Chanel
Overview
 
Chanel S.A. is a French fashion house founded by the couturier Gabrielle "Coco" Chanel, well established in haute couture, specializing in luxury goods (haute couture
Haute couture
Haute couture refers to the creation of exclusive custom-fitted clothing. Haute couture is made to order for a specific customer, and it is usually made from high-quality, expensive fabric and sewn with extreme attention to detail and finished by the most experienced and capable seamstresses,...

, ready-to-wear
Ready-to-wear
Ready-to-wear or prêt-à-porter is the term for factory-made clothing, sold in finished condition, in standardized sizes, as distinct from made to measure or bespoke clothing tailored to a particular person's frame. Off-the-peg is sometimes used for items which are not clothing.Ready-to-wear has...

, handbags, perfumery, and cosmetics among others). She gained the name "Coco" while maintaining a career as a singer at a café in France. Chanel has catered to tastes in items such as simple suits, dresses, women's pants, and costume jewelry.
Encyclopedia
Chanel S.A. is a French fashion house founded by the couturier Gabrielle "Coco" Chanel, well established in haute couture, specializing in luxury goods (haute couture
Haute couture
Haute couture refers to the creation of exclusive custom-fitted clothing. Haute couture is made to order for a specific customer, and it is usually made from high-quality, expensive fabric and sewn with extreme attention to detail and finished by the most experienced and capable seamstresses,...

, ready-to-wear
Ready-to-wear
Ready-to-wear or prêt-à-porter is the term for factory-made clothing, sold in finished condition, in standardized sizes, as distinct from made to measure or bespoke clothing tailored to a particular person's frame. Off-the-peg is sometimes used for items which are not clothing.Ready-to-wear has...

, handbags, perfumery, and cosmetics among others). She gained the name "Coco" while maintaining a career as a singer at a café in France. Chanel has catered to tastes in items such as simple suits, dresses, women's pants, and costume jewelry. Coco Chanel's vision was to replace such opulent, 'sexy' pieces with items which conveyed casual elegance. Today, Chanel is most famous for the "little black dress
Little black dress
A little black dress is an evening or cocktail dress, cut simply and often quite short. Fashion historians ascribe the origins of the little black dress to the 1920s designs of Coco Chanel, intended to be long-lasting, versatile, affordable, accessible to the widest market possible and in a neutral...

". According to Forbes
Forbes
Forbes is an American publishing and media company. Its flagship publication, the Forbes magazine, is published biweekly. Its primary competitors in the national business magazine category are Fortune, which is also published biweekly, and Business Week...

, the privately held
Privately held company
A privately held company or close corporation is a business company owned either by non-governmental organizations or by a relatively small number of shareholders or company members which does not offer or trade its company stock to the general public on the stock market exchanges, but rather the...

 House of Chanel is jointly owned by Alain Wertheimer
Alain Wertheimer
Alain Wertheimer is a Jewish French businessman based in France who, with his brother Gerard own the controlling interest in the House of Chanel. The son of Jacques Wertheimer and Eliane Fischer, it was his grandfather Pierre who co-founded the Chanel business...

 and Gerard Wertheimer
Gerard Wertheimer
Gerard Wertheimer is a Jewish French businessman based in France who owns and controls the House of Chanel perfume company in partnership with his brother, Alain....

 who are the great-grandsons of the early (1924) Chanel partner Pierre Wertheimer
Pierre Wertheimer
Pierre Wertheimer was a French businessman.In October 1910, Pierre Wertheimer married Germaine Revel, a daughter of a stockbroker and a member of the Lazard family of investment bankers....

.

The company has had many high-profile celebrities as spokesmodels, including Inès de la Fressange
Inès de la Fressange
Inès Marie Lætitia Églantine Isabelle de Seignard de La Fressange , is a French model, aristocrat and designer of fashion and perfumes. She was named to the International Best Dressed List Hall of Fame in 1998.- Biography :...

, Catherine Deneuve
Catherine Deneuve
Catherine Deneuve is a French actress. She gained recognition for her portrayal of aloof and mysterious beauties in films such as Repulsion and Belle de jour . Deneuve was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Actress in 1993 for her performance in Indochine; she also won César Awards for that...

 (1970s and 1980s Chanel No. 5
Chanel No. 5
Chanel No. 5 is the first perfume launched by Parisian couturier Gabrielle "Coco" Chanel. The French government reports that a bottle of Chanel No. 5 is sold every thirty seconds and generates sales of $100 million a year. It was developed by Russian-French chemist and perfumer Ernest Beaux...

 spokesmodel), Carole Bouquet
Carole Bouquet
Carole Bouquet is a French actress and fashion model, who has appeared in more than 40 films since 1977. Bouquet was born in Neuilly-sur-Seine, France....

 (1990s Chanel No. 5
Chanel No. 5
Chanel No. 5 is the first perfume launched by Parisian couturier Gabrielle "Coco" Chanel. The French government reports that a bottle of Chanel No. 5 is sold every thirty seconds and generates sales of $100 million a year. It was developed by Russian-French chemist and perfumer Ernest Beaux...

 spokesmodel), Vanessa Paradis
Vanessa Paradis
Vanessa Chantal Paradis is a French singer, model and actress. She became a child star at 14 with the worldwide success of her single "Joe le taxi"...

 (spokesmodel for Coco
Coco
Coco, CoCo, Co-Co or similar can mean:*Co-Co locomotives, a code for a locomotive wheel arrangement with two six-wheeled bogies with all axles powered, with a separate motor per axle*Co-Co , a British pop group...

 Perfume), Nicole Kidman
Nicole Kidman
Nicole Mary Kidman, AC is an American-born Australian actress, singer, film producer, spokesmodel, and humanitarian. After starring in a number of small Australian films and TV shows, Kidman's breakthrough was in the 1989 thriller Dead Calm...

 (early 2000s Chanel No. 5 spokesmodel), Anna Mouglalis
Anna Mouglalis
-Biography:Anna Mouglalis was born in Nantes, Loire-Atlantique, to her Greek father and French mother. She spent her youth in the Var département, before moving back to Nantes with her family. Her father is a doctor and her mother is a masseuse. Until 2001 she studied at the Conservatoire National...

 (2006 Chanel Allure Sensuelle spokesmodel), Audrey Tautou
Audrey Tautou
Audrey Justine Tautou is a French model and film actress, best known for playing the title character in the award-winning 2001 film Le Fabuleux Destin d'Amélie Poulain, Sophie Neveu in the 2006 thriller The Da Vinci Code, Irène in Priceless and Coco Chanel in Coco avant Chanel...

 (current Chanel No.5 spokesmodel), Keira Knightley
Keira Knightley
Keira Christina Knightley born 26 March 1985) is an English actress and model. She began acting as a child and came to international notice in 2002 after co-starring in the film Bend It Like Beckham...

 (current spokesmodel for Coco Mademoiselle
Coco Mademoiselle
Coco Mademoiselle is a women's perfume in the Chanel collection that was introduced in 2001 for the younger Chanel fans.The fragrance was created by Jacques Polge, the nose of Chanel since 1978.-Coco Mademoiselle le Film:...

