my nature. I can never close my lips where I have opened my heart.

Master Humphrey's Clock|Master Humphrey's Clock (1840-1841)

The bright old day now dawns again; the cry runs through the the land,In England there shall be dear bread—in Ireland, sword and brand;And poverty, and ignorance, shall swell the rich and grand,So, rally round the rulers with the gentle iron hand,Of the fine old English Tory days;Hail to the coming time!

The Fine Old English Gentleman (1841)

I am quite serious when I say that I do not believe there are, on the whole earth besides, so many intensified bores as in these United States. No man can form an adequate idea of the real meaning of the word, without coming here.

Comment, March 1842, while on an American tour. Quoted in Hesketh Pearson's Dickens, ch. 8 (1949)

La difficulté d'écrire l'anglais m'est extrêmement ennuyeuse. Ah, mon Dieu ! si l'on pouvait toujours écrire cette belle langue de France!

Translation: The difficulty of writing English is most tiresome to me. My God! If only we could write this beautiful language of France at all times!

It was a good thing to have a couple of thousand people all rigid and frozen together, in the palm of one's hand.

About having a book

The dignity of his office is never impaired by the absence of efforts on his part to maintain it.

Our Parish, ch. 1

Encyclopedia
Chelmsford is the county town
County town
A county town is a county's administrative centre in the United Kingdom or Ireland. County towns are usually the location of administrative or judicial functions, or established over time as the de facto main town of a county. The concept of a county town eventually became detached from its...

 of Essex
Essex
Essex is a ceremonial and non-metropolitan county in the East region of England, and one of the home counties. It is located to the northeast of Greater London. It borders with Cambridgeshire and Suffolk to the north, Hertfordshire to the west, Kent to the South and London to the south west...

, England
England
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west; the Irish Sea is to the north west, the Celtic Sea to the south west, with the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south separating it from continental...

 and the principal settlement of the borough of Chelmsford
Chelmsford (borough)
Chelmsford is a local government district and borough in Essex, England. It is named after its main settlement, Chelmsford, which is also the county town of Essex.-History:...

. It is located in the London commuter belt
London commuter belt
The London commuter belt is the metropolitan area surrounding London, England from which it is practical to commute to work in the capital. It is alternatively known as the Greater South East, the London metropolitan area or the Southeast metropolitan area...

, approximately 32 miles (51 km) northeast of Charing Cross
Charing Cross
Charing Cross denotes the junction of Strand, Whitehall and Cockspur Street, just south of Trafalgar Square in central London, England. It is named after the now demolished Eleanor cross that stood there, in what was once the hamlet of Charing. The site of the cross is now occupied by an equestrian...

, London, and approximately the same distance from the once provincial Roman capital at Colchester
Colchester
Colchester is an historic town and the largest settlement within the borough of Colchester in Essex, England.At the time of the census in 2001, it had a population of 104,390. However, the population is rapidly increasing, and has been named as one of Britain's fastest growing towns. As the...

. The town currently has a population of approximately 157,072 however this is thought to be rapidly increasing on a year by year basis with many people from Essex and the London borders re-locating to the county town.

The main conurbation
Conurbation
A conurbation is a region comprising a number of cities, large towns, and other urban areas that, through population growth and physical expansion, have merged to form one continuous urban and industrially developed area...

 incorporates all or part of the former parishes of Broomfield
Broomfield, Essex
Broomfield is a village and residential suburb situated immediately to the north of Chelmsford, in central Essex. It is the site of a major Accident & Emergency hospital. There are two public houses as well as primary and secondary schools and sports clubs....

, Great Baddow
Great Baddow
Great Baddow is an urban village in the Chelmsford borough of Essex, England. It is close to the county town, Chelmsford and, with a population of over 13,000, is one of the largest villages in the country....

, Moulsham
Moulsham
Moulsham is a suburb of Chelmsford, Essex, England. It is located to the south of the town centre and has two distinct areas: Old Moulsham and Moulsham Lodge.-History:...

, Widford
Widford, Essex
Widford is a parish of Chelmsford approximately to the south/ south west of the city’s train station. The current parish boundary encloses a mixed residential, industrial and rural area south of the River Can, east of the River Wid and mostly to the west of the Great Eastern Main...

 and Springfield
Springfield, Essex
Springfield has been a civil parish of the Borough of Chelmsford, Essex, England since 1907. The parish takes in the portion of the town north of river Chelmer and west of the A12 bypass and originally comprised the manors of Springfield Hall, Springfield Barnes, Cuton Hall, and in part New Hall...

, including Springfield Barnes, now more commonly known as Chelmer Village
Chelmer village
Chelmer Village is a suburb in the east of Chelmsford, Essex. Chelmsford Borough Council names it "Chelmer Village & Beaulieu Park". Chelmer Village is a ward in Chelmsford....

.

The town is surrounded by many small villages: Galleywood
Galleywood
Galleywood is a village surrounded by countryside in Essex, about 30 miles from London, and close to the town of Chelmsford. It is off the A12 which connects to the M25 in London...

, Danbury
Danbury, Essex
Danbury is a village in Essex, England. It is located northeast of Charing Cross, London and has a population of 6,500. It is situated on a hill above sea level.-Origins:The village was built on the site of a megalithic hill fort noted for its oval shape....

, Writtle
Writtle
The village of Writtle lies a mile west of Chelmsford, Essex, England, it has a traditional village green, complete with duck pond and a Norman church; and was once described as: 'one of the loveliest villages in England, with a ravishing variety of ancient cottages'...

, Good and High Easter, Roxwell, Mashbury
Mashbury
Mashbury is a civil parish in the Chelmsford district of Essex.- External links :**...

, Chignal Smealy, Little Baddow
Little Baddow
Little Baddow is a large thriving village to the east of Chelmsford, Essex. The name Baddow comes from an Old English word meaning 'bad water', although this probably refers to the meadow area in Great Baddow as opposed to any water mass in Little Baddow...

, Great and Little Waltham
Little Waltham
Little Waltham is a village just north of Chelmsford. It is adjacent to the village of Great Waltham. The Domesday Book refers to the two villages as Waltham consisting of several manors. The site of an Iron Age village was excavated before upgrading the main road north between the current...

, Howe Street, Pleshey
Pleshey
The village of Pleshey lies in Essex, England, just to the northwest of Chelmsford.William the Conqueror gave Pleshey, in the parish of High Easter to Geoffrey de Mandeville in appreciation of his services; Mandeville was one of William's battle commanders at the Battle of Hastings in 1066...

 and Bicknacre
Bicknacre
Bicknacre is a village in Essex, England. It is approximately north of South Woodham Ferrers and southeast of the county town of Chelmsford. The village is in the borough of Chelmsford and in the parliamentary constituency of Maldon & East Chelmsford...

.

The communities of Chelmsford, Massachusetts
Chelmsford, Massachusetts
Chelmsford is a suburban town in Middlesex County, Massachusetts in the Greater Boston area. As of the 2010 United States Census, the town's population was 33,802. The Census Bureau's 2008 population estimate for the town was 34,409, ranking it 14th in population among the 54 municipalities in...

, Chelmsford, Ontario and Chelmsford, New Brunswick
Chelmsford, New Brunswick
Chelmsford is a community in the Canadian province of New Brunswick....

 are named after the town.

Chelmsford's population consists of a large number of City
City of London
The City of London is a small area within Greater London, England. It is the historic core of London around which the modern conurbation grew and has held city status since time immemorial. The City’s boundaries have remained almost unchanged since the Middle Ages, and it is now only a tiny part of...

 and Docklands
Docklands
Docklands is the semi-official name for an area in east London, England. It forms part of the boroughs of Southwark, Tower Hamlets, Newham and Greenwich. The docks were formerly part of the Port of London, at one time the world's largest port. They have now been redeveloped principally for...

 commuters, attracted by the 30-35 minute journey from Central London via the Great Eastern Main Line
Great Eastern Main Line
The Great Eastern Main Line is a 212 Kilometre major railway line of the British railway system, which connects Liverpool Street in the City of London with destinations in east London and the East of England, including Chelmsford, Colchester, Ipswich, Norwich and several coastal resorts such as...

. The same journey takes approximately 60 minutes by road via the A12
A12
-Aviation:* A-12 Avenger II, a Cold War-era, American aircraft project that was canceled prior to production* A-12 Shrike, a World War 2–era American attack aircraft* Abrial A-12 Bagoas, a French, experimental glider of the 1930s...

.

The demonym
Demonym
A demonym , also referred to as a gentilic, is a name for a resident of a locality. A demonym is usually – though not always – derived from the name of the locality; thus, the demonym for the people of England is English, and the demonym for the people of Italy is Italian, yet, in english, the one...

 for a Chelmsford resident is "Chelmsfordian".

History

Early history

In 1199, following the commissioning of a bridge over the River Can by Maurice, Bishop of London, William of Sainte-Mère-Eglise
William of Sainte-Mère-Eglise
William of Sainte-Mère-Eglise was a medieval Bishop of London.-Life:...

 was granted a Royal Charter for Chelmsford to hold a market, marking the origin of the modern town. An under-cover market, operating Tuesday to Saturday, is still an important part of the town centre over 800 years later. The town's name is derived from 'Ceolmaer's ford' which was close to the site of the present High Street stone bridge. In the Domesday Book
Domesday Book
Domesday Book , now held at The National Archives, Kew, Richmond upon Thames in South West London, is the record of the great survey of much of England and parts of Wales completed in 1086...

 of 1086 the town was called 'Celmeresfort' and by 1189 it had changed to 'Chelmsford'. Its position on the Londinium - Camulodonum Roman road (the modern A12
A12
-Aviation:* A-12 Avenger II, a Cold War-era, American aircraft project that was canceled prior to production* A-12 Shrike, a World War 2–era American attack aircraft* Abrial A-12 Bagoas, a French, experimental glider of the 1930s...

) ensured the early properity of the town; in the first decade of the 12th century its population had grown to several hundred, which was large for its time.

Before 1199, there were settlements nearby from ancient times. A Neolithic
Neolithic
The Neolithic Age, Era, or Period, or New Stone Age, was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 9500 BC in some parts of the Middle East, and later in other parts of the world. It is traditionally considered as the last part of the Stone Age...

 and a late Bronze Age
Bronze Age
The Bronze Age is a period characterized by the use of copper and its alloy bronze as the chief hard materials in the manufacture of some implements and weapons. Chronologically, it stands between the Stone Age and Iron Age...

 settlement have been found in the Springfield suburb, and the town was occupied by the Romans
Roman Britain
Roman Britain was the part of the island of Great Britain controlled by the Roman Empire from AD 43 until ca. AD 410.The Romans referred to the imperial province as Britannia, which eventually comprised all of the island of Great Britain south of the fluid frontier with Caledonia...

. A Roman fort was built in AD 60, and a civilian town grew up around it. The town was given the name of Caesaromagus (the market place of Caesar), although the reason for it being given the great honour of bearing the Imperial prefix is now unclear – possibly as a failed 'planned town' provincial capital to replace Londinium
Londinium
The city of London was established by the Romans around AD 43. It served as a major imperial commercial centre until its abandonment during the 5th century.-Origins and language:...

 or Camulodunum
Camulodunum
Camulodunum is the Roman name for the ancient settlement which is today's Colchester, a town in Essex, England. Camulodunum is claimed to be the oldest town in Britain as recorded by the Romans, existing as a Celtic settlement before the Roman conquest, when it became the first Roman town, and...

. The remains of a mansio
Mansio
In the Roman Empire, a mansio was an official stopping place on a Roman road, or via, maintained by the central government for the use of officials and those on official business whilst travelling.-Background:The roads which traversed the Ancient World, were later surveyed,...

, a combination post office, civic centre and hotel, lie beneath the streets of modern Moulsham
Moulsham
Moulsham is a suburb of Chelmsford, Essex, England. It is located to the south of the town centre and has two distinct areas: Old Moulsham and Moulsham Lodge.-History:...

, and the ruins of an octagonal temple
Temple
A temple is a structure reserved for religious or spiritual activities, such as prayer and sacrifice, or analogous rites. A templum constituted a sacred precinct as defined by a priest, or augur. It has the same root as the word "template," a plan in preparation of the building that was marked out...

 are located beneath the Odeon roundabout.

The town became the seat of the local assize during the early 13th century (though assizes were also held at Brentwood
Brentwood, Essex
Brentwood is a town and the principal settlement of the Borough of Brentwood, in the county of Essex in the east of England. It is located in the London commuter belt, 20 miles east north-east of Charing Cross in London, and near the M25 motorway....

