Chapter X of the United Nations Charter
Chapter X of the United Nations Charter
United Nations Charter
The Charter of the United Nations is the foundational treaty of the international organization called the United Nations. It was signed at the San Francisco War Memorial and Performing Arts Center in San Francisco, United States, on 26 June 1945, by 50 of the 51 original member countries...

deals with the UN Economic and Social Council. Originally, Article 61 provided that ECOSOC would consist of 18 members, but in 1965 the Charter was amended to expand ECOSOC to 27 members, before being amended to include 54 in 1971. ECOSOC's members are elected by the UN General Assembly to staggered three-year terms, and are eligible for immediate re-election. This enables countries like the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 to be de facto
De facto
De facto is a Latin expression that means "concerning fact." In law, it often means "in practice but not necessarily ordained by law" or "in practice or actuality, but not officially established." It is commonly used in contrast to de jure when referring to matters of law, governance, or...

 permanent members. Article 62 empowers ECOSOC to "make or initiate studies and reports with respect to international economic, social, cultural, educational, health, and related matters" and to make recommendations "promoting respect for, and observance of, human rights and fundamental freedoms for all." It can prepare draft conventions and call international conferences – these have included, for instance, the 1961 New York
New York
New York is a state in the Northeastern region of the United States. It is the nation's third most populous state. New York is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south, and by Connecticut, Massachusetts and Vermont to the east...

 conference that drafted the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs
Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs
The Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs of 1961 is an international treaty to prohibit production and supply of specific drugs and of drugs with similar effects except under licence for specific purposes, such as medical treatment and research...

. Article 64 gives ECOSOC concurrent power, along with the UN General Assembly, to receive reports from specialized agencies, provided that the subject matter falls within ECOSOC's purview. Article 68 empowers it to "set up commissions in economic and social fields and for the promotion of human rights."

Article 71

Article 71 forms the basis for granting nongovernmental organizations Consultative Status
Consultative Status
Consultative Status is a phrase whose use can be traced to the founding of the United Nations and is used within the UN community to refer to "Non-governmental organizations in Consultative Status with the United Nations Economic and Social Council." Also some international organizations could...

. There were representatives of 1,200 voluntary organizations present at the founding conference of the United Nations in San Francisco in 1945, and this article provided a mechanism for continued involvement.
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