), and most famously, Marilyn Monroe
Marilyn Monroe
Marilyn Monroe was an American actress, singer, model and showgirl who became a major sex symbol, starring in a number of commercially successful motion pictures during the 1950s....

 (1950s Chanel No. 5
Chanel No. 5
Chanel No. 5 is the first perfume launched by Parisian couturier Gabrielle "Coco" Chanel. The French government reports that a bottle of Chanel No. 5 is sold every thirty seconds and generates sales of $100 million a year. It was developed by Russian-French chemist and perfumer Ernest Beaux...

 spokesmodel) pictured splashing herself with Chanel No. 5. The image is certainly the most famous of all Chanel advertisements, and continues to be one of the most popular advertisement photos in the history of marketing, used in countless biographies, and still selling in large quantities as a poster and art piece using Marilyn Monroe
Marilyn Monroe
Marilyn Monroe was an American actress, singer, model and showgirl who became a major sex symbol, starring in a number of commercially successful motion pictures during the 1950s....

 as the model. Marilyn Monroe brought this perfume to fame.

The Coco Chanel era

Gabrielle "Coco" Chanel
Coco Chanel
Gabrielle Bonheur "Coco" Chanel was a pioneering French fashion designer whose modernist thought, menswear-inspired fashions, and pursuit of expensive simplicity made her an important figure in 20th-century fashion. She was the founder of one of the most famous fashion brands, Chanel...

 was born as Gabrielle Bonheur Chanel in 1883. She established new designs and revolutionized the fashion industry through the application of jersey
Jersey (fabric)
Jersey is a knit fabric used predominantly for clothing manufacture. It was originally made of wool, but is now made of wool, cotton, and synthetic fibres. Since medieval times Jersey, Channel Islands, where the material was first produced, had been an important exporter of knitted goods and the...

 to womenswear and incorporating elegance, class, and originality to practical designs. Under her tight reign from 1909–1971, Coco Chanel held the title of 'Chief Designer' until her death on 10 January 1971.

Establishment and recognition: 1909 through 1920s

In 1909, Gabrielle Chanel opened a shop on the ground floor of Étienne Balsan's
Étienne Balsan
Étienne Balsan was a French socialite and heir. He came from the family of wealthy industrialists from Châteauroux who provided the army with uniforms and originated the famous cloth known as "blue horizon." Balsan is best known in the present day as having kept Coco Chanel as his mistress...

 apartment in Paris—the beginnings of what would later become one of the greatest fashion empires in the world. The Balsan home was a meeting place of the hunting elite of France and the gentlemen brought their fashionable mistresses along, giving Coco the opportunity to sell the women decorated hats. During this time, Coco Chanel struck up a relationship with Arthur 'Boy' Capel, a member of the Balsan men's group.

He saw a businesswoman in Coco and helped her acquire her location at 31 Rue Cambon in Paris by 1910. There was already a couture shop in the building, and so Coco was not allowed in her lease to produce couture dresses. In 1912, Coco Chanel opened her first millinery shop in Paris and in 1913, Chanel introduced women's sportswear at her new boutique in Deauville
Deauville
Deauville is a commune in the Calvados département in the Basse-Normandie region in northwestern France.With its racecourse, harbour, international film festival, marinas, conference centre, villas, Grand Casino and sumptuous hotels, Deauville is regarded as the "queen of the Norman beaches" and...

 and Biarritz
Biarritz
Biarritz is a city which lies on the Bay of Biscay, on the Atlantic coast, in south-western France. It is a luxurious seaside town and is popular with tourists and surfers....

, France. Chanel's designs tended to be simple rather than opulent in look. She detested the fashions of women who came to these resort towns. World War I affected fashion. Coal was scarce and women were doing the factory jobs that men had held prior to the war; they needed warm clothing that would stand up to working conditions. Chanel fossella's designs from this era were affected by the new idea of women's sports. During World War I, Coco opened another larger shop on Rue Cambon in front of the Hôtel Ritz Paris
Hôtel Ritz Paris
The Hôtel Ritz is a grand palatial hotel in the heart of Paris, the 1st arrondissement. It overlooks the octagonal border of the Place Vendôme at number 15...

. Here she sold flannel blazers, straight linen skirts, sailor tops, long jersey sweaters and skirt-jackets.With her financial situation precarious in the early years of her design career, Chanel purchased jersey primarily for its low cost. The fabric draped well and suited Chanel's designs, which were simple, practical, and often inspired by men's wear, especially the uniforms prevalent when World War I broke out in 1914. Her fashion became known in 1915 throughout France for its simplicity. In the years 1915 and 1917, Harper's Bazaar
Harper's Bazaar
Harper’s Bazaar is an American fashion magazine, first published in 1867. Harper’s Bazaar is published by Hearst and, as a magazine, considers itself to be the style resource for “women who are the first to buy the best, from casual to couture.”...

 mentioned that Chanel's name was "on the list of every buyer." Her boutique at 31 Rue Cambon previewed simple day dress-and-coat ensembles and black evening dresses in lace or jet-embroidered tulle (she also piled cushions of feathers, fur, and metallic fabrics on the sofas in the gray and amber salons).

Coco Chanel established her reputation as a meticulous fashion couturier. Following the fashion trends of the 1920s, Chanel produced beaded dresses. The suit in two or three pieces created in 1920 remains a modern fashion look. The suit was advocated as the "new uniform for afternoon and evening as far back as 1915." 1921 saw the introduction of her first perfume Chanel No. 5
Chanel No. 5
Chanel No. 5 is the first perfume launched by Parisian couturier Gabrielle "Coco" Chanel. The French government reports that a bottle of Chanel No. 5 is sold every thirty seconds and generates sales of $100 million a year. It was developed by Russian-French chemist and perfumer Ernest Beaux...

. Earnest Beaux created the fragrance for Coco and she named it after her lucky number 5. The fragrance was a success. The signature scent was a result of her belief in superstitions; she was scheduled to show her collection on the fifth day of the fifth month. Coco informed Harper's Bazaar, "simplicity is the keynote of all true elegance", in 1923.

Business partners: the late 1920s

Theophile Bader (founder of the successful French department store Galeries Lafayette
Galeries Lafayette
- History :In 1893 Théophile Bader and his cousin Alphonse Kahn opened a fashion store in a small haberdasher's shop at the corner of rue La Fayette and the Chaussée d'Antin, Paris. In 1896, the company purchased the entire building at n°1 rue La Fayette and in 1905 the buildings at n°38, 40 et...

) introduced Coco to Pierre Wertheimer
Pierre Wertheimer
Pierre Wertheimer was a French businessman.In October 1910, Pierre Wertheimer married Germaine Revel, a daughter of a stockbroker and a member of the Lazard family of investment bankers....

. Wertheimer retained 70% of Parfums Chanel, while Bader retained 20%, and Coco a modest 10%. Coco was forced to operate her couture business apart from Parfums Chanel. In 1924, Coco introduced her first costume jewelry, which was a pair of pearl earrings, one black, one white. Along with the success of her haute couture business, Coco expanded her "social desirability and her personal legend." A new love interest in her life was the Duke of Westminster
Duke of Westminster
The title Duke of Westminster was created by Queen Victoria in 1874 and bestowed upon Hugh Grosvenor, 3rd Marquess of Westminster. The current holder of the title is Gerald Grosvenor, 6th Duke of Westminster....