) and by 1218 was recognised as the county town of Essex, a position it has retained to the present day. Chelmsford was significantly involved in the Peasants' Revolt
Peasants' Revolt
The Peasants' Revolt, Wat Tyler's Rebellion, or the Great Rising of 1381 was one of a number of popular revolts in late medieval Europe and is a major event in the history of England. Tyler's Rebellion was not only the most extreme and widespread insurrection in English history but also the...

 of 1381, and Richard II
Richard II of England
Richard II was King of England, a member of the House of Plantagenet and the last of its main-line kings. He ruled from 1377 until he was deposed in 1399. Richard was a son of Edward, the Black Prince, and was born during the reign of his grandfather, Edward III...

 moved on to the town after quelling the rebellion in London. 'The Sleepers and The Shadows', written by the late Hilda Grieve in 1988 using original sources, states: "For nearly a week, from Monday 1st July to Saturday 6th July [1381], Chelmsford became the seat of government ... The king probably lodged at his nearby manor house at Writtle. He was attended by his council, headed by the temporary Chancellor ... the new chief justice ... the royal chancery ... Their formidable task in Chelmsford was to draft, engross, date, seal and despatch by messengers riding to the farthest corners of the realm, the daily batches of commissions, mandates, letters, orders and proclamations issued by the government not only to speed the process of pacification of the kingdom, but to conduct much ordinary day to day business of the Crown and Government." Richard II famously revoked the charters which he had made in concession to the peasants on 2 July 1381, while in Chelmsford. It could be said that given this movement of government power, Chelmsford for a few days at least became the capital of England. Many of the ringleaders of the revolt were executed on the gallows at what is now Primrose Hill.

An important Anglo-Saxon burial was discovered at Broomfield
Broomfield, Essex
Broomfield is a village and residential suburb situated immediately to the north of Chelmsford, in central Essex. It is the site of a major Accident & Emergency hospital. There are two public houses as well as primary and secondary schools and sports clubs....

 to the north of Chelmsford in the late 19th century and the finds are now in the British Museum
British Museum
The British Museum is a museum of human history and culture in London. Its collections, which number more than seven million objects, are amongst the largest and most comprehensive in the world and originate from all continents, illustrating and documenting the story of human culture from its...

. The road 'Saxon Way' now marks the site. In the 17th century many of the victims of Matthew Hopkins
Matthew Hopkins
Matthew Hopkins was an English witchhunter whose career flourished during the time of the English Civil War. He claimed to hold the office of Witchfinder General, although that title was never bestowed by Parliament...

 (the self-styled "Witchfinder General") spent their last days imprisoned in Chelmsford, before being tried at the Assizes and hanged for witchcraft
Witchcraft
Witchcraft, in historical, anthropological, religious, and mythological contexts, is the alleged use of supernatural or magical powers. A witch is a practitioner of witchcraft...

.

Henry VIII
Henry VIII of England
Henry VIII was King of England from 21 April 1509 until his death. He was Lord, and later King, of Ireland, as well as continuing the nominal claim by the English monarchs to the Kingdom of France...

 purchased the Boleyn estate in 1516, and built Beaulieu Palace
Palace of Beaulieu
right|350px|thumb|Beaulieu Palace circa 1580The Palace of Beaulieu also known as New Hall was located in Essex, England, north of Chelmsford....

 on the current site of New Hall School
New Hall School
New Hall is one of the oldest Catholic schools in England. It is located in the former Tudor Palace of Beaulieu in Essex.Today New Hall is a leading Catholic independent boarding & day school for boys and girls aged 3–18. Founded in 1642, New Hall School, Chelmsford, is the oldest Catholic school...

. This later became the residence of his then mistress, and later wife Ann. Soon after it became the residence of Henry's daughter, by his first marriage, Mary I
Mary I of England
Mary I was queen regnant of England and Ireland from July 1553 until her death.She was the only surviving child born of the ill-fated marriage of Henry VIII and his first wife Catherine of Aragon. Her younger half-brother, Edward VI, succeeded Henry in 1547...

.

King Robert I of Scotland
Robert I of Scotland
Robert I , popularly known as Robert the Bruce , was King of Scots from March 25, 1306, until his death in 1329.His paternal ancestors were of Scoto-Norman heritage , and...

, better known as Robert the Bruce had close ties with the nearby village of Writtle
Writtle
The village of Writtle lies a mile west of Chelmsford, Essex, England, it has a traditional village green, complete with duck pond and a Norman church; and was once described as: 'one of the loveliest villages in England, with a ravishing variety of ancient cottages'...

 and there is some evidence to suggest he was born at Montpeliers Farm in the village, but the story is disputed and possibly conflated with his father, Robert de Brus, 6th Lord of Annandale.

World War II

During World War II Chelmsford, an important centre of light engineering war production, was attacked from the air on several occasions, both by aircraft of the Luftwaffe
Luftwaffe
Luftwaffe is a generic German term for an air force. It is also the official name for two of the four historic German air forces, the Wehrmacht air arm founded in 1935 and disbanded in 1946; and the current Bundeswehr air arm founded in 1956....

 and by missile. The worst single loss of life took place on Tuesday 19 December 1944, when the 367th Vergeltungswaffe
Vergeltungswaffe
V-weapons also, known in the original German as Vergeltungswaffen , were a particular set of long range artillery weapons designed for strategic bombing during World War II, particularly terror bombing and/or aerial bombing of cities. They comprised the V-1 flying bomb, the V-2 rocket and the V-3...

 2 or V2
V-2 rocket
The V-2 rocket , technical name Aggregat-4 , was a ballistic missile that was developed at the beginning of the Second World War in Germany, specifically targeted at London and later Antwerp. The liquid-propellant rocket was the world's first long-range combat-ballistic missile and first known...

 rocket to hit England fell on a residential street (Henry Road) near the Hoffmans ball bearing factory and not far from the Marconi Wireless Telegraph Company factory in New Street which may also have been the target. (It is seen being protected by a barrage balloon
Barrage balloon
A barrage balloon is a large balloon tethered with metal cables, used to defend against low-level aircraft attack by damaging the aircraft on collision with the cables, or at least making the attacker's approach more difficult. Some versions carried small explosive charges that would be pulled up...

 in a wartime photograph.) Thirty-nine people were killed and 138 injured, 47 seriously. Several dwellings in Henry Road were completely destroyed, and many in nearby streets were badly damaged. A recently restored monument to the dead is in the borough cemetery in Writtle Road.

The GHQ Line
GHQ Line
The GHQ Line was a defence line built in the United Kingdom during World War II to contain an expected German invasion.The British Army had abandoned most of its equipment in France after the Dunkirk evacuation...

 part of the British hardened field defences of World War II
British hardened field defences of World War II
British hardened field defences of World War II were small fortified structures constructed as a part of British anti-invasion preparations. They were popularly known as pillboxes by reference to their shape.-Design and development:...

 runs directly through Chelmsford with many pillboxes still in existence to the north and south of the town. Faded camouflage
Military camouflage
Military camouflage is one of many means of deceiving an enemy. In practice, it is the application of colour and materials to battledress and military equipment to conceal them from visual observation. The French slang word camouflage came into common English usage during World War I when the...

 paint still remains on old buildings near Waterhouse Lane.

Hylands Park
Hylands Park
Hylands House is a Grade II* neo-classical villa situated within Hylands Park a 232-hectare park south-west of Chelmsford in Essex in South East England. It is owned and operated by Chelmsford Borough Council.-History:...

, the site of the annual V festival
V Festival
The V Festival is an annual music festival held in England during the penultimate weekend in August. The event is held at two parks simultaneously which share the same bill; artists perform at one location on Saturday and then swap on Sunday. The sites are located at Hylands Park in Chelmsford and...

, then hosted a Prisoner of war camp, and from 1944 was the headquarters of the Special Air Service
Special Air Service
Special Air Service or SAS is a corps of the British Army constituted on 31 May 1950. They are part of the United Kingdom Special Forces and have served as a model for the special forces of many other countries all over the world...

 (SAS).

Recent history

Since the 1980s Chelmsford has suffered from a decline in its defence-related industries, most notably The Marconi Company
Marconi Company
The Marconi Company Ltd. was founded by Guglielmo Marconi in 1897 as The Wireless Telegraph & Signal Company...

 with all of its factories closing. The Hall Street factory site is now jointly owned by SELEX Communications and BAE Systems
BAE Systems
BAE Systems plc is a British multinational defence, security and aerospace company headquartered in London, United Kingdom, that has global interests, particularly in North America through its subsidiary BAE Systems Inc. BAE is among the world's largest military contractors; in 2009 it was the...

.

However, the town's location close to London and at the centre of Essex has helped it grow in importance as an administrative and distribution centre. The one-time largest employer in Chelmsford, RHP, the former Hoffman ball bearing manufacturing company, closed its New Street/Rectory Lane site in 1989. Some of the factory remains and have been converted into luxury apartments and a health club although most of the site was demolished to make way for the Rivermead Campus of the Anglia Ruskin University
Anglia Ruskin University
Anglia Ruskin University is one of the largest universities in Eastern England, United Kingdom, with a total student population of around 30,000.-History:...

.

Beaulieu Park, 'The Village' and Chancellor Park are some of the most recent large scale housing developments built in the town to complement earlier developments such as Chelmer Village
Chelmer village
Chelmer Village is a suburb in the east of Chelmsford, Essex. Chelmsford Borough Council names it "Chelmer Village & Beaulieu Park". Chelmer Village is a ward in Chelmsford....

 which was built throughout the 1980s.

In 2007, the Channel 4
Channel 4
Channel 4 is a British public-service television broadcaster which began working on 2 November 1982. Although largely commercially self-funded, it is ultimately publicly owned; originally a subsidiary of the Independent Broadcasting Authority , the station is now owned and operated by the Channel...

 programme "Location, Location, Location
Location, Location, Location
Location, Location, Location is a Channel 4 property programme, presented by Kirstie Allsopp and Phil Spencer and produced by IWC Media, part of the RDF Media Group. The reality show follows Kirstie and Phil as they try to find the perfect home for a different set of buyers each week. It first...

" voted Chelmsford as the 8th best place to live in the UK.

Local government and politics

Chelmsford is at the geographic and political centre of Essex and has been the county town
County town
A county town is a county's administrative centre in the United Kingdom or Ireland. County towns are usually the location of administrative or judicial functions, or established over time as the de facto main town of a county. The concept of a county town eventually became detached from its...

 since 1215. It is the location of the headquarters of Essex County Council at County Hall on Market Road and the headquarters of Chelmsford Borough Council on Duke Street. The headquarters of Essex Police
Essex Police
Essex Police is a territorial police force responsible for policing the county of Essex in the east of England.It is one of the largest non-metropolitan police forces in the United Kingdom, employing approximately 3,600 police officers and operating across an area of over and with a population of...

 are located in the Springfield
Springfield, Essex
Springfield has been a civil parish of the Borough of Chelmsford, Essex, England since 1907. The parish takes in the portion of the town north of river Chelmer and west of the A12 bypass and originally comprised the manors of Springfield Hall, Springfield Barnes, Cuton Hall, and in part New Hall...

 area of the town at Kingston Crescent.

Chelmsford formed part of the ancient Chelmsford hundred of Essex. It was incorporated as a municipal borough in 1888, under the provisions of the Municipal Corporations Act 1882
Municipal Corporations Act 1882
The Municipal Corporations Act 1882 was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. It replaced existing legislation governing municipal boroughs in England and Wales, and gave the corporations powers to make byelaws and to acquire land and buildings. Municipal boroughs continued to be...

. In 1934 the borough was enlarged by gaining 1659 acres (6.7 km²) from Chelmsford Rural District
Chelmsford Rural District
Chelmsford was a local government district in Essex, England from 1894 to 1974. It surrounded, but did not include, the town of Chelmsford; which formed a municipal borough....

, including parts of the parishes of Broomfield, Springfield, Widford and Writtle. The municipal borough was abolished in 1974 and its former area was combined with most of the remainder of the rural district to form the larger Chelmsford borough
Chelmsford (borough)
Chelmsford is a local government district and borough in Essex, England. It is named after its main settlement, Chelmsford, which is also the county town of Essex.-History:...

.

For the Chelmsford
Chelmsford (UK Parliament constituency)
Chelmsford is a parliamentary constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. From the 2010 general election it has elected one Member of Parliament by the first past the post system of election....

 constituency in the House of Commons the member of Parliament
Member of Parliament
A Member of Parliament is a representative of the voters to a :parliament. In many countries with bicameral parliaments, the term applies specifically to members of the lower house, as upper houses often have a different title, such as senate, and thus also have different titles for its members,...

 is Simon Burns
Simon Burns
Simon Hugh McGuigan Burns is a Conservative Party politician in the United Kingdom. He has been Member of Parliament for Chelmsford since the 1987 general election...

.