. She introduced her signature cardigan jacket in 1925 and in 1926, the ‘little black dress,' and a tweed, inspired by visits to Scotland
Scotland
Scotland is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. Occupying the northern third of the island of Great Britain, it shares a border with England to the south and is bounded by the North Sea to the east, the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, and the North Channel and Irish Sea to the...

. Soon, Coco operated a boutique near the Louvre
Louvre
The Musée du Louvre – in English, the Louvre Museum or simply the Louvre – is one of the world's largest museums, the most visited art museum in the world and a historic monument. A central landmark of Paris, it is located on the Right Bank of the Seine in the 1st arrondissement...

.

As the couture Chanel and Parfums Chanel gained success, business relations between Coco and Wertheimer soured. She resented the partnership with Pierre Wertheimer and believed she deserved more than 10% of the profits, and believed that the Wertheimers were exploiting her talents for their own personal gain. Wertheimer reminded Coco that he had funded her venture, and that he had made her a wealthy woman.

Coco hired René de Chambrun
René de Chambrun
René de Chambrun , was a lawyer at the Court of Appeals of Paris and of the New York State Bar Association and a descendant of Lafayette, as well as a Chevalier of the Légion d'honneur, and honorary president of the Sons of the American Revolution in France...

 as her attorney for renegotiating the terms with the Wertheimers, but this attempt ultimately failed.

Chanel and Nazi affiliation: 1930s through 1950s

Evening couture dresses from Chanel evolved into an elongated feminine style. Summer dresses had contrasting scintillating touches (e.g. rhinestone
Rhinestone
A rhinestone or paste or diamante is a diamond simulant made from rock crystal, glass or acrylic.Originally, rhinestones were rock crystals gathered from the river Rhine. The availability was greatly increased around 1775 when the Alsatian jeweller Georg Friedrich Strass had the idea to imitate...

 straps and silver eyelets). Coco designed a line for petite women in 1937. Throughout the 1930s, Elsa Schiaparelli
Elsa Schiaparelli
Elsa Schiaparelli was an Italian fashion designer. Along with Coco Chanel, her greatest rival, she is regarded as one of the most prominent figures in fashion between the two World Wars. Starting with knitwear, Schiaparelli's designs were heavily influenced by Surrealists like her collaborators...

 was competing more strongly with the House of Chanel, but this was only a short term rivalry. Chanel premiered an exhibition of jewelry in 1932 dedicated to the diamond. Several of the pieces, including the "Comet" and "Fountain" necklaces were re-introduced by Chanel in 1993. When World War II began in 1939, Coco Chanel retired and moved into the Hôtel Ritz Paris with her new beau, Nazi officer Hans Gunther von Dincklage. Only her parfums and accessories were sold in her existing boutiques.

When France fell under the control of Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler was an Austrian-born German politician and the leader of the National Socialist German Workers Party , commonly referred to as the Nazi Party). He was Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945, and head of state from 1934 to 1945...

's Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany , also known as the Third Reich , but officially called German Reich from 1933 to 1943 and Greater German Reich from 26 June 1943 onward, is the name commonly used to refer to the state of Germany from 1933 to 1945, when it was a totalitarian dictatorship ruled by...

 in 1940, the Nazis made the opulent and exclusive Hotel Meurice (Le Meurice), located on the Rue du Rivoli opposite the Louvre, their French headquarters. It was coincidentally and uncomfortably close (just right around the corner) from Chanel's Rue Cambon location. Pierre Wertheimer and his family fled to the United States in 1940, and before Coco could take control of Parfums Chanel, Wertheimer made an "Aryan
Nordic theory
The Nordic race is one of the racial subcategories into which the Caucasian race was divided by anthropologists in the first half of the 20th century...

 proxy" for the company. Rumors spread that Coco was on good terms with the Germans. Chanel biographer Edmonde Charles-Roux
Edmonde Charles-Roux
Edmonde Charles-Roux is a French writer.-Origin :She is the daughter of Francois Charles-Roux, Ambassador of France, member of the Institute of France, and last president of the Suez Canal Company....

 states that German intelligence sent her to "visit Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, was a predominantly Conservative British politician and statesman known for his leadership of the United Kingdom during the Second World War. He is widely regarded as one of the greatest wartime leaders of the century and served as Prime Minister twice...

 as a part of a secret peace mission. Coco Chanel was arrested immediately after the liberation of France and charged with abetting the Germans, but Churchill intervened on her behalf and she was released." When France was liberated after the fall of the Nazi Empire, many French people meted out severe punishments to French women who were believed to have collaborated with the Nazis. They were called in French "collaborateurs horizontales" or in English: "on their backs collaborators"--perhaps putting too fine a point upon it. Coco Chanel became a target and a subject of such rumors, and she fled to Switzerland for the period immediately following the war.

In Coco's absence, Pierre Wertheimer returned to Paris to control the Wertheimer's family holdings. Out of spite, Coco created her own collection of perfumes. Wertheimer felt his legal rights were infringed, but he wanted to avoid a legal battle and settled with Coco by giving her $400,000 USD, 2% royalty from all Chanel products, and gave her limited rights to sell her own perfumes in Switzerland. Coco stopped making perfumes after the agreement. She sold the complete rights to her name to the Wertheimers for Perfumes Chanel, in exchange for a monthly stipend
Stipend
A stipend is a form of salary, such as for an internship or apprenticeship. It is often distinct from a wage or a salary because it does not necessarily represent payment for work performed, instead it represents a payment that enables somebody to be exempt partly or wholly from waged or salaried...

. The stipend supported her and her friend, von Dincklage.

Chanel's comeback: 1950s through 1970s

Chanel returned to Paris in 1953 to find the Paris fashion scene obsessed with Christian Dior
Christian Dior
Christian Dior , was a French fashion designer, best known as the founder of one of the world's top fashion houses, also called Christian Dior.-Life:...

 and the very feminine look for which he alone is given credit, the "New Look." Coco Chanel responded brilliantly to the challenge; she recognized that the couture market had changed and she needed to catch-up. Becoming competitive again would necessarily come at a great price; Chanel needed to be a significant presence in: haute couture, pret-a-porter, costume jewelry and fragrance. Coco swallowed her pride and re-approached Pierre for business advice and financial backing. In return, he negotiated for himself complete rights to all products bearing the brand: "Chanel." But their re-kindled collaboration paid off handsomely as Chanel, with her unerring sense of style, once again became the single, most prestigious label in all of fashion. Importantly for the brand and starting in 1953, Coco collaborated with jeweler Robert Goossens
Robert Goossens
Robert Goossens, the son of a metal foundry worker, was born in 1927 in Paris, France. In his younger years, he served an apprenticeship in jewelry making, perfecting the techniques of casting, engraving, and embossing semi-precious and simulated stones into gold and silver metals...