Business and commerce

Originally an agricultural and market town, Chelmsford has been an important centre for industry since the 19th century. Following the opening of the Chelmer and Blackwater Navigation
Chelmer and Blackwater Navigation
The Chelmer and Blackwater Navigation is the canalisation of the Rivers Chelmer and Blackwater in Essex, in the east of England. The navigation runs for from Springfield Basin in Chelmsford to the sea lock at Heybridge Basin near Maldon. It was opened in 1797, and remained under the control of...

 in 1797, cheaper transportation and raw materials made milling and malting the main industries until the 1850s, when increasing prosperity created a local market for agricultural machinery.

Foundries and engineering works followed including Fell Christy at his Factory (In later years known as Christy Norris Ltd) on the corner of Kings Road and Broomfield Road opened 1858, closed 1985, Coleman and Moreton, Thomas Clarkson (Steam Omnibus manufacturer and Founder of the Eastern National Bus Company) and Eddington and Stevenson (makers of traction engines). The Company Christy Norris still survives, trading as Christy Turner Ltd based in Ipswich
Ipswich
Ipswich is a large town and a non-metropolitan district. It is the county town of Suffolk, England. Ipswich is located on the estuary of the River Orwell...

. A nearby road to the old Factory was named "Fell Christy" in his honour.

As well as the headquarters of Essex County and Chelmsford Borough Councils, the modern town is home to a range of national and international companies including M&G
M&G
- M&G Investments :M&G is a leading investment manager in the UK and overseas. It is an autonomous business within the Prudential Group, running its own retail and institutional funds operation and functioning as the asset manager for Prudential in Europe...

 Group, e2v Technologies
English Electric Valve Company
The English Electric Valve Company or EEV, is a specialist component and sub-system designer, developer and manufacturer. As e2v it has 6 European and US manufacturing facilities and its HQ in Essex, England....

 and ebm-papst
Ebm-papst
The ebm-papst Group is the world's leading manufacturer of electric motors and fans. It came into existence in 2003 when the companies Elektrobau Mulfingen GmbH & Co. KG , Papst Motoren GmbH in St. Georgen and Motoren Ventilatoren Landshut GmbH merged...

 UK Ltd. The continuing importance of Chelmsford as an employment centre is demonstrated by the fact that the number of "in" commuters (mostly from other parts of Essex) almost exactly balances the number of workers commuting into London.

Chelmsford is largely a commercial town which employs around 80,000 people. There are two medium-sized shopping centres, High Chelmer and The Meadows. Chelmsford has three retail parks, Riverside, Chelmer Village
Chelmer village
Chelmer Village is a suburb in the east of Chelmsford, Essex. Chelmsford Borough Council names it "Chelmer Village & Beaulieu Park". Chelmer Village is a ward in Chelmsford....

 and the smaller Homelands Retail Park housing a Flagship B&Q Store and Springfield Garden Centre (part of the Garden centre Group). The High Street is full of independent and chain stores. As well as the leading High Street names, there is also a wide variety of specialist retailers, especially in Baddow Road and Moulsham Street which are located at the end of the pedestrianised High Street. On 6 January 2005, Chelmsford was granted Fairtrade Town
Fairtrade Town
Fairtrade Town is a status awarded by a recognized Fairtrade certification body describing an area which is committed to the promotion of Fairtrade certified goods...

 status.

Several years ago, Chelmsford was labelled a mere clone town
Clone town
Clone town is a global term for a town where the High Street or other major shopping areas are significantly dominated by Chain stores. The term was coined by the New Economics Foundation , a British think tank, in their 2004 report on "Clone Town Britain".A survey conducted by NEF in 2005...

; however new developments are proving the statement wrong, with new business opportunities around the town. Sizeable businesses are now based in the Chelmsford Business Park at Boreham
Boreham
Boreham is a village and civil parish, in Essex, England. It is located approximately northeast from the county town of Chelmsford. The village is in the borough of Chelmsford and parliamentary constituency of Saffron Walden.- History :...

 housing companies such as the Anderson Group. The town also has a low unemployment rate (1.6% in 2002) and a well-educated workforce, with 9% holding a degree or above (in 2002; British average: 7.1%).

Chelmsford has a vibrant nightlife scene with many nightclubs, pubs, wine bars and restaurants in the town centre area, particularly in Duke Street, Moulsham Street, the town centre end of Baddow Road and the bottom section of Springfield Road. Its central Essex location and good public transport links make the town ideal for revellers, commuters and tourists to visit from surrounding areas.

In May 2011, work began on improvements to Moulsham Street. The original street had extremely narrow pavements which were dangerous for pedestrians to walk more than one abreast on the Parkway-George Street section. The improvements delivered wider pavements, better lighting and better access to shops. This work was completed in late October 2011.

Marconi


In 1899, Guglielmo Marconi
Guglielmo Marconi
Guglielmo Marconi was an Italian inventor, known as the father of long distance radio transmission and for his development of Marconi's law and a radio telegraph system. Marconi is often credited as the inventor of radio, and indeed he shared the 1909 Nobel Prize in Physics with Karl Ferdinand...

 opened the world's first "wireless" factory under the name The Marconi Wireless Telegraph & Signal Company in Hall Street employing around 50 people. The company was later called the Marconi Wireless Telegraph Company Ltd. For this reason Chelmsford is credited as the "birthplace of radio", and this phrase can be seen on administrative signs on major roads entering the town although this statement is disputed.

Marconi soon outgrew its Hall Street premises and in June 1912 the company moved to a brand new purpose built 70000 square feet (6,503.2 m²) factory in New Street that still stands today. On 15 June 1920 the factory was the location of the first official publicised sound broadcast
Broadcasting
Broadcasting is the distribution of audio and video content to a dispersed audience via any audio visual medium. Receiving parties may include the general public or a relatively large subset of thereof...

 in the United Kingdom, featuring Dame Nellie Melba
Nellie Melba
Dame Nellie Melba GBE , born Helen "Nellie" Porter Mitchell, was an Australian operatic soprano. She became one of the most famous singers of the late Victorian Era and the early 20th century...

 using two 450 feet (137.2 m) radio broadcasting masts.

In 1922, the world's first regular wireless broadcasts for entertainment began from the Marconi laboratories at Writtle
Writtle
The village of Writtle lies a mile west of Chelmsford, Essex, England, it has a traditional village green, complete with duck pond and a Norman church; and was once described as: 'one of the loveliest villages in England, with a ravishing variety of ancient cottages'...

 near Chelmsford – Call sign '2MT
2MT
2MT was the first British radio station to make regular entertainment broadcasts.Transmissions began on 14 February 1922 from an ex-Army hut next to the Marconi laboratories at Writtle, near Chelmsford in Essex...

' in what was little more than a wooden hut.

In 1999, Marconi's defence division, including the Chelmsford facilities, were purchased by British Aerospace
British Aerospace
British Aerospace plc was a UK aircraft, munitions and defence-systems manufacturer. Its head office was in the Warwick House in the Farnborough Aerospace Centre in Farnborough, Hampshire...

 to form BAE Systems
BAE Systems
BAE Systems plc is a British multinational defence, security and aerospace company headquartered in London, United Kingdom, that has global interests, particularly in North America through its subsidiary BAE Systems Inc. BAE is among the world's largest military contractors; in 2009 it was the...

. Two sites remain under BAE control; the Great Baddow site which is now BAE's Advanced Technology Centre and its Integrated Systems Technologies
BAE Systems Integrated System Technologies
BAE Systems Integrated System Technologies was formed on May 3, 2005, by bringing together BAE Systems' interests in C4ISR and the UK operations of AMS following the Eurosystems Transaction....

 business at Glebe Road.

The military and secure communications division of Marconi was merged into Selex Communications was based at the New Street factory however they vacated the site in April 2008 with the remaining operations moved to nearby Basildon
Basildon
Basildon is a town located in the Basildon District of the county of Essex, England.It lies east of Central London and south of the county town of Chelmsford...

.This brought to an end of more than 100 years of the Marconi name in Chelmsford.

The New Street factory was scheduled to be redeveloped with work planned to start during 2010, however this fell through after the new site owners Ashwell Property Group entered administration in December 2009.

The New Street site including the Grade II listed front façade remains empty, derelict and vandalised with its future uncertain much to the dismay of Marconi Veterans and Chelmsfordians.

Cromptons Electrical Engineering

Chelmsford became home to the United Kingdom's first electrical engineering works established by Rookes Evelyn Bell Crompton
R. E. B. Crompton
Rookes Evelyn Bell Crompton FRS was a British electrical engineer, industrialist and inventor. He was a pioneer of electric lighting and public electricity supply systems. The company he formed, Crompton & Co., was one of the world's first large-scale manufactures of electrical equipment...

. Crompton as he was better known was a leading authority of electrical engineering and was a pioneer of electric street lighting and electric traction motors within the UK. Crompton installed electric street lights around the town centre to celebrate the incorporation of the Borough of Chelmsford in 1888. Although this made Chelmsford one of the earliest towns to receive electric street lighting, the Council later decided to have it removed because gas was cheaper and the Council owned the gasworks. Crompton supplied the traction motors for the first electric trains on Southend Pier
Southend Pier
Southend Pier is a major landmark in Southend-on-Sea. Extending into the Thames Estuary, it is the longest pleasure pier in the world. Sir John Betjeman once said that "the Pier is Southend, Southend is the Pier". The pier is a Grade II listed building....

. The company also manufactured electrical switchgear, alternators and generators for many power stations in the UK and worldwide.

Crompton set up his original factory known as the 'Arc Works' in Queen Street in 1878. After a fire there in 1895, he built a huge new electrical engineering factory also called the 'Arc Works' in Writtle Road. The Firm was called Crompton and Co. and in 1927 became Crompton Parkinson
Crompton Parkinson
Crompton Parkinson was a British electrical manufacturing company formed in 1927 by the merger of Crompton & Co., and F & A. Parkinson Ltd.Crompton & Co. was a lamp manufacturer founded by Colonel Rookes Evelyn Bell Crompton in 1878 and had designed and installed electric lighting installations at...

 after Colonel Crompton formed a business partnership with fellow British electrical engineer Frank Parkinson
Frank Parkinson
Frank Parkinson was a British electrical engineer, most notable for early electric lighting installations, such as light bulbs and electric motors...

. During World War II, the factory was frequently targeted by the Luftwaffe
Luftwaffe
Luftwaffe is a generic German term for an air force. It is also the official name for two of the four historic German air forces, the Wehrmacht air arm founded in 1935 and disbanded in 1946; and the current Bundeswehr air arm founded in 1956....

. In 1969 Crompton Parkinson Ltd was downsized and operations moved elsewhere after a takeover by Hawker Siddeley and the site was taken over by the Marconi Company
Marconi Company
The Marconi Company Ltd. was founded by Guglielmo Marconi in 1897 as The Wireless Telegraph & Signal Company...

 and became the base for the newly formed Marconi Radar Systems Ltd.

After years of decline, the Marconi factory finally closed in 1992 and the site was demolished a few years later apart from the frontage on Writtle Road. A housing development called 'The Village' now occupies the site with road names such as Rookes Crescent, Evelyn Place, Crompton Street and Parkinson Drive as tributes to the former occupant.

Hoffmann Ball Bearings (RHP)

The United Kingdom's first ball bearing
Ball bearing
A ball bearing is a type of rolling-element bearing that uses balls to maintain the separation between the bearing races.The purpose of a ball bearing is to reduce rotational friction and support radial and axial loads. It achieves this by using at least two races to contain the balls and transmit...

 factory was established at New Street and Rectory Lane in Chelmsford in 1898 by cousins Geoffrey and Charles Barrett and bankrolled by American ball bearing machine manufacturer Ernst Gustav Hoffmann from whom the Company took its name. The Hoffmann Manufacturing Company rapidly expanded and soon achieved worldwide fame for their precision-made bearings boasting an accuracy better than 1/10,000 of an inch (2.5 micrometres) for all their products. Hoffmann bearings were later used in the first transatlantic flights and extensively on machinery during World War I. For many years it was Chelmsford's main employer with more employees than the nearby Marconi Company.

The firm became Ransome Hoffmann and Pollard (RHP) after amalgamation with the Ransome and Pollard bearing manufacturing companies in 1969. The factory that once employed 7500 employees over 50 acres in its heyday was wound down during the 1980s and finally closing for good on December 23, 1989.

The company assets and name were absorbed into the Japanese NSK Ltd
NSK Ltd.
NSK Ltd. inaugurated its business in November 1916 and produced the first ball bearings made in Japan. Since then, NSK Ltd...

 bearing company in early 1990 trading as NSK-RHP Ltd. at its UK base in Newark on Trent with the historic R.H.P name finally disappearing in 2001.

Most of the factory was demolished during the summer of 1990 and the site is now occupied by the sprawling Rivermead Campus of the Anglia Ruskin University
Anglia Ruskin University
Anglia Ruskin University is one of the largest universities in Eastern England, United Kingdom, with a total student population of around 30,000.-History:...

.

The only connection to the company name in Chelmsford today is the R.H.P. Bowls club located on part of the old Hoffmans Social Club site at Canterbury Way and Hoffmans Way at the corner of the old factory site at New Street and Rectory Lane.

English Electric Valve Company

Original called the Phoenix Dynamo Company, the company was founded by Serge Aisenstein in 1947. It soon was noted for supplying 3" orthicons for the worldwide television transmission of the Coronation
Coronation
A coronation is a ceremony marking the formal investiture of a monarch and/or their consort with regal power, usually involving the placement of a crown upon their head and the presentation of other items of regalia...

 of Queen Elizabeth II at Westminster Abbey
Westminster Abbey
The Collegiate Church of St Peter at Westminster, popularly known as Westminster Abbey, is a large, mainly Gothic church, in the City of Westminster, London, United Kingdom, located just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. It is the traditional place of coronation and burial site for English,...

. The company, now known as e2v technologies plc still has its headquarters in Waterhouse Lane. In January 2007, the company celebrated 60 years in Chelmsford.

Britvic


Britvic's world headquarters, the Britvic House, is in Chelmsford. The soft drink company began life as the British Vitamin Company in 1948. However, the origins of the company can be traced back to a chemist's in the town's Tindal Street, where flavoured waters were on sale as early as the mid-19th century. The company changed its name to Britvic in 1971 after its successful brand, which was launched in 1949. Britvic has a large factory on Widford Industrial Estate with its head office located in Broomfield Road.

In July 2011, Britvic announced that it is planning to move its headquarters from the current site in Broomfield Road closer to London in order to facilitate better transport links for its staff.

Transport

Rail

The Eastern Counties Railway
Eastern Counties Railway
The Eastern Counties Railway was an early English railway company incorporated in 1836. It was intended to link London with Ipswich via Colchester, and then on to Norwich and Yarmouth. Construction began in late March 1837 on the first nine miles, at the London end of the line.Construction was...

 arrived in Chelmsford in 1842, although owing to the geography of the town, three viaducts had to be constructed, the longest of which is the 18 arch Central Park viaduct. The station was built at the end of the second viaduct with the third viaduct at the River Chelmer at Springfield. The present-day Chelmsford railway station
Chelmsford railway station
Chelmsford railway station is a railway station serving the town of Chelmsford in Essex. The station is located on the Great Eastern Main Line.The station is served by National Express East Anglia...

 dates from around 1885 and is in the town centre and around 14,000 commuters travel to London Liverpool Street daily by rail making Chelmsford the busiest station outside of London which is completely non-terminus. The station is served by the railway franchise National Express East Anglia.

Services from Chelmsford are operated to London Liverpool Street and Ipswich
Ipswich
Ipswich is a large town and a non-metropolitan district. It is the county town of Suffolk, England. Ipswich is located on the estuary of the River Orwell...

, Clacton, Harwich
Harwich
Harwich is a town in Essex, England and one of the Haven ports, located on the coast with the North Sea to the east. It is in the Tendring district. Nearby places include Felixstowe to the northeast, Ipswich to the northwest, Colchester to the southwest and Clacton-on-Sea to the south...

, Braintree
Braintree, Essex
Braintree is a town of about 42,000 people and the principal settlement of the Braintree district of Essex in the East of England. It is northeast of Chelmsford and west of Colchester on the River Blackwater, A120 road and a branch of the Great Eastern Main Line.Braintree has grown contiguous...

 and Norwich
Norwich
Norwich is a city in England. It is the regional administrative centre and county town of Norfolk. During the 11th century, Norwich was the largest city in England after London, and one of the most important places in the kingdom...

 via the Great Eastern Main Line
Great Eastern Main Line
The Great Eastern Main Line is a 212 Kilometre major railway line of the British railway system, which connects Liverpool Street in the City of London with destinations in east London and the East of England, including Chelmsford, Colchester, Ipswich, Norwich and several coastal resorts such as...

. Despite having platforms elevated on a viaduct, the station has full disabled access via a lift for each of the two platforms and as well as stair access. This dates from an extensive refurbishment of the station's ground-level facilities in the late 1980s.

Bus

A new bus terminal in Duke Street opened in March 2007 which replaced an ageing 1930s Bus station. It incorporates shops and apartments and has a covered roof for passengers. This is mainly used by the First Essex
First Essex
First Essex Buses Limited is owned by First Group. First Essex carries around 29 million passengers each year on a network of routes serving Essex and the surrounding areas. It arose from an amalgamation of Eastern National and Thamesway Buses, whose yellow/maroon livery has only recently disappeared...

 Bus Company which has many routes around the town and beyond including the X30 Southend to Stansted Airport Flyer.

Essex County Council Highways & Transportation Department have considered the construction of a Bus Rapid Transit System to be built serving the Beaulieu Park/Springfield Area because of the increasing demand for Rapid Transit Plans in Ipswich, Colchester and Southend.

Chelmsford has a Park & Ride service that is based at nearby Sandon
Sandon, Essex
Sandon is a small village just off junction 17 of the A12 in Essex, adjacent to Great Baddow and close to Danbury. It was known for an ancient oak tree covering most of the village green...

, just off the A12 at Junction 18. It runs from 7 am to 7 pm, Monday to Saturday with five bus stops around the town (one near High Chelmer for shopping) and charges £2.20 per adult and free for old-age pensioners or people under the age of 16. An adult weekly ticket is £11.00 and Adult monthly £42.00. It currently has a capacity of 1,200 cars. Opened in March 2006, it has proved highly successful and is widely used.

Road

The main London to Colchester A12 trunk road which evolved from the Great East Road originally built by the Romans
Roman Britain
Roman Britain was the part of the island of Great Britain controlled by the Roman Empire from AD 43 until ca. AD 410.The Romans referred to the imperial province as Britannia, which eventually comprised all of the island of Great Britain south of the fluid frontier with Caledonia...

 to connect London and Colchester
Colchester
Colchester is an historic town and the largest settlement within the borough of Colchester in Essex, England.At the time of the census in 2001, it had a population of 104,390. However, the population is rapidly increasing, and has been named as one of Britain's fastest growing towns. As the...

, used to pass through the town but is now diverted around the east. The £34.8m nine-mile (14 km) bypass opened in November 1986. The A414 is the main east-west route through the Borough, and the A130
A130 road
The A130 is a major road in England linking Little Waltham, near Chelmsford, the county town of Essex, with Canvey Island in the south of that county. It is a primary route for most of its length, only losing that status south of the A13 junction at Sadlers Farm "magic" roundabout as it nears its...

 and A131 run approximately north-south.

Chelmsford is around 25 to 30 minutes' drive from London Stansted Airport
London Stansted Airport
-Cargo:-Statistics:-Infrastructure:-Terminal and satellite buildings:Stansted is the newest passenger airport of all the main London airports. The terminal is an oblong glass building, and is separated in to three areas: Check-in concourse, arrivals and departures...

 (via A130/A120), and London Heathrow
London Heathrow Airport
London Heathrow Airport or Heathrow , in the London Borough of Hillingdon, is the busiest airport in the United Kingdom and the third busiest airport in the world in terms of total passenger traffic, handling more international passengers than any other airport around the globe...

, London Gatwick
London Gatwick Airport
Gatwick Airport is located 3.1 miles north of the centre of Crawley, West Sussex, and south of Central London. Previously known as London Gatwick,In 2010, the name changed from London Gatwick Airport to Gatwick Airport...

, London City
London City Airport
London City Airport is a single-runway airport. It principally serves the financial district of London and is located on a former Docklands site, east of the City of London, opposite the London Regatta Centre, in the London Borough of Newham in east London. It was developed by the engineering...

, Luton
London Luton Airport
London Luton Airport is an international airport located east of the town centre in the Borough of Luton in Bedfordshire, England and is north of Central London. The airport is from Junction 10a of the M1 motorway...

 and Southend airports are all within reach.

In the southwest of the town centre, the A138 meets the A414 at The Army and Navy roundabout which is notorious for its traffic congestion, even though the north–south road at this point is no longer part of the A12. Until 1986, when the Chelmsford bypass was opened, the roundabout was in an even worse state. Traffic lights were tried to improve matters in the early 2000s but that scheme was abandoned after a short while however some of the lights where recommissioned for early morning and evening part time use in 2009. The recently built bus lane on the A1114 Great Baddow Bypass and priority to traffic using it has meant traffic queues approaching the roundabout can now be over a mile long during peak periods.

The junction is unusual for its flyover, in a similar manner to the Hogarth Roundabout
Hogarth Roundabout
The Hogarth Roundabout is one of London's best known road junctions. It is situated at the junction of the A316 Great Chertsey Road and the A4 Great West Road.The Hogarth Roundabout is named after William Hogarth who lived in nearby Hogarth's House...

 in Chiswick
Chiswick
Chiswick is a large suburb of west London, England and part of the London Borough of Hounslow. It is located on a meander of the River Thames, west of Charing Cross and is one of 35 major centres identified in the London Plan. It was historically an ancient parish in the county of Middlesex, with...

, London. It is bi-directional, being open where traffic goes one way into town (westerly) until 2.30 pm each day and one way (easterly) out of town after 2.30 pm. The flyover is now closed from 9 pm every night. A two-way flyover has been mooted ever since the original was built in 1978: it is very unlikely to happen – the local council has stated that the cost would be prohibitive. The roundabout is still called "The Army and Navy", even though the public house from which the junction got its name has been demolished.

Construction of a replacement 'Chelmer Viaduct' A138 road which connects Chelmer Village Way roundabout to the Army and Navy roundabout will begin in the summer of 2012, to replace the existing 1932 structure which will remain open during construction. However the old road and bridge will be demolished shortly after construction is completed.

Licensed Hackney Carriage Taxis and Private Hire Vehicles

Following delimitation of the number of Hackney Carriage
Hackney carriage
A hackney or hackney carriage is a carriage or automobile for hire...

 licences issued by the local authority in Chelmsford in 2005, the number of hackney carriage taxis that can ply for hire within the Borough of Chelmsford has risen from 82 to 175 prompting a long running dispute between Chelmsford Borough Council and Chelmsford Taxi Association over excessive taxi license numbers within the Borough.

At the privately owned Chelmsford railway station
Chelmsford railway station
Chelmsford railway station is a railway station serving the town of Chelmsford in Essex. The station is located on the Great Eastern Main Line.The station is served by National Express East Anglia...

 taxi rank,only the 116 Chelmsford Taxi Association affiliated hackney carriages are permitted to ply for hire at the station. There are 8 other taxi ranks located within the town which are designated for all Chelmsford Borough Council licensed taxis which are located at Barrack Square, Baddow Road, Bond Street, Fairfield Road, Market Road, Tindal Street, Viaduct Road and Victoria Road, however the Barrack Square and Viaduct Road taxi ranks mainly operate at night for visitors to the pubs and clubs within that area and the Market Road taxi rank is only used during the daytime.

Licensed hackney carriages in the Borough of Chelmsford are easily identifiable as they are predominately black in colour with light blue local authority license plates on the front/rear and illuminated green 'for hire' signs inside the front windscreen and illuminated rooflights. Any new hackney carriage licenses issued by the authority since delimitation in 2005, the vehicle must be purpose built, wheelchair-accessible, black in colour and have a minimum of five seats not including the driver. Licenses issued prior to delimitation  the vehicles can be either saloon car design or wheelchair accessible type vehicles. Chelmsford hackney carriage taxis can be flagged down by members of the public anywhere within the Borough.

Licensed Private Hire vehicles in Chelmsford are identifiable by their yellow local authority licence plates on the front/rear of the vehicles and lack of an illuminated rooflight. These vehicles are not permitted to ply for hire and must be pre-booked by telephone. They can be of any colour. All licensed hackney carriage taxis and private hire vehicles in Chelmsford will have a large rectangular council identification sticker with its license number on the front doors. Both type of licensed vehicles are required to be tested for mechanical defects by the authority twice yearly in addition to the annual MOT test.

All persons holding a dual hackney carriage or private hire driver license within the Borough of Chelmsford must meet strict criteria as laid down by the authority which includes license renewal every 2 years, a Criminal Records Bureau
Criminal Records Bureau
The Criminal Records Bureau , is an Executive Agency of the Home Office, which provides wider access to criminal record information through its Disclosure service for England and Wales...

 enhanced disclosure check every three years and a Driver and Vehicle Licensing Agency
Driver and Vehicle Licensing Agency
The Driver and Vehicle Licensing Agency is the organisation of the UK Government responsible for maintaining a database of drivers and a database of vehicles in Great Britain; its counterpart in Northern Ireland is the Driver & Vehicle Agency...

 group 2 medical examination every four years.