 to design a line of Chanel jewelry which exquisitely complimented her iconic fashion designs. For example, she paired her re-launched signature "Chanel Suit" (consisting of a knitted wool cardigan with a matching skirt) with long strings of black and white pearls, setting off the suit wonderfully while at the same time adding to it a degree of femininity, thus lightening a sometimes severe look."
She also introduced the Chanel gold or metallic chain-strapped and quilted leather handbags in February 1955. The launch date for this line, 2/55, thus became the internal "appellation" for the quilted bag line. It is still known throughout the world as the "2/55" bag and it, just like the "Chanel Suit" has never really ever fallen out of fashion. Throughout the fifties, her taste continued its unerring path to success, even as she turned to new areas of conquest. Her first venture into men's fragrance became yet another enduring success, Chanel's eau de toilette for men, Pour Monsieur (which has also been marketed under the name: "A Gentleman's Cologne") became, endured and remains even today the number one selling men's fragrance. Chanel and her spring collection received the Fashion Oscar at the 1957 Fashion Awards in Dallas. Pierre Wertheimer bought Bader's 20% share of the perfume business, giving his family 90%. Pierre's son Jacques Wertheimer
Jacques Wertheimer
Jacques Guy Wertheimer was a prominent French businessman who inherited and ran the renowned House of Chanel perfume company...

 took his father's place in 1965. Coco's attorney Chambrun called the now-gone-relationship as "one based on a businessman's passion, despite her misplaced feelings of exploitation." He told Forbes, "Pierre returned to Paris full of pride and excitement [after one of his horses won the 1956 English Derby]. He rushed to Coco, expecting congratulations and praise. But she refused to kiss him. She resented him, you see, all her life."

Gabrielle "Coco" Chanel died on 10 January 1971 at the age of 87. She was still "designing, still working" at the time of her death. For example, she designed the uniforms for Olympic Airways
Olympic Airlines
Olympic Airlines was the flag carrier airline of Greece, with its head office in Athens. It operated services to 37 domestic destinations and to 32 destinations world-wide. Its main base was at Athens International Airport, with hubs at Thessaloniki International Airport, "Macedonia" and Rhodes...

 flight attendants (1966–1969), followed by Pierre Cardin
Pierre Cardin
Pierre Cardin Cardin was known for his avant-garde style and his Space Age designs. He prefers geometric shapes and motifs, often ignoring the female form. He advanced into unisex fashions, sometimes experimental, and not always practical...

. Olympic Airways was then one of the most luxurious air carriers, owned by the Greek shipping-magnate Aristotle Onassis
Aristotle Onassis
Aristotle Sokratis Onassis , commonly called Ari or Aristo Onassis, was a prominent Greek shipping magnate.- Early life :Onassis was born in Karatass, a suburb of Smyrna to Socrates and Penelope Onassis...

. After her death, leadership of the company was handed down to Yvonne Dudel, Jean Cazaubon and Philippe Guibourge. After a period of time, Jacques Wertheimer bought the entire House of Chanel. Critics stated that during his leadership, he never paid much attention to the company, as he was more interested in horse breeding. In 1974, the House of Chanel launched Cristalle eau de toilette, which was designed when Coco Chanel was alive. 1978 saw the launch of the first non-couture, prêt-à-porter line and worldwide distribution of accessories.

Alain Wertheimer
Alain Wertheimer
Alain Wertheimer is a Jewish French businessman based in France who, with his brother Gerard own the controlling interest in the House of Chanel. The son of Jacques Wertheimer and Eliane Fischer, it was his grandfather Pierre who co-founded the Chanel business...

, Jacques's son, took over in 1974. Back in the U.S., Chanel No.5 was seen as a passe perfume. Alain revamped Chanel No.5 sales by reducing the number of outlets carrying the fragrance from 18,000 to 12,000. He removed the perfume from drugstore shelves, and invested millions of dollars in advertisement for Chanel cosmetics. This ensured a greater sense of scarcity and exclusivity for No.5, and sales rocketed back up as demand for the fragrance increased. He also used many famous people to endorse the perfume—from Marilyn Monroe
Marilyn Monroe
Marilyn Monroe was an American actress, singer, model and showgirl who became a major sex symbol, starring in a number of commercially successful motion pictures during the 1950s....

 to Audrey Tautou
Audrey Tautou
Audrey Justine Tautou is a French model and film actress, best known for playing the title character in the award-winning 2001 film Le Fabuleux Destin d'Amélie Poulain, Sophie Neveu in the 2006 thriller The Da Vinci Code, Irène in Priceless and Coco Chanel in Coco avant Chanel...

. Looking for a designer who could bring the label to new heights, he persuaded Karl Lagerfeld
Karl Lagerfeld
Karl Lagerfeld is a German fashion designer, artist and photographer based in Paris. He has collaborated on a variety of fashion and art related projects, most notably as head designer and creative director for the fashion house Chanel...

 to end his contract with fashion house Chloé
Chloé
Chloé is a French fashion house founded in 1952 by Gaby Aghion. Its headquarters is in Paris.-History:Gaby Aghion was born in Alexandria, Egypt in the year 1921...

.

The coming of Lagerfeld

In 1981, Chanel launched a new eau de toilette for men, Antaeus. In 1983, Karl Lagerfeld took over as chief designer for Chanel. He changed Chanel's fashion lines from the old lines to shorter cuts and eye capturing designs. During the 1980s, more than 40 Chanel boutiques were opened up worldwide. By the end of the 1980s, these boutiques sold goods ranging from US$200-per-ounce perfume, US$225 ballerina slippers to US$11,000 dresses and US$2,000 leather handbags. Rights to Chanel cosmetics and fragrances were held by Chanel only and not shared with other beauty producers and distributors. As Lagerfeld took charge as chief designer, other designers and marketers for Chanel worked on keeping the classic Chanel look to maintain the Chanel legend. Chanel marketer Jean Hoehn explained, "We introduce a new fragrance every 10 years, not every three minutes like many competitors. We don't confuse the consumer. With Chanel, people know what to expect. And they keep coming back to us, at all ages, as they enter and leave the market." The launch of a new fragrance in honor of the late Coco Chanel, Coco, in 1984 maintained success in the perfumery business with Chanel. In 1986, the House of Chanel struck a deal with watchmakers and in 1987, the first Chanel watch made its debut. By the end of the decade, Alain moved the offices to New York City.

In the 1990s

The company became a global leader in fragrance making and marketing in the 1990s. Heavy marketing investment increased revenue. The success of the Maison de Chanel brought the Wertheimer family fortune to $5 billion USD. Product lines such as watches (retailing for as much as $7,000 USD), shoes, high-end clothes, cosmetics, and accessories were expanded. Sales were hurt by the recession of the early 1990s, but Chanel recovered by the mid-1990s with further boutique expansion. 1990 saw the launch of ĹŹ.

In 1996, Chanel bought gunmaker Holland & Holland
Holland & Holland
Holland & Holland is a British gun-maker based in London, England. They offer hand-made sporting rifles and shotguns. H&H holds two Royal Warrants.-History:Holland & Holland was founded by Harris Holland in the year 1835....

. It attempted to revamp Holland & Holland, but did not succeed. 1996 also greeted the launch of Allure fragrance and due to its immense popularity, a men's version, Allure Homme was launched in 1998. Better success came with the purchase of Eres (a swimwear label). The House of Chanel launched its first skin care line, PRÉCISION
Precision
Concepts* Accuracy and precision, measurement deviation from true value and its scatter* Precision , the number of digits from which a value is expressed* Precision , the percentage of documents returned that are relevant...

 in 1999. That same year, Chanel launched a new travel collection, and under a license contract with Luxottica
Luxottica
Luxottica Group S.p.A. is the world's largest eyewear company. Its best known brands include Ray-Ban, Persol and Oakley, Inc.. It also makes sunglasses and prescription frames for a multitude of designer brands such as Chanel and Prada, whose designs and trademarks are used under license...

, introduced a line of sunglasses and eyeglass frames.

2000 through today

While Alain Wertheimer remained chairman of Chanel, CEO and President Françoise Montenay was to bring Chanel into the 21st century. 2000 saw the launch of the first unisex watch by Chanel, the J12. In 2001, Bell & Ross
Bell & Ross
Bell & Ross is a French watch company headed by the French and Swiss designers Bruno Belamich and Carlos A. Rosillo. The brand was launched in 1992, and the first watches were designed by Belamich and Rosillo and made by a German watchmaker, Sinn....

 was purchased (a watchmaker). The same year, Chanel boutiques offering only selections of accessories were opened in the United States.Chanel also launched a small selection of menswear as a part of their runway shows which may be purchased at a few flagship boutiques including Rue Cambon (Paris), Soho (New York), Roberston Blvd (Los Angeles) and the Prince's building (Hong Kong).
2002 saw the launch of Chance fragrance, with a scent of surprise and glamour. The House of Chanel also founded the Paraffection company that gathered the five Ateliers d’Art: Desrues for ornamentation, Lemarié for feathers and camellias, Lesage for embroidery, Massaro for shoemaking, and Michel for millinery. A prêt-à-porter collection leveraging their know-how was designed by Karl Lagerfeld. It is now traditionally presented each December. In July 2002, a jewelry and watch flagship store was opened on the upscale Madison Avenue. Within months, a 1,000sqft shoes and handbag boutique was opened next door to the jewelry and watches flagship. Also in 2002, a rumor suggesting that Chanel was considering a merger with the luxury goods Parisian fashion company Hermès
Hermès
Hermès International S.A., or simply Hermès is a French high fashion house established in 1837, today specializing in leather, lifestyle accessories, perfumery, luxury goods, and ready-to-wear...

 circulated. Although such a merger would have produced one of the largest fashion companies in the world, and rival the likes of Moët-Hennessy • Louis Vuitton
LVMH
LVMH Moët Hennessy • Louis Vuitton S.A., better known as LVMH, is a French multinational luxury goods conglomerate headquartered in Paris, Île-de-France, France. The company was formed after the 1987 merger of fashion house Louis Vuitton with Moët Hennessy, a company formed after the 1971 merger...

, it was never consummated. Chanel continued to expand in the United States and by December 2002, it operated 25 U.S. boutiques. Chanel stated it would like to open more boutiques in more U.S. cities such as Atlanta and Seattle.

In order to please the younger followers, Chanel introduced Coco Mademoiselle
Coco Mademoiselle
Coco Mademoiselle is a women's perfume in the Chanel collection that was introduced in 2001 for the younger Chanel fans.The fragrance was created by Jacques Polge, the nose of Chanel since 1978.-Coco Mademoiselle le Film:...

 and an "In-Between Wear" in 2003. That same year saw such an immense popularity of Chanel haute couture that the company founded a second shop on Rue Cambon. Desiring a presence in the Asian market, the House of Chanel opened a new 2400 square feet (223 m²) boutique in Hong Kong and paid nearly $50 million USD for a building in Ginza
Ginza
is a district of Chūō, Tokyo, located south of Yaesu and Kyōbashi, west of Tsukiji, east of Yūrakuchō and Uchisaiwaichō, and north of Shinbashi.It is known as an upscale area of Tokyo with numerous department stores, boutiques, restaurants and coffeehouses. Ginza is recognized as one of the most...

, Tokyo.

Influence on fashion and popularity

Coco Chanel
Coco Chanel
Gabrielle Bonheur "Coco" Chanel was a pioneering French fashion designer whose modernist thought, menswear-inspired fashions, and pursuit of expensive simplicity made her an important figure in 20th-century fashion. She was the founder of one of the most famous fashion brands, Chanel...

 revolutionized haute couture
Haute couture
Haute couture refers to the creation of exclusive custom-fitted clothing. Haute couture is made to order for a specific customer, and it is usually made from high-quality, expensive fabric and sewn with extreme attention to detail and finished by the most experienced and capable seamstresses,...

 fashion by replacing the traditional corseted silhouette with the comfort of simple suits and long, slender dresses. Chanel frequently incorporated ideas from male fashion into her designs. Chanel's simpler lines of women's couture led to the popular "flat-chested" look of the 1920s. Her clothing was relaxed, unstructured, and changed the way women dressed for outdoor activities. Coco omitted corset
Corset
A corset is a garment worn to hold and shape the torso into a desired shape for aesthetic or medical purposes...

s, liberating women and allowing more comfort. Contemporary Fashion states, "She dressed the modern woman in clothes for a lifestyle." Coco is credited for making jersey (a soft elasticated knit used for undergarments) a popular fashion fabric. Her jersey dresses, often in navy and gray, were cut to flatter the figure rather than to emphasize and distort the natural body shape.

Chanel is also known for its quilted fabric and leather which also has a "secret" quilting pattern sewn at the back to keep the material strong. It was inspired by the jackets worn by jockeys. This material is used for clothing and accessories alike.

She had numerous other major successes that changed the fashion industry, including the Chanel suit, composed of a knee-length skirt and trim, boxy jacket, traditionally made of woven wool with black sewing trim and gold buttons, worn with large costume-pearl necklaces. After the success of her perfume, Chanel No. 5
Chanel No. 5
Chanel No. 5 is the first perfume launched by Parisian couturier Gabrielle "Coco" Chanel. The French government reports that a bottle of Chanel No. 5 is sold every thirty seconds and generates sales of $100 million a year. It was developed by Russian-French chemist and perfumer Ernest Beaux...

, Coco Chanel's fashions became well-known and were purchased by the high flyers of London and Paris society alike. The financial gain from the fragrance also helped her company during difficult years.

Chanel logo and counterfeiting

The signature Chanel logotype is an interlocking double-C (one facing forwards the other facing backwards.) Originally, it was not a logo that Coco Chanel came up with. The logo was given to her by the Chateau de Cremat in Nice. The logo was not trademarked until the opening of the first Chanel stores.

Chanel is currently dealing with illegal use of the double-C logotype on cheaper goods, especially counterfeit
Counterfeit
To counterfeit means to illegally imitate something. Counterfeit products are often produced with the intent to take advantage of the superior value of the imitated product...

 handbags. The company has stated that it is a top priority of theirs to stop the sale of counterfeit products. Countries said to be producing great numbers of counterfeit Chanel handbags are Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam – sometimes spelled Viet Nam , officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam – is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia. It is bordered by China to the north, Laos to the northwest, Cambodia to the southwest, and the South China Sea –...

 and China. An authentic classic Chanel handbag retails from around US $4,150, while a counterfeit usually costs around $200 USD, creating a demand for the signature style at a cheaper price. Beginning in the 1990s, all authentic Chanel handbags are serialized.