Future transport plans

Proposals for a bypass of Chelmsford connecting the A12 interchange at Boreham
Boreham
Boreham is a village and civil parish, in Essex, England. It is located approximately northeast from the county town of Chelmsford. The village is in the borough of Chelmsford and parliamentary constituency of Saffron Walden.- History :...

 (Junction 19) and the A131 were put forward for public consultation by Essex County Council in 2006, the preferred route was announced in March 2007. It comprises the creation of 7.9 km (4.9 mi) of two lane dual carriageway and junctions connecting to the A12 and A131, it will sever 10 footpaths/bridleways and involve almost entirely greenfield construction. The scheme was estimated to cost £138 million in March 2007 but was increased to an estimated range of £229 – £ 262 million in February 2008. The scheme still requires funding and planning permission with applications timetabled for 2009–2011, a public inquiry timetabled for 2012 and with an estimated construction start date of 2014–2016. The Chelmsford North Action Group (NAG) objects to this scheme on the basis stating the Chelmsford was to "be engulfed by huge motorways connecting the Channel Ports, via a new Lower Thames Crossing
Lower Thames Crossing
The Lower Thames Crossing is a proposed new crossing of the Thames estuary linking the county of Kent with the county of Essex at or east of the existing Dartford crossing.-Description:...

, A130
A130 road
The A130 is a major road in England linking Little Waltham, near Chelmsford, the county town of Essex, with Canvey Island in the south of that county. It is a primary route for most of its length, only losing that status south of the A13 junction at Sadlers Farm "magic" roundabout as it nears its...

, on to Stansted, M11 and A14".

A second new Park and Ride scheme on the A130
A130 road
The A130 is a major road in England linking Little Waltham, near Chelmsford, the county town of Essex, with Canvey Island in the south of that county. It is a primary route for most of its length, only losing that status south of the A13 junction at Sadlers Farm "magic" roundabout as it nears its...

 near Little Waltham
Little Waltham
Little Waltham is a village just north of Chelmsford. It is adjacent to the village of Great Waltham. The Domesday Book refers to the two villages as Waltham consisting of several manors. The site of an Iron Age village was excavated before upgrading the main road north between the current...

 in addition to that at Sandon
Sandon, Essex
Sandon is a small village just off junction 17 of the A12 in Essex, adjacent to Great Baddow and close to Danbury. It was known for an ancient oak tree covering most of the village green...

 began construction in March 2010 at a price of £7.9 million. There has been criticism of the park and ride as some worry it would be unable to provide a service to the nearby Broomfield Hospital
Broomfield Hospital
Broomfield Hospital is the general hospital for Chelmsford, England and the surrounding areas. It is the largest within the Mid Essex Hospitals Services Trust and is an 800-bed acute hospital which offers a vast range of services. The world renowned St...

 from the new site. The Little Waltham Park and Ride opened in April 2011.

A new second railway station for the town was announced in September 2009 and is due to be built near the Boreham Interchange. Completion for the project is likely to be in 2015.

Redevelopment

A major new development was completed in 2007 in the West End of Chelmsford just off Duke Street called "53 Park Central" which contains a new Bus Station, shops and luxury apartments. The lower level apartments of this development and the Bus Station area are sometimes called 'The Marconi Plaza', while the upper level apartments are part of the "Kings Tower". The Bus Station and shops were opened in January 2007 while the rest of the development was ready in September 2007.

Another site near the large suburb of Springfield is in its planning stages. It will be a new neighbourhood which will be an urban village containing 3,500 homes. This would include a new Chelmsford North East Bypass connecting the A12 interchange at Boreham
Boreham
Boreham is a village and civil parish, in Essex, England. It is located approximately northeast from the county town of Chelmsford. The village is in the borough of Chelmsford and parliamentary constituency of Saffron Walden.- History :...

 (Junction 19) and the A131.

The Public House "The Army and Navy" from which the notorious roundabout gets its name was demolished in March 2007. It was replaced by a Travelodge
Travelodge
Travelodge refers to several hotel chains around the world. Current operations include: the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, Spain, the Republic of Ireland, New Zealand and Australia...

 Hotel, a Frankie & Benny's Restaurant, a bed store and private flats. Building work started at the site in October 2007 and the project was completed in December 2008.

Chelmsford's tallest building, Melbourne Court in Melbourne Avenue has received an £8,000,000 investment for extensive refurbishment and to create a new Neighbourhood Centre. This was completed early in 2009. Recently, plans were revealed for 'Waterside', a large development of shops, bars and restaurants on the banks of the River Chelmer
River Chelmer
The River Chelmer is a river that flows entirely through the county of Essex, England.The source of the river is near Debden Green, a village near Thaxted. The source of the River Can is also nearby. The River Chelmer flows past Thaxted, south through the district of Uttlesford around the...

 on derelict land near the Essex Records Office at the end of Wharf Road. If this development goes ahead, High Bridge Road connecting Parkway and Springfield Road would be demolished along with the adjacent gasometers and a new central link road would be built.

Another development recently finished is 'The Hub' in Waterloo Lane. This contains luxury apartments and two Restaurants. There are other new developments completed during 2009 including new private flats on the former car dealership on the corner of Rainsford Road and Parkway.

The former Anglia Ruskin University
Anglia Ruskin University
Anglia Ruskin University is one of the largest universities in Eastern England, United Kingdom, with a total student population of around 30,000.-History:...

 central campus off Victoria Road South was demolished in January/February 2010 and will be redeveloped for retail and leisure use. High Chelmer Shopping Centre underwent a refit during 2008/2009 with new flooring, lighting with a new front entrance and logo re-brand. Further work is currently being carried out in the shopping centre; an old portion was demolished in Spring 2011, and building work commenced soon after. The work, which will result in the opening of new shops, is due to be completed in early 2012.

In January 2011, John Lewis announced together with development partner Aquila House Holdings that it was to Anchor a brand new 65000 square feet (6,038.7 m²) department store as part of a 230000 square feet (21,367.7 m²) retail development at Chelmsford's Riverside. There will also be 2 other large format shops included in the development. The main anchor store will be complemented by a further 25 shops and restaurants. In addition to this there will also be a 280 space underground shoppers car park.

Places of interest

There are many places of interest within Chelmsford, including the 18-arch Victorian railway viaduct
Viaduct
A viaduct is a bridge composed of several small spans. The term viaduct is derived from the Latin via for road and ducere to lead something. However, the Ancient Romans did not use that term per se; it is a modern derivation from an analogy with aqueduct. Like the Roman aqueducts, many early...

 that spans the River Can
River Can
The River Can is a river in Essex, England. Chelmsford is centered on the confluence of the Can and the River Chelmer. The Can enters Chelmsford from the west, joining the Chelmer to the east of the town. From the confluence, the Can becomes part of the Chelmer and Blackwater Navigation...

 in Central Park. One of three railway viaducts in the town that carry the Great Eastern Main Line
Great Eastern Main Line
The Great Eastern Main Line is a 212 Kilometre major railway line of the British railway system, which connects Liverpool Street in the City of London with destinations in east London and the East of England, including Chelmsford, Colchester, Ipswich, Norwich and several coastal resorts such as...

. The Viaduct was constructed during 1842 by the Eastern Counties Railway
Eastern Counties Railway
The Eastern Counties Railway was an early English railway company incorporated in 1836. It was intended to link London with Ipswich via Colchester, and then on to Norwich and Yarmouth. Construction began in late March 1837 on the first nine miles, at the London end of the line.Construction was...

 Company and opened for passenger traffic on 29 March 1843. Chelmsford Cathedral
Chelmsford Cathedral
Chelmsford Cathedral in the county town of Chelmsford, Essex, England is dedicated to St Mary the Virgin, St Peter and St Cedd. It became a cathedral when the Anglican Diocese of Chelmsford was created in 1914 and is the seat of the Bishop of Chelmsford....

 which is located directly behind The Shire Hall. Originally called St Mary's Church, it became a Cathedral when the Diocese of Chelmsford was created in 1914. It is officially the second smallest in England behind Derby Cathedral
Derby Cathedral
The Cathedral of All Saints , is a cathedral church in the City of Derby, England. It is the seat of the Bishop of Derby, and with an area of around is the smallest Anglican cathedral in England.-History:...

.

Chelmsford's two tallest buildings are Melbourne Court built in 1962 in Melbourne Avenue, locally known as Melbourne flats, and the new development completed in 2007, the 13-floor "Kings Tower" in Duke Street. They share the same height of 141.04 feet (43 m). The tallest structure by far in the Chelmsford area is the former Chain Home
Chain Home
Chain Home was the codename for the ring of coastal Early Warning radar stations built by the British before and during the Second World War. The system otherwise known as AMES Type 1 consisted of radar fixed on top of a radio tower mast, called a 'station' to provide long-range detection of...

 radar tower in the urban village Great Baddow
Great Baddow
Great Baddow is an urban village in the Chelmsford borough of Essex, England. It is close to the county town, Chelmsford and, with a population of over 13,000, is one of the largest villages in the country....

 which rises to 360 ft (109.7 m). It originally stood at Canewdon
Canewdon
Canewdon is a village in north Rochford District of Essex in England, approximately 4 miles northeast of the town of Rochford. Canewdon is situated on one of the highest hills of the Essex coastline from which St. Nicholas church affords wide views of the Crouch estuary. Canewdon parish extends...

 but was reassembled in Chelmsford in 1959 and is the only Chain Home tower still in its original unmodified form in the UK. It is a highly visible landmark throughout the town and surrounding area.

The Shire Hall is situated at the top of the High Street
High Street
High Street, or the High Street, is a metonym for the generic name of the primary business street of towns or cities, especially in the United Kingdom. It is usually a focal point for shops and retailers in city centres, and is most often used in reference to retailing...

. Opened in July 1791 and built by local Architect and Essex County Surveyor John Johnson
John Johnson (architect)
John Johnson was an English architect and Surveyor to the County of Essex. He is best known for designing the Shire Hall, Chelmsford.-Life:...

, it features a Portland Stone
Portland stone
Portland stone is a limestone from the Tithonian stage of the Jurassic period quarried on the Isle of Portland, Dorset. The quarries consist of beds of white-grey limestone separated by chert beds. It has been used extensively as a building stone throughout the British Isles, notably in major...

 façade. One of the oldest and most prominent buildings in Chelmsford, it was built as a courthouse, which it has remained to this day.

Chelmsford Prison
Chelmsford (HM Prison)
HM Prison Chelmsford is a Category B men's prison and Young Offenders Institution, located in Chelmsford, Essex, England. The prison is operated by Her Majesty's Prison Service.-History:...

 is a male prison and Young Offenders Institution, constructed in 1830. The 1979 film special of the TV series Porridge
Porridge (TV series)
Porridge is a British situation comedy broadcast on BBC1 from 1974 to 1977, running for three series, two Christmas specials and a feature film. Written by Dick Clement and Ian La Frenais, it stars Ronnie Barker and Richard Beckinsale as two inmates at the fictional HMP Slade in Cumberland...

 was filmed largely on location at Chelmsford Prison (while it was closed for repairs after a fire). The prison itself courted controversy for many years for its poor conditions, and was branded one of the worst gaols in the country by the Chief Inspector of Prisons in 2003.

Hylands House and Park just to the west of the town is a country house and parkland, saved from dereliction and purchased by the local council in 1966 after the death of the last private owner. Much damaged by fire and vandalism by the time of the sale, the house has now been completely restored by Chelmsford Borough Council. The house dates originally from 1730, and the park, currently 574 acres (2.3 km²) was landscaped by Humphry Repton
Humphry Repton
Humphry Repton was the last great English landscape designer of the eighteenth century, often regarded as the successor to Capability Brown; he also sowed the seeds of the more intricate and eclectic styles of the 19th century...

. It is open to the public and used for a wide range of community events, including the annual music festival V Festival
V Festival
The V Festival is an annual music festival held in England during the penultimate weekend in August. The event is held at two parks simultaneously which share the same bill; artists perform at one location on Saturday and then swap on Sunday. The sites are located at Hylands Park in Chelmsford and...

. It is also available for weddings and other private hires including conferences etc.

Chelmsford Museum
Chelmsford Museums
Chelmsford Museums consists of Chelmsford Museum, the Essex Regimental Museum and the industrial and science collections at Sandford Mill.-Chelmsford Museum:...

 in Oaklands Park, off Moulsham Street, is a local history and industrial heritage museum which also incorporates the Essex Regiment
Essex Regiment
The Essex Regiment was an infantry regiment of the British Army that saw active service from 1881 to 1958. Members of the regiment were recruited from across Essex county. Its lineage is continued by the Royal Anglian Regiment.-Origins:...

 Museum. A major £5 million extension and redevelopment scheme opened in January 2010 and the museum now includes exhibits and interactive displays focusing on Crompton, Marconi, and Hoffmann, as well as illustrating the development of the town from prehistory up to modern times. It also holds pottery including Castle Hedingham ware and the Turner Prize
Turner Prize
The Turner Prize, named after the painter J. M. W. Turner, is an annual prize presented to a British visual artist under the age of 50. Awarding the prize is organised by the Tate gallery and staged at Tate Britain. Since its beginnings in 1984 it has become the United Kingdom's most publicised...

 winner Grayson Perry
Grayson Perry
Grayson Perry is an English artist, known mainly for his ceramic vases and cross-dressing. Perry's vases have classical forms and are decorated in bright colours, depicting subjects at odds with their attractive appearance. There is a strong autobiographical element in his work, in which images of...

. There is a live beehive and a collection of beautiful 18th century glasses which were featured on the BBC
BBC
The British Broadcasting Corporation is a British public service broadcaster. Its headquarters is at Broadcasting House in the City of Westminster, London. It is the largest broadcaster in the world, with about 23,000 staff...

 TV programme Flog It!
Flog It!
Flog It! is a television series broadcast on the BBC, presented by Paul Martin. The show follows a similar formula to Antiques Roadshow, with members of the public bringing their antiques to be viewed and valued by a team of experts...

. A second site at Sandon Mill – Chelmsford's former waterworks – displays further exhibits from Chelmsford's telecommunications, electrical engineering and rolling bearings industries.

Geology

From over 600,000 years ago, during the Pleistocene
Pleistocene
The Pleistocene is the epoch from 2,588,000 to 11,700 years BP that spans the world's recent period of repeated glaciations. The name pleistocene is derived from the Greek and ....

 ice age
Ice age
An ice age or, more precisely, glacial age, is a generic geological period of long-term reduction in the temperature of the Earth's surface and atmosphere, resulting in the presence or expansion of continental ice sheets, polar ice sheets and alpine glaciers...

, until the Anglian Stage around 478,000 to 424,000 years ago, the early River Thames
River Thames
The River Thames flows through southern England. It is the longest river entirely in England and the second longest in the United Kingdom. While it is best known because its lower reaches flow through central London, the river flows alongside several other towns and cities, including Oxford,...

 flowed through the area where Chelmsford now stands, from Harlow
Harlow
Harlow is a new town and local government district in Essex, England. It is located in the west of the county and on the border with Hertfordshire, on the Stort Valley, The town is near the M11 motorway and forms part of the London commuter belt.The district has a current population of 78,889...

 to Colchester
Colchester
Colchester is an historic town and the largest settlement within the borough of Colchester in Essex, England.At the time of the census in 2001, it had a population of 104,390. However, the population is rapidly increasing, and has been named as one of Britain's fastest growing towns. As the...

, before crossing what is now the North Sea
North Sea
In the southwest, beyond the Straits of Dover, the North Sea becomes the English Channel connecting to the Atlantic Ocean. In the east, it connects to the Baltic Sea via the Skagerrak and Kattegat, narrow straits that separate Denmark from Norway and Sweden respectively...

 to become a tributary of the Rhine. Consequently, gravel deposits are frequently found in the area and current and former gravel pit
Gravel pit
Gravel pit is the term for an open cast working for extraction of gravel. Gravel pits often lie in river valleys where the water table is high, so they may fill naturally with water to form ponds or lakes. Old, abandoned gravel pits are normally used either as nature reserves, or as amenity areas...

s in the district are common.

Chelmsford has two rivers, the River Can
River Can
The River Can is a river in Essex, England. Chelmsford is centered on the confluence of the Can and the River Chelmer. The Can enters Chelmsford from the west, joining the Chelmer to the east of the town. From the confluence, the Can becomes part of the Chelmer and Blackwater Navigation...

 and the River Chelmer
River Chelmer
The River Chelmer is a river that flows entirely through the county of Essex, England.The source of the river is near Debden Green, a village near Thaxted. The source of the River Can is also nearby. The River Chelmer flows past Thaxted, south through the district of Uttlesford around the...

. Although often confused to be the same river in the town centre, they are quite separate until they join together towards the east of the town to form the Chelmer and Blackwater Navigation
Chelmer and Blackwater Navigation
The Chelmer and Blackwater Navigation is the canalisation of the Rivers Chelmer and Blackwater in Essex, in the east of England. The navigation runs for from Springfield Basin in Chelmsford to the sea lock at Heybridge Basin near Maldon. It was opened in 1797, and remained under the control of...

 which heads out towards Maldon
Maldon, Essex
Maldon is a town on the Blackwater estuary in Essex, England. It is the seat of the Maldon district and starting point of the Chelmer and Blackwater Navigation.Maldon is twinned with the Dutch town of Cuijk...

 before flowing into tidal waters at the Blackwater Estuary
Blackwater Estuary
The Blackwater Estuary is the estuary of the Essex River Blackwater in south-east England.Oysters have been harvested from the estuary for more than a thousand years and there are remains of Anglo-Saxon era fish traps. At the head of the estuary is the town of Maldon, which is a centre of salt...

. In the other direction, the Chelmer comes from the north from its source near Thaxted
Thaxted
Thaxted is a town in the Uttlesford district of Essex, England, with about 2,500 inhabitants.-History:Thaxted appears in the Domesday Book of 1086 as Tachesteda, Old English for "place where thatch was got." Once a centre of cutlery manufacture, Thaxted went into decline with the rise of Sheffield...

 while the Can comes from the West from Writtle
Writtle
The village of Writtle lies a mile west of Chelmsford, Essex, England, it has a traditional village green, complete with duck pond and a Norman church; and was once described as: 'one of the loveliest villages in England, with a ravishing variety of ancient cottages'...

 where it separates from the River Wid.

Up to the 1960s, these rivers were extremely prone to flooding the town centre area including two disastrous floods in August 1888 (known locally as 'The Great Flood') and in September 1958 (which also badly affected nearby Wickford
Wickford
Wickford is a town in the south of the English county of Essex, with a population of more than 32,500. Located approximately 30 miles east of London, it falls within the District of Basildon along with Basildon, Billericay, Laindon and Pitsea....

) causing widespread damage. Flood prevention schemes in the 1960s on both rivers have largely prevented any further incidents here although the natural floodplains to the north and east such as The 'Baddow Meads' and The 'Chelmer Valley' continue to see flooding on a regular basis especially after prolonged heavy rainfall.

Climate

As with all of the UK, Chelmsford has a maritime climate type, being to the southeast of England, the town enjoys a warmer climate than most of the United Kingdom and often experiences amongst the warmest summers in Britain; It is also one of the drier areas in the country. The nearest met office weather station is Writtle, about 1 miles (1.6 km) west of the town centre.

Temperatures can sometimes reach 30.0 °C (86.0 °F) in the summer, this figure was last achieved in 2010, and on an average of 17.1 days the temperature will achieve a value of 25.1°C (77.2°F) or above. The hottest day on record was on Sunday 10 August 2003 when 35.7 °C (96.3 °F) was recorded. Before that, 35.2°C (95.4°F) was recorded in August 1990. On average, however, the hottest day should rise to 29.8°C (85.6°F).

The coldest temperature recorded at Writtle was -20.6 °C (-5.1 °F) on 29 January 1947. A low of -18.0 °C (-0.4 °F) was also recorded during December 1981. Most recently the temperature fell to -13.0 °C (8.6 °F) on 20 December 2010. Air frost is recorded on an average of 52.3 nights of the year, and typically the coldest night will fall to -7.9 °C (17.8 °F)

Rainfall average's 576.9 mm a year, with daily totals of over 1 mm falling on 105.1 days of the year. Thunderstorms mostly occur during July and August; however, they can occur anytime of the year. All average's refer to the 30 year observation period 1971–2000, except for the annual average coldest night (1961–1990).

Snow, although infrequent, is sometimes seen in the winter months because the town is near the east coast where cold, moist air is brought in from the North Sea. Snow accumulation is generally seen in the Chelmsford area at least once every winter and snowfall accumulates for an average of 2.5 inches (6 cm). In recent years, there has been up to three inches (8 cm) of snow on days in January and February which has resulted in minor disruption to transport and caused some schools to close. However, the snow tends not to persist for a significant length of time.

The last substantial snowfalls in Chelmsford were on 14 February 1991 and 7 January 1982 when around 18 inches (46 cm) to 24 inches (61 cm) fell.

Education

John Dee
John Dee (mathematician)
John Dee was an English mathematician, astronomer, astrologer, occultist, navigator, imperialist and consultant to Queen Elizabeth I. He devoted much of his life to the study of alchemy, divination and Hermetic philosophy....

, noted Elizabethan philosopher, magician and scientist and also responsible for the introduction to the first English translation of Euclid
Euclid
Euclid , fl. 300 BC, also known as Euclid of Alexandria, was a Greek mathematician, often referred to as the "Father of Geometry". He was active in Alexandria during the reign of Ptolemy I...

 was educated at the Chantry School
King Edward VI Grammar School (Chelmsford)
King Edward VI Grammar School, or KEGS, is a British grammar school located in the town of Chelmsford, Essex, England. It takes pupils between the ages of 11 and 18 — from Year 7 to 11 the pupils are exclusively male, although it becomes mixed in the sixth form .The present headteacher is Thomas...

 (later re-founded as the Grammar School) in the sixteenth century.

Chelmsford is also home to part of the Anglia Ruskin University
Anglia Ruskin University
Anglia Ruskin University is one of the largest universities in Eastern England, United Kingdom, with a total student population of around 30,000.-History:...

 (formerly called Anglia Polytechnic) and to the grammar schools of Chelmsford County High School and King Edward VI Grammar School
King Edward VI Grammar School (Chelmsford)
King Edward VI Grammar School, or KEGS, is a British grammar school located in the town of Chelmsford, Essex, England. It takes pupils between the ages of 11 and 18 — from Year 7 to 11 the pupils are exclusively male, although it becomes mixed in the sixth form .The present headteacher is Thomas...

, founded in 1551 by charter of King Edward VI on the site of an earlier educational foundation (although evidence suggests it could have been around as early as 1292).

A Catholic Secondary School in the area is St John Payne Catholic Comprehensive School
St John Payne Catholic Comprehensive School
Saint John Payne Catholic School is a Roman Catholic faith school located in Chelmsford, Essex. Established in 1959, it has been one of the leading faith schools in the area since its opening...

. New Hall School, founded in 1642, is a private, Catholic boarding school which caters to pupils from the age of 3 right through to sixth form. The New Hall building, previously named Palace of Beaulieu
Palace of Beaulieu
right|350px|thumb|Beaulieu Palace circa 1580The Palace of Beaulieu also known as New Hall was located in Essex, England, north of Chelmsford....

, has a great history including that of Henry VIII.

Chelmsford College is the main provider of further education in the borough. Established in the early 1960s, the college occupies three sites in the town. The main site on Moulsham Street dates from the 1960s and the Princes Road site is a late 1980s building. There are around 2200 fulltime and 2,100 part-time students enrolled on a wide range of academic, vocational and occupational programmes. The College is rated as "GOOD" by OFSTED and holds the prestigious Investors in People (IiP) Champion status and is also an IiP Gold award holder.

Educational establishments in Chelmsford include:
  • Anglia Ruskin University
    Anglia Ruskin University
    Anglia Ruskin University is one of the largest universities in Eastern England, United Kingdom, with a total student population of around 30,000.-History:...

  • King Edward VI Grammar School
    King Edward VI Grammar School (Chelmsford)
    King Edward VI Grammar School, or KEGS, is a British grammar school located in the town of Chelmsford, Essex, England. It takes pupils between the ages of 11 and 18 — from Year 7 to 11 the pupils are exclusively male, although it becomes mixed in the sixth form .The present headteacher is Thomas...

    , known locally as 'KEGS'
  • St John Payne Catholic Comprehensive School
    St John Payne Catholic Comprehensive School
    Saint John Payne Catholic School is a Roman Catholic faith school located in Chelmsford, Essex. Established in 1959, it has been one of the leading faith schools in the area since its opening...

  • Writtle College
    Writtle College
    Writtle College is one of the largest land-based university colleges in the UK; it is also one of the oldest. Writtle, previously known as Writtle Agricultural College, is a Partner Institution of the University of Essex and teaches FE and HE programmes.- Writtle :The college has diversified over...

    , an agricultural college
  • Great Baddow High School
    Great Baddow High School
    Great Baddow High School is a secondary school in Chelmsford, Essex, England. The ages of pupils range from 11 to 16 years old, and students in sixth form ages from 16 onwards. In September 2002, the school was awarded specialist Sports College status, where children benefit from a wide range of...