Early trademark registration

One timeline measurement for Chanel presence in the United States is via trademark registered with the United States Patent and Trademark Office
United States Patent and Trademark Office
The United States Patent and Trademark Office is an agency in the United States Department of Commerce that issues patents to inventors and businesses for their inventions, and trademark registration for product and intellectual property identification.The USPTO is based in Alexandria, Virginia,...

 (USPTO). On Tuesday, 18 November 1924, Chanel, Inc. filed two trademark applications. One was for the typeset mark Chanel. The second application was for the distinctive interlocking CC design plus word mark.

At this time both Chanel marks were filed for only their perfume, toiletry and cosmetic products in the primary class of common metals and their alloys. Chanel provided the description of face powder
Face powder
Face powder is a cosmetic powder applied to the face to set a foundation after application. It can also be reapplied throughout the day to minimize shininess caused by oily skin. There is translucent sheer powder, and there is pigmented powder. Certain types of pigmented facial powders are meant...

, perfume, eau de cologne
Eau de Cologne
Eau de Cologne or simply Cologne is a toiletry, a perfume in a style that originated from Cologne, Germany. It is nowadays a generic term for scented formulations in typical concentration of 2-5% essential oils. However as of today cologne is a blend of extracts, alcohol, and water...

, toilet water, lip stick
Lipstick
Lipstick is a cosmetic product containing pigments, oils, waxes, and emollients that applies color, texture, and protection to the lips. Many varieties of lipstick are known. As with most other types of makeup, lipstick is typically, but not exclusively, worn by women...

, and rouge
Rouge (cosmetics)
Rouge , also called blush or blusher , is a cosmetic typically used by women to redden the cheeks so as to provide a more youthful appearance, and to emphasize the cheekbones....

,
to the USPTO.

Both the Chanel and CC trademarks were awarded on the same date of 24 February 1925 with respective Serial Numbers of 71205468 and 71205469. Their status is registered and renewed and owned by Chanel, Inc. of New York, New York.

The earliest trademark application for the inaugural No. 5 perfume is on Thursday, 1 April 1926. Application was filed by Chanel, Inc. and described to the USPTO as perfume and toilet water. First use and commercial use is stated as 1 January 1921. Registration was granted on 20 July 1926 with Serial Number 71229497. No. 5's status is registered, renewed, and owned by Chanel, Inc.

Chanel locations

Chanel operates around 310 Chanel boutiques worldwide (Asia, 94; Europe, 70; Middle East, 10; North America, 128; Oceania, 6; South America, 2). The locations are found in upscale shopping districts, upscale department stores and malls, and inside major airports. The Chanel flagship store in Ginza
Ginza
is a district of Chūō, Tokyo, located south of Yaesu and Kyōbashi, west of Tsukiji, east of Yūrakuchō and Uchisaiwaichō, and north of Shinbashi.It is known as an upscale area of Tokyo with numerous department stores, boutiques, restaurants and coffeehouses. Ginza is recognized as one of the most...

 on the corner of 3-5-3 Ginza Chuo-ku, Tokyo – 104-0061, and the other three surrounding corners are the home of the Louis Vuitton
Louis Vuitton
Louis Vuitton Malletier – commonly referred to as Louis Vuitton , or shortened to LV – is a French fashion house founded in 1854 by Louis Vuitton. The label is well known for its LV monogram, which is featured on most products, ranging from luxury trunks and leather goods to ready-to-wear, shoes,...

, Bulgari
Bulgari
Bulgari is an Italian jeweler and luxury goods retailer which has been owned by the French firm LVMH since October 2011. The trademark is usually written "BVLGARI" in the classical Latin alphabet , and is derived from the surname of the company's Greek founder, Sotirio Voulgaris...

, and Cartier
Cartier SA
Cartier S.A., commonly known as Cartier , is a French luxury jeweler and watch manufacturer. The corporation carries the name of the Cartier family of jewellers whose control ended in 1964 and who were known for numerous pieces including the "Bestiary" , the diamond necklace created for Bhupinder...

 flagship stores.

Perfumes

Parfums Chanel was founded in 1924 by Pierre Wertheimer
Pierre Wertheimer
Pierre Wertheimer was a French businessman.In October 1910, Pierre Wertheimer married Germaine Revel, a daughter of a stockbroker and a member of the Lazard family of investment bankers....

 to produce and sell perfumes and beauty products. Chanel's perfumes brings a significant percent of profit for the company, more than its sales in other products combined.

Since it inception, Parfums Chanel has had three in-house perfumer
Perfumer
A perfumer is a term used for an expert on creating perfume compositions, sometimes referred to affectionately as a Nose due to their fine sense of smell and skill in producing olfactory compositions...

s:
  • Ernest Beaux
    Ernest Beaux
    Ernest Beaux , was a Russian and French perfumer best known for creating Chanel No. 5, perhaps the world's most famous perfume.- Family background :...

     employed 1920–1961
  • Henri Robert
    Henri Robert
    Henri Robert is the second Chanel in-house perfumer after the departure of Ernest Beaux, famed creator of Chanel No. 5. Robert was born in 1899 in Grasse and began his career as a perfumer at with Chiris. Following that he joined Parfums d'Orsay and subsequently Coty...

     employed 1958–1987
  • Jacques Polge
    Jacques Polge
    Jacques Polge is a French perfumer who works as the head of Parfums Chanel starting in 1978 to the present. He is the third director of the perfume division after Ernest Beaux and Henri Robert....

     employed 1978–present

Fashion collections

Designer Season City Place where it was held Date of the presentation Line Notes Available in boutiques
Karl Lagerfeld
Karl Lagerfeld
Karl Lagerfeld is a German fashion designer, artist and photographer based in Paris. He has collaborated on a variety of fashion and art related projects, most notably as head designer and creative director for the fashion house Chanel...

Fall-Winter 2010 Paris
Paris
Paris is the capital and largest city in France, situated on the river Seine, in northern France, at the heart of the Île-de-France region...

Grand Palais
Grand Palais
This article contains material abridged and translated from the French and Spanish Wikipedia.The Grand Palais des Champs-Elysées, commonly known as the Grand Palais , is a large historic site, exhibition hall and museum complex located at the Champs-Élysées in the 8th arrondissement of Paris, France...

6 July 2010 Haute Couture
Haute couture
Haute couture refers to the creation of exclusive custom-fitted clothing. Haute couture is made to order for a specific customer, and it is usually made from high-quality, expensive fabric and sewn with extreme attention to detail and finished by the most experienced and capable seamstresses,...

A lion was built. On order
Karl Lagerfeld
Karl Lagerfeld
Karl Lagerfeld is a German fashion designer, artist and photographer based in Paris. He has collaborated on a variety of fashion and art related projects, most notably as head designer and creative director for the fashion house Chanel...

Spring-Summer 2011 Paris
Paris
Paris is the capital and largest city in France, situated on the river Seine, in northern France, at the heart of the Île-de-France region...

Grand Palais
Grand Palais
This article contains material abridged and translated from the French and Spanish Wikipedia.The Grand Palais des Champs-Elysées, commonly known as the Grand Palais , is a large historic site, exhibition hall and museum complex located at the Champs-Élysées in the 8th arrondissement of Paris, France...

5 October 2010 Prêt-à-porter An orchestra play on live. March 2011
Karl Lagerfeld
Karl Lagerfeld
Karl Lagerfeld is a German fashion designer, artist and photographer based in Paris. He has collaborated on a variety of fashion and art related projects, most notably as head designer and creative director for the fashion house Chanel...

Paris-Byzance Paris
Paris
Paris is the capital and largest city in France, situated on the river Seine, in northern France, at the heart of the Île-de-France region...

31 Rue Cambon 7 December 2010 Prêt-à-porter Recreate a byzance palace. May 2011
Karl Lagerfeld
Karl Lagerfeld
Karl Lagerfeld is a German fashion designer, artist and photographer based in Paris. He has collaborated on a variety of fashion and art related projects, most notably as head designer and creative director for the fashion house Chanel...

Spring-Summer 2011 Paris
Paris
Paris is the capital and largest city in France, situated on the river Seine, in northern France, at the heart of the Île-de-France region...

Pavilion Cambon-Capucines 25 January 2011 Haute Couture
Haute couture
Haute couture refers to the creation of exclusive custom-fitted clothing. Haute couture is made to order for a specific customer, and it is usually made from high-quality, expensive fabric and sewn with extreme attention to detail and finished by the most experienced and capable seamstresses,...

On order
Karl Lagerfeld
Karl Lagerfeld
Karl Lagerfeld is a German fashion designer, artist and photographer based in Paris. He has collaborated on a variety of fashion and art related projects, most notably as head designer and creative director for the fashion house Chanel...

Fall-Winter 2011 Paris
Paris
Paris is the capital and largest city in France, situated on the river Seine, in northern France, at the heart of the Île-de-France region...

Grand Palais
Grand Palais
This article contains material abridged and translated from the French and Spanish Wikipedia.The Grand Palais des Champs-Elysées, commonly known as the Grand Palais , is a large historic site, exhibition hall and museum complex located at the Champs-Élysées in the 8th arrondissement of Paris, France...

8 March 2011 Prêt-à-porter Recreate a Frozen Garden September 2011
Karl Lagerfeld
Karl Lagerfeld
Karl Lagerfeld is a German fashion designer, artist and photographer based in Paris. He has collaborated on a variety of fashion and art related projects, most notably as head designer and creative director for the fashion house Chanel...

Cruise 2011 Antibes
Antibes
Antibes is a resort town in the Alpes-Maritimes department in southeastern France.It lies on the Mediterranean in the Côte d'Azur, located between Cannes and Nice. The town of Juan-les-Pins is within the commune of Antibes...

Hotel du Cap
Hotel du Cap
Built originally as a private mansion Ville Soleil in 1863, the Hotel du Cap, in Antibes on the French Riviera, first opened its doors to guests in 1870....

5 May 2011 Cruise
Cruise collection
A cruise collection or resort collection, sometimes also referred to as holiday or travel collection , is an inter-season or pre-season line of ready-to-wear clothing produced by a fashion house or fashion brand in addition to the recurrent twice-yearly seasonal collections - spring/summer and...

Outdoors November 2011
Karl Lagerfeld
Karl Lagerfeld
Karl Lagerfeld is a German fashion designer, artist and photographer based in Paris. He has collaborated on a variety of fashion and art related projects, most notably as head designer and creative director for the fashion house Chanel...

Fall-Winter 2011 Paris
Paris
Paris is the capital and largest city in France, situated on the river Seine, in northern France, at the heart of the Île-de-France region...

Grand Palais
Grand Palais
This article contains material abridged and translated from the French and Spanish Wikipedia.The Grand Palais des Champs-Elysées, commonly known as the Grand Palais , is a large historic site, exhibition hall and museum complex located at the Champs-Élysées in the 8th arrondissement of Paris, France...

5 July 2011 Haute Couture
Haute couture
Haute couture refers to the creation of exclusive custom-fitted clothing. Haute couture is made to order for a specific customer, and it is usually made from high-quality, expensive fabric and sewn with extreme attention to detail and finished by the most experienced and capable seamstresses,...

Recreate the Place Vendôme at night On order
Karl Lagerfeld
Karl Lagerfeld
Karl Lagerfeld is a German fashion designer, artist and photographer based in Paris. He has collaborated on a variety of fashion and art related projects, most notably as head designer and creative director for the fashion house Chanel...

Spring Summer 2012 Paris
Paris
Paris is the capital and largest city in France, situated on the river Seine, in northern France, at the heart of the Île-de-France region...

Grand Palais
Grand Palais
This article contains material abridged and translated from the French and Spanish Wikipedia.The Grand Palais des Champs-Elysées, commonly known as the Grand Palais , is a large historic site, exhibition hall and museum complex located at the Champs-Élysées in the 8th arrondissement of Paris, France...

4 October 2011 Prêt-à-porter Under the sea. March 2012

Favorites models of Chanel=
Model Nationality
Abbey Lee Kershaw
Freja Beha Erichsen
Freja Beha Erichsen
Freja Beha Erichsen also known as Freja Beha, is a Danish model.-Career:Discovered on the streets of her native Denmark by a modeling agent passing by in a taxi, Erichsen made her debut as a model in 2005 at the fall Paris and Milan shows of Prada, Louis Vuitton, and Miu Miu...

Anja Rubik
Anja Rubik
Anja Rubik is a Polish model.-Early life:Rubik and her family left Poland in 1988 and lived in Greece, Canada, and Umtata, South Africa. She used to study in a primary and secondary school in Częstochowa, Poland. Rubik was introduced to modeling while attending a British high school in Paris...

Baptiste Giabiconi
Baptiste Giabiconi
Baptiste Giabiconi is a French male model from Marignane, France. He is currently the male face of Chanel, Fendi and Karl Lagerfeld.-Career:In 2008, Giabiconi signed with DNA Model Management New York....

Sasha Pivovarova
Sasha Pivovarova
Sasha Pivovarova is a Russian model. She is perhaps best known for her consecutive 6-season run with Prada.-Modeling career:As an art history student at the Russian University for the Humanities, Pivovarova never dreamed of becoming a model until friend and photographer Igor Vishnyakov took photos...

Siri Tollerod
Heidi Mount
Heidi Mount
Heidi Mount is an American fashion model. She has walked the runways of internationally acclaimed fashion houses like Michael Kors, Bottega Veneta, Sonia Rykiel, Versace, and Valentino. She has appeared in campaigns for Chanel, Prada, and Bally.-Early life:Mount was born Heidi Whitworth in Salt...

Sigrid Agren
Sigrid Agren
Sigrid Agren is a French fashion model from Martinique, and rose to prominence during the Elite Model Look in 2005, at age 14.-Early life:...

Tati Cotliar
Tati Cotliar
Tatiana "Tati" Cotliar is an Argentine fashion model. She has been the face of Vivienne Westwood, Valentino, Proenza Schouler, Prada, Lanvin for H&M and Chanel.- Career :...

Karmen Pedaru
Karmen Pedaru
- Early life :Karmen Pedaru was born on 10 May 1990 in Kehra, Estonia. Born into an athletic family, Pedaru became interested in sports at a very early age. From the time she was six, Pedaru played a variety of sports, including basketball, soccer and handball...

Karlie Kloss
Karlie Kloss
Karlie Elizabeth Kloss is an American model and ballet dancer.Kloss is ranked 4th on the Top 50 Models Women List by . Vogue Paris declared her one of the top 30 models of the 2000s.- Early life and discovery :...

Kasia Struss
Kasia Struss
Kasia Struss is a Polish model.-Personal Life:Struss was discovered in 2005 by a local talent scout. She went on to finish high school in home town Ciechanów before signing with an agency two years after her initial discovery...

Natasha Poly
Natasha Poly
Natalya Sergeyevna Polevshchikova , generally shortened to Natasha Poly , is a Russian model.-Early life and career start:...

Denisa Dvorakova
Denisa Dvorakova
Denisa Dvořáková is a Czech model, who is best known as the winner of the Elite Model Look 2006.-Early life:Denisa was in Prague, Czech Republic. She's known for her apathetic, calm and somewhat sarcastic appearance in photo shoots and on the runway.-Elite Model Look and career:Denisa entered the...

Bianca Balti
Bianca Balti
Bianca Balti is an Italian model born in Lodi, in the Lombardy region of north Italy.-Career:Balti was first booked for the cover of L'Officiel, shot by Alexi Lubomirski. Her first notable advertisement campaign came for Dolce & Gabbana...

Magdalena Frackowiak
Magdalena Frackowiak
Magdalena Frackowiak is a Polish fashion model who began appearing on international runways in 2006....

Toni Garrn
Toni Garrn
Toni Garrn is a German model. She was discovered by German model agency Modelwerk during the FIFA World Cup 2006 in her hometown, and then signed with New York agency Women Management....

Monika Jagaciak
Monika Jagaciak
Monika "Jac" Jagaciak is a Polish model. Since signing with IMG Models in 2007 Jagaciak has been given the nickname "Jac" by the agency.As of July 2011 Jagaciak currently ranks 8th on the Top 50 Models Women List by Models.com...

Frida Gustavsson
Frida Gustavsson
- Career :Gustavsson began modeling locally in 2008 and made her way to Japan. Her career took a positive turn when she was signed by IMG in 2009. Soon after, she opened the Fall Valentino haute couture show in Paris....


Handbag

A mistake of the press in times of commercial launch of the Classic Chanel handbag is sticked to the most popular handbag of Chanel until today. Misleadingly the bag was published as the 2.55 handbag although its real name was Timeless CC. The 2.55 and the Timeless CC have different locks and have different kind of leathers. 2.55 has creased leather and the Timeless CC has clean leather. Also the chain is completly different because the chain of the Classic Timeless bag is shiny silver or golden combined with leather but the chain of a 2.55 is matt without any leather. The Timeless CC is available in four size and the most popular of them is the second one which is known as the middle one. Until today costumers of Chanel are confused about that mistake of its name when they ask for the 2.55 though they mean the Timeless CC. Finally the influence of the press is huge and is sticked on items for their whole product life cycle.

Watches

The first Chanel watch, named 'Premiere', debuted in 1987. The first model of the Chanel J12
Chanel J12
Chanel J12 is a watch range made by Chanel that was launched in 1999. It contains Chanel's first unisex watch and has a style that has become widely recognised with its clean lines and fusion of masculinity and femininity....

 watches line was introduced in 2000.

In 2005, Chanel designers introduced the J12 line into the area of fine jewelry timepieces – they developed the jewelry watch that was equipped with the tourbillion. Chanel asked experienced Swiss watchmakers to develop the exclusive 'CHANEL O5-T.1' movement.

In 2006, the line was joined by Chanel J12 Haute Joaillerie set with 597 baguette-cut diamonds, followed by the creation of the Chanel J12 Tourbillon Haute Joaillerie. In 2007, Chanel launched its first J12 GMT model.

In 2008, Chanel initiated the partnership with Audemars Piguet
Audemars Piguet
Audemars Piguet is a manufacturer of prestige Swiss watches which compete with Patek Philippe, Jaeger-LeCoultre and Vacheron Constantin.-Foundation:...

, who developed the 'J12 calibre 3125', equipped with an innovative automatic movement – CHANEL AP – 3125, the fusion of the AP 3120 movement and Chanel 'J12' ceramic
Ceramic
A ceramic is an inorganic, nonmetallic solid prepared by the action of heat and subsequent cooling. Ceramic materials may have a crystalline or partly crystalline structure, or may be amorphous...

.

Chanel No. 5

Chanel launched a new advertising film
No. 5 The Film
No. 5 The Film is a 180-second long short film directed by Baz Luhrmann and starring Nicole Kidman and Rodrigo Santoro. It is part of a new breed of advertising crossover films known as branded content. It had a budget of $42 millionUSD which was financed exclusively by Chanel...

 that cast Nicole Kidman
Nicole Kidman
Nicole Mary Kidman, AC is an American-born Australian actress, singer, film producer, spokesmodel, and humanitarian. After starring in a number of small Australian films and TV shows, Kidman's breakthrough was in the 1989 thriller Dead Calm...

 as the new face of Chanel No. 5
Chanel No. 5
Chanel No. 5 is the first perfume launched by Parisian couturier Gabrielle "Coco" Chanel. The French government reports that a bottle of Chanel No. 5 is sold every thirty seconds and generates sales of $100 million a year. It was developed by Russian-French chemist and perfumer Ernest Beaux...

. It was produced by Baz Luhrmann
Baz Luhrmann
Mark Anthony "Baz" Luhrmann is an Australian film director, screenwriter, and producer best known for The Red Curtain Trilogy, which includes his films Strictly Ballroom, William Shakespeare's Romeo + Juliet and Moulin Rouge!...

, the director of Moulin Rouge
Moulin Rouge
Moulin Rouge is a cabaret built in 1889 by Joseph Oller, who also owned the Paris Olympia. Close to Montmartre in the Paris district of Pigalle on Boulevard de Clichy in the 18th arrondissement, it is marked by the red windmill on its roof. The closest métro station is Blanche.The Moulin Rouge is...

 and Romeo+Juliet
, and was shot on location in Sydney. Kidman takes on the role of the most famous woman in the world while Brazilian model/actor Rodrigo Santoro
Rodrigo Santoro
Rodrigo Junqueira dos Reis Santoro is a Brazilian actor.-Life and career:Santoro was born in Petrópolis, Rio de Janeiro. He is of half Brazilian and half Italian descent. In 1993, as Santoro was studying Journalism at PUC-Rio, he entered the Actor's Workshop of Rede Globo...

 plays a struggling writer in love with Kidman. The commercial lasts three minutes, and reportedly took many months of pre- and post-production. It cost about €26 million ($46 million), making No. 5 The Film one of the most expensive commercials to produce in history.

Audrey Tautou
Audrey Tautou
Audrey Justine Tautou is a French model and film actress, best known for playing the title character in the award-winning 2001 film Le Fabuleux Destin d'Amélie Poulain, Sophie Neveu in the 2006 thriller The Da Vinci Code, Irène in Priceless and Coco Chanel in Coco avant Chanel...

, French actress and star of the film The Da Vinci Code
The Da Vinci Code (film)
The Da Vinci Code is a 2006 American mystery thriller film directed by Ron Howard. The screenplay was written by Akiva Goldsman and