  • Moulsham High School and humanities college
    Moulsham High School
    Moulsham High School is a comprehensive school in Chelmsford, Essex. The headteacher is Mr M. Farmer.The Current head boy is Joshua Missen and the head girl is Zoe Mcclymont.Head of student council is Robert Cashman-External links:*...

  • Hylands School Specialist Science and Sixth Form College
    Hylands School
    Hylands School is a school in Chelmsford, Essex. It is a specialist Science College.- External links:*...

  • The Boswells School
  • Columbus School and College, a special needs school.
  • Chelmer Valley High School
    Chelmer Valley High School
    Chelmer Valley High School is a co-educational comprehensive school in Chelmsford, Essex, England. It is a specialist Engineering College and is the home of the Blue Falcons Gymnastic Display Team....

  • New Hall School
    Palace of Beaulieu
    right|350px|thumb|Beaulieu Palace circa 1580The Palace of Beaulieu also known as New Hall was located in Essex, England, north of Chelmsford....

    , established 1642.
  • Chelmsford County High School for Girls
    Chelmsford County High School for Girls
    Chelmsford County High School for Girls, or "CCHS", is a selective grammar school for girls aged 11–18 located in Chelmsford, Essex, England. It is one of the most consistently high-achieving secondary schools in the UK, regularly scoring in the top 5 schools for both GCSE and A-level results.In...

    , consistently one of the top five schools in the UK for both GCSE and A-level results.
  • St Peters College
    St Peters College
    St. Peters College is a Church of England Voluntary Aided School in Chelmsford, Essex. The school is a specialist arts college.It is due to be closed in August 2011. -External links:*...

    , the former Rainsford High School, which is due for closure in August 2011.
  • The Sandon School
    The Sandon School
    The Sandon School in Chelmsford, Essex is an 11-18 mixed comprehensive of 1200 students.- External links :*...

  • Chelmsford College
    Chelmsford College
    -External links:*...

     a college of further education
    Further education
    Further education is a term mainly used in connection with education in the United Kingdom and Ireland. It is post-compulsory education , that is distinct from the education offered in universities...

  • Chelmsford Russian School “Alyonushka”. Language School in New London Road.

Media

Chelmsford is home to local radio station Chelmsford Radio
Chelmsford Radio
Chelmsford Radio is the local radio station for Chelmsford and mid Essex, broadcasting from studios in Southend, and owned by the Adventure Radio Group.- History :...

, but it does not broadcast from the town. The station recently moved to studios in Southend having vacated its Heybridge premises on 12 January 2009. The station was originally situated in Chelmsford until November 2006. This station was previously known as Dream 107.7 until February, and before that, 107.7 Chelmer FM up to 2002. The station began broadcasting on 18 October 1998. It is the local station for mid-Essex
Essex
Essex is a ceremonial and non-metropolitan county in the East region of England, and one of the home counties. It is located to the northeast of Greater London. It borders with Cambridgeshire and Suffolk to the north, Hertfordshire to the west, Kent to the South and London to the south west...

. Adventure Radio
Adventure Radio
Adventure Radio is a UK based media company based in Southend-on-Sea which operates radio stations in Essex, Northamptonshire, Cambridgeshire and Hertfordshire.*Chelmsford Radio 107.7 serves Chelmsford and mid-Essex....

 have owned this station since 2008, where it was purchased from Tindle Radio Ltd.

Chelmsford also has a local opt-out of Heart FM. Heart Essex (previously Essex FM up to June 2009) has been on air since 12 September 1981 and has been owned by Global Radio
Global Radio
Global Radio UK Ltd. is a British commercial radio company, the largest in the country following acquisitions of Chrysalis Radio and GCap Media.The company's Chief Executive Officer is Stephen Miron, while the Group Chairman is Charles Allen...

 since 2007. It moved to studios in Glebe Road in late 2004, having previously been based in Southend-on-Sea
Southend-on-Sea
Southend-on-Sea is a unitary authority area, town, and seaside resort in Essex, England. The district has Borough status, and comprises the towns of Chalkwell, Eastwood, Leigh-on-Sea, North Shoebury, Prittlewell, Shoeburyness, Southchurch, Thorpe Bay, and Westcliff-on-Sea. The district is situated...

. In May 2009, the station was rebranded to The Heart of Essex, Essex FM. In June 2009, the popular Essex FM née Essex Radio name brand was dropped after 28 years.

BBC Essex
BBC Essex
BBC Essex is the BBC Local Radio service for the English county of Essex. It broadcasts from its studios on New London Road in Chelmsford on 103.5 and 95.3 FM, and on 729 , 765 , and 1530 AM. It is also available on DAB and live streaming via the internet.-History:BBC Essex launched on 5...

 has been on air since 5 November 1986 and its studios are based in New London Road.

Until their closure in the mid 2000s Anglia Television
Anglia Television
Anglia Television is the ITV franchise holder for the East Anglia franchise region. Although Anglia Television takes its name from East Anglia, its transmission coverage extends beyond the generally accepted boundaries of that region. The station is based at Anglia House in Norwich, with regional...

/ITV Anglia had offices located in Chelmsford town centre. Chelmsford is served by London and East Anglia regional variations of the BBC and ITV1.

Publications based in Chelmsford include the Essex Chronicle
Essex Chronicle
The Essex Chronicle, published in Westway, Chelmsford, Essex, United Kingdom, is a general news, weekly paper owned by the Daily Mail and General Trust....

, which was founded as the Chelmsford Chronicle in 1764. The weekly Essex Chronicle newspaper is the longest in continuous publication in the country. Until the closure of the printing plant in 2002, the paper was also printed in the town. It is now printed on presses by the Northcliffe Media
Northcliffe Media
Northcliffe Media Ltd. is a large regional newspaper publisher in the UK and Central and Eastern Europe, owned by the Daily Mail and General Trust. The company's name was changed to Northcliffe Media from Northcliffe Newspaper Group in 2007.It operates from over 30 publishing centres, and also...

 Group which now owns the paper. Chelmsford Weekly News is a free local paper delivered to every home.

The fictional town of Framley in the newspaper satire The Framley Examiner
The Framley Examiner
The Framley Examiner is a parody of a newspaper in a small provincial English town.Very little happens in Framley, so the highlights in the newspaper are the absurdist classified ads The Framley Examiner ('Framley's traditional favourite since 1978') is a parody of a newspaper in a small...

 is largely based on Chelmsford, along with surrounding areas such as Writtle (called Wripple).

Religion

Chelmsford Cathedral
Chelmsford Cathedral
Chelmsford Cathedral in the county town of Chelmsford, Essex, England is dedicated to St Mary the Virgin, St Peter and St Cedd. It became a cathedral when the Anglican Diocese of Chelmsford was created in 1914 and is the seat of the Bishop of Chelmsford....

 is the second smallest cathedral
Cathedral
A cathedral is a Christian church that contains the seat of a bishop...

 in England after Derby Cathedral
Derby Cathedral
The Cathedral of All Saints , is a cathedral church in the City of Derby, England. It is the seat of the Bishop of Derby, and with an area of around is the smallest Anglican cathedral in England.-History:...

. It was built in the 15th and early 16th centuries, when it was the parish church of the prosperous medieval town. The Diocese of Chelmsford
Diocese of Chelmsford
The Diocese of Chelmsford is a Church of England diocese, part of the Province of Canterbury. The diocese covers Essex and the five East London boroughs of Barking and Dagenham, Havering, Newham, Redbridge, and Waltham Forest, and is co-terminous with the boundaries of the Catholic Diocese of...

 was established in 1914 from part of the Diocese of St Albans. It covers all of Essex and much of East London.

Chelmsford is also situated in the Roman Catholic Diocese of Brentwood
Roman Catholic Diocese of Brentwood
The Roman Catholic Diocese of Brentwood is a diocese of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic church in England. The diocese is a suffragan of the Archdiocese of Westminster.-Overview:...

 and the two dioceses are now uniquely (at least within England) conterminous. With the coming of the Reformation
Protestant Reformation
The Protestant Reformation was a 16th-century split within Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther, John Calvin and other early Protestants. The efforts of the self-described "reformers", who objected to the doctrines, rituals and ecclesiastical structure of the Roman Catholic Church, led...

 the Catholic community of Chelmsford was subjected to the anti-Catholic laws and Chelmsford was the site of the death of a Catholic martyr, Saint John Payne. In the 19th century, native Catholics resurfaced and immigrants helped to build up the Catholic community. There are now three Catholic churches within Chelmsford along with a Norbertine canonry situated on New London Road; St. Philip's Priory
St. Philip's Priory
St. Philip's Priory situated on New London Road in Chelmsford, Essex, UK is a Premonstratensian priory of canons regular. It is dedicated to Our Lady Queen of Martyrs and St. Philip Benizi....

. There is a synagogue
Synagogue
A synagogue is a Jewish house of prayer. This use of the Greek term synagogue originates in the Septuagint where it sometimes translates the Hebrew word for assembly, kahal...

 which opened in 2009 in neighbouring Shenfield which serves the Chelmsford Jewish community, there is also a Jewish cemetery which has been there for many years.

Other denominations are also represented, the Baptists, Jehovah's Witnesses
Jehovah's Witnesses
Jehovah's Witnesses is a millenarian restorationist Christian denomination with nontrinitarian beliefs distinct from mainstream Christianity. The religion reports worldwide membership of over 7 million adherents involved in evangelism, convention attendance of over 12 million, and annual...

, Seventh-day Adventist Church
Seventh-day Adventist Church
The Seventh-day Adventist Church is a Protestant Christian denomination distinguished by its observance of Saturday, the original seventh day of the Judeo-Christian week, as the Sabbath, and by its emphasis on the imminent second coming of Jesus Christ...

, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints and the United Reformed Church
United Reformed Church
The United Reformed Church is a Christian church in the United Kingdom. It has approximately 68,000 members in 1,500 congregations with some 700 ministers.-Origins and history:...

 all have places of worship within the town. For the local Muslim
Muslim
A Muslim, also spelled Moslem, is an adherent of Islam, a monotheistic, Abrahamic religion based on the Quran, which Muslims consider the verbatim word of God as revealed to prophet Muhammad. "Muslim" is the Arabic term for "submitter" .Muslims believe that God is one and incomparable...

 community the Main Jamia Masjid mosque
Mosque
A mosque is a place of worship for followers of Islam. The word is likely to have entered the English language through French , from Portuguese , from Spanish , and from Berber , ultimately originating in — . The Arabic word masjid literally means a place of prostration...

 is located on Moulsham Street at the junction with Parkway.

Sport

Essex County Cricket Club
Essex County Cricket Club
Essex County Cricket Club is one of the 18 major county clubs which make up the English and Welsh national cricket structure, representing the historic county of Essex. Its limited overs team is called the Essex Eagles, their team colours this season are blue.The club plays most of its home games...

 is one of the 18 major county clubs which make up the English domestic Cricket structure, representing the county of Essex. The club is based at the County Ground in New Writtle Street.

Chelmsford City Football Club
Chelmsford City F.C.
Chelmsford City F.C. is an English semi-professional football club based in the town of Chelmsford, Essex. The club are currently members of the Conference South and play at the Melbourne Stadium.-Chelmsford:...

 play in the Blue Square South Division
Conference South
Conference South is one of the second divisions of the Football Conference in England, taking its place immediately below the Conference National...

. The Club's home ground is at the Chelmsford Sport & Athletics Centre, Melbourne Park where they share with Chelmsford Athletic Club. Chelmsford is one of the largest settlements in England without a Football League team.

Chelmsford Hockey Club
Chelmsford Hockey Club
Chelmsford Hockey Club is a hockey club from Chelmsford, Essex, England who play in the English Hockey League. The club's home is Chelmer Park.-History:...

 is a Men's and Ladies' (field) hockey Club based in the County of Essex (England). It has over one hundred and fifty regular adult playing members, of all ages and abilities, as well as a thriving youth section. It fields eight Men's teams and five Ladies' teams every weekend, including two Men's Veterans' XI's. The Ladies' 1st XI compete in the English Hockey League Premier Division and the Men's 1st XI compete in the English Hockey League Division 1. The remaining Men's teams play in the East League while the other Ladies' XIs play in the East Premier League and Essex League. The Club is undoubtedly one of the most successful Hockey Clubs in the country.

The Chelmsford Chieftains
Chelmsford Chieftains
The Chelmsford Chieftains are an Ice Hockey team based in Chelmsford, Essex that are currently playing in the English National Ice Hockey League. Since the team was founded in 1987, the Chieftains have played their home games at the Riverside Ice and Leisure Centre.Chelmsford played their first...

 are an Ice Hockey Team that are based at the Riverside Ice and Leisure Centre and play in the English National Ice Hockey League
English National Ice Hockey League
The English National Ice Hockey League is an amateur ice hockey league below the English Premier Ice Hockey League which is administered by the English Ice Hockey Association. It is split into two conferences, north and south...

. Captained by Mr Ben Clements, who currently holds the most appearances and goals records.

The Chelmsford Rugby Football Club
Chelmsford R.F.C.
Chelmsford Rugby Football Club is a Rugby Union team based in Chelmsford, Essex that currently play in the London 2 North East divison.The club were founded in 1920....

 was established in 1920 and for the last 40 years have been playing rugby at Coronation Park, Timpsons Lane, Chelmsford. At present, there are around 330 members and the club fields up to five senior teams each week. Chelmsford currently (2011) play in London Division North East 2 division. In addition to the senior teams, there are 150 Mini/Youth members providing teams from under 6's to under 17's.

The Chelmsford Water polo club has been running since 1998 and is located in the Ricerside Ice and Leisure building in Chelmsford. It plays for the London division and the Basildon division.

For the last seven years, a Ladies' team has been established, although owing to the lack of proper facilities they only play on an irregular basis.

The Chelmsford campus of Anglia Ruskin University also has many sports teams including a football, netball, hockey, fencing, Rugby Union and American Football

Events

Hylands Park hosts the annual V Festival
V Festival
The V Festival is an annual music festival held in England during the penultimate weekend in August. The event is held at two parks simultaneously which share the same bill; artists perform at one location on Saturday and then swap on Sunday. The sites are located at Hylands Park in Chelmsford and...

 every penultimate weekend in August since 1996. The 21st World Scout Jamboree 2007 was also held at Hylands Park from 27 July to 8 August 2007.

Chelmsford is home of Essex street diversions, East Anglia's largest festival of international street theatre and the 3foot People Festival, the UK's only 4-day festival exclusively for under-5-year-olds.

Notable people born in Chelmsford

  • Najma Akhtar
    Najma Akhtar
    Najma Akhtar born in the UK, also known as Najma, is a British singer of Asian ancestry. She was born in 1964 Chelmsford, England.Najma studied chemical engineering at Aston University, Birmingham: her father, brother and sister are also engineers...

     (b.1962), jazz singer.
  • Liam Chilvers
    Liam Chilvers
    Liam Christopher Chilvers is an English footballer who plays as a centre back for League Two side Port Vale, on loan from League One club Notts County.A graduate of the Arsenal Academy, he won the FA Youth Cup with the club in 2000...

     (b.1981), professional footballer.
  • Sarah Cracknell
    Sarah Cracknell
    Sarah Cracknell is an English pop singer who fronts the band Saint Etienne and is known for her light, smooth singing voice. She is the daughter of Stanley Kubrick's first assistant director Derek Cracknell.-Career:...

     (b.1967), singer, Saint Etienne
    Saint Etienne (band)
    Saint Etienne are an English Pop group comprising Sarah Cracknell, Bob Stanley and Pete Wiggs. They are named after the French football team AS Saint-Étienne.-History:Bob Stanley and Pete Wiggs were childhood friends and former music journalists...

    .
  • Hazell Dean
    Hazell Dean
    Hazell Dean is a British dance-pop singer, who achieved her biggest success in the 1980s as a leading Hi-NRG artist. She is best known for the top ten hits "Searchin' ", "Whatever I Do " and "Who's Leaving Who"...

     (b.1956), singer.
  • James Gibson
    James Gibson (swimmer)
    James Gibson MBE is an English swimmer.Born in Chelmsford, Essex, and raised in Witham, Gibson's specialism is breaststroke and he competes in the 50 metre, 100 metre and 200 metre events. In 2003 he became world champion at 50 metres . He was 6th in the 100 metre event at the Athens Olympics in...

     (b.1980), swimmer.
  • Greg Halford
    Greg Halford
    Gregory "Greg" Halford is an English footballer who plays for Portsmouth. He is naturally a right wingback or winger, but has played a number of other positions throughout his career, including striker and centre back....

     (b.1984), professional footballer.
  • Philemon Holland
    Philemon Holland
    Philemon Holland was an English translator.His father, John Holland, was a clergyman who fled the Kingdom of England during the persecutions of Mary I of England...

     (b.1552), translator.
  • Geoff Hurst
    Geoff Hurst
    Sir Geoffrey Charles Hurst MBE is a retired England footballer best remembered for his years with West Ham. He made his mark in World Cup history as the only player to have scored a hat-trick in a World Cup final. His three goals came in the 1966 final for England in their 4–2 win over West...

     (b.1941), 1966 England World Cup final player
    1966 FIFA World Cup Final
    The 1966 FIFA World Cup Final was the final match in the 1966 FIFA World Cup, the eighth football World Cup. The match was contested by England and West Germany on 30 July 1966 at Wembley Stadium in London, and had an attendance of 98,000. England won 4–2 after extra time to win the Jules Rimet...

    . Although born in Ashton-under-Lyne, Greater Manchester, he grew up in Chelmsford.
  • Andy Jenkinson (b.1979), musician also known as "Ceephax Acid Crew
    Ceephax Acid Crew
    Ceephax Acid Crew is a British acid techno and drum and bass electronic musician named Andy Jenkinson. Jenkinson is also known simply by the pseudonym Ceephax, which is a pun on the BBC teletext service Ceefax...

    ".
  • Tom Jenkinson (b.1975), musician also known as "Squarepusher
    Squarepusher
    Squarepusher is the performing pseudonym of Tom Jenkinson, an English electronic music artist signed to Warp Records. He specialises in the electronic music genres of drum and bass and acid, with a significant jazz and musique concrète influence....

    ".
  • Harry Judd
    Harry Judd
    Harry Mark Christopher Judd is an English musician who is best known as the drummer for British pop rock band McFly, along with fellow band members Tom Fletcher, Dougie Poynter and Danny Jones...

     (b.1985), drummer, McFly.
  • George Clift King
    George Clift King
    George Clift King was the second mayor of the town of Calgary, Alberta.King was born in Chelmsford, England in 1848. At the age of 26, he left England for Canada, arriving in Toronto, Ontario in 1874. He joined the North West Mounted Police and was part of the first contingent sent west to...

     (b.1848), former Mayor of Calgary, Alberta, Canada.
  • Anne Knight
    Anne Knight
    Anne Knight was a social reformer noted as a pioneer of feminism.-Family background:Anne Knight was the daughter of William Knight , a Chelmsford grocer and his wife Priscilla Allen...

     (b.1786), anti-slavery campaigner and pioneer of feminism.
  • Malcolm O'Kelly
    Malcolm O'Kelly
    Malcolm O'Kelly is a retired Irish rugby union player who played as a lock for Ireland and Leinster....

     (b.1974) Irish international
    Ireland national rugby union team
    The Ireland national rugby union team represents the island of Ireland in rugby union. The team competes annually in the Six Nations Championship and every four years in the Rugby World Cup, where they reached the quarter-final stage in all but two competitions The Ireland national rugby union...

     rugby union
    Rugby union
    Rugby union, often simply referred to as rugby, is a full contact team sport which originated in England in the early 19th century. One of the two codes of rugby football, it is based on running with the ball in hand...

     player.
  • Tom Payne
    Tom Payne (actor)
    Thomas "Tom" Payne is an English actor. He is best known for playing Brett Aspinall in television drama series Waterloo Road from January 2007 to March 2008....

     (b.1982), Waterloo Road
    Waterloo Road (TV series)
    Waterloo Road is an award-winning British television drama series, first broadcast in the United Kingdom on BBC One on 9 March 2006. Set in a troubled comprehensive school in Rochdale, Greater Manchester, the series focuses on the lives of the school's teacher and students, and confronts social...

     actor.
  • Grayson Perry
    Grayson Perry
    Grayson Perry is an English artist, known mainly for his ceramic vases and cross-dressing. Perry's vases have classical forms and are decorated in bright colours, depicting subjects at odds with their attractive appearance. There is a strong autobiographical element in his work, in which images of...

     (b.1960) Turner prize
    Turner Prize
    The Turner Prize, named after the painter J. M. W. Turner, is an annual prize presented to a British visual artist under the age of 50. Awarding the prize is organised by the Tate gallery and staged at Tate Britain. Since its beginnings in 1984 it has become the United Kingdom's most publicised...

    -winning artist.
  • Nigel Spink
    Nigel Spink
    Nigel Philip Spink is a former football goalkeeper who made his name at Aston Villa and also made one appearance for England at international level on the tour of Australia in 1983.-Career:...

     (b.1958), professional footballer and UEFA cup finallist as well as junior goalkeeper at Writtle Minors football club.
  • Joseph Strutt
    Joseph Strutt (engraver and antiquary)
    Joseph Strutt was an English engraver, artist, antiquary and writer.-Childhood:Strutt was born at Springfield Mill in Chelmsford, Essex, the youngest son of Thomas Strutt by his wife Elizabeth - the mill belonged to his father, a wealthy miller...

     (b.1742), engraver and antiquary.
  • Sir Nicholas Conyngham Tindal
    Nicholas Conyngham Tindal
    Sir Nicolas Conyngham Tindal was a celebrated English lawyer who successfully defended Queen Caroline at her trial for adultery in 1820...

     (b.1776), lawyer, judge and Lord Chief Justice of the Common Pleas.
  • James Harper (b.1980), professional footballer.
  • Peter Collins
    Peter Collins (footballer)
    Peter Collins is a former professional footballer who played for Chelmsford City, and Tottenham Hotspur.-Football career:...

     (b.1948), professional footballer, Chelmsford City and Tottenham Hotspur.
  • Guthrie Govan
    Guthrie Govan
    Guthrie Govan is a guitarist known for his work with the bands Asia , GPS, The Young Punx and The Fellowship as well as Erotic Cakes...

     (b.1971), professional jazz/rock/fusion guitar player.
  • Mike Edmonds
    Mike Edmonds
    Mike Edmonds is an English actor with dwarfism, well-known for his role as Little Ron in the children's television show Maid Marian and Her Merry Men.Edmonds can also be seen dancing in the Men Without Hats music video "The Safety Dance"....

      (b.1944), notable dwarf
    Dwarfism
    Dwarfism is short stature resulting from a medical condition. It is sometimes defined as an adult height of less than 4 feet 10 inches  , although this definition is problematic because short stature in itself is not a disorder....

     actor.
  • Alex Dowsett
    Alex Dowsett
    Alex Dowsett is an English racing cyclist who rides for Team Sky. He was educated at Elm Green Preparatory School in Little Baddow, followed by King Edward VI Grammar School in Chelmsford.-Career:...

      (b.1988), professional cyclist.
  • Ronald Skirth
    Ronald Skirth
    John Ronald Skirth served in the Royal Garrison Artillery during the First World War. His experiences during the Battle of Messines and the Battle of Passchendaele led him to resolve not to take human life, and for the rest of his army service he made deliberate errors in targeting calculations...

     (b.1897), World War I
    World War I
    World War I , which was predominantly called the World War or the Great War from its occurrence until 1939, and the First World War or World War I thereafter, was a major war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918...

     veteran who became a pacifist during the war and purposely miscalculated British guns.

Nearest places

Twin towns

Chelmsford's official twin towns
Town twinning
Twin towns and sister cities are two of many terms used to describe the cooperative agreements between towns, cities, and even counties in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties.- Terminology :...

 are:
Annonay
Annonay
Annonay is a commune in the north of the Ardèche department in the Rhône-Alpes region in southern France. It is the most populous commune in the Ardèche department, although it is not the capital, which resides in the smaller town of Privas.-Geography:...

, France
France
The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

 Backnang
Backnang
Backnang is a town in Germany in the Bundesland of Baden-Württemberg, roughly 30 kilometers northeast of Stuttgart. Its population has increased greatly over the past century, from 7,650 in 1900 to 35,761 in 2005....

, Germany
Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...


Further reading

  • Foreman, Stephen: Hylands – the story of an Essex country house and its owners (Ian Henry Publications, 1999)
  • Lee, Janet Olivia: Chelmsford – Birthplace of Radio (Chelmsford Borough Council, 2001)
  • Lowen, Ceri: Hylands House – a brief history and guide (Chelmsford Borough Council, 2005)
  • Wander, Tim: 2MT Writtle – The birth of British Broadcasting (Capella Publications, 1988)
  • Weller-Lewis, Hugh: Chelmsford Borough Guide (Macmillan, 1995)
  • Wickenden, Nick: A Celebration of Chelmsford (Chelmsford Borough Council, 1999)
  • a town, its people and its past (Chelmsford Record Office, 1988)
  • Grieve, Hilda: The Sleepers and the Shadows Volume 2 Chelmsford: a town, its people and its past (Chelmsford Record Office, 1994)
  • Begent, Andrew: Chelmsford At War (Ian Henry Publications Ltd, 1999)
  • Torry, Gilbert: Chelmsford through the ages (East Anglian Magazine Ltd, 1977)

External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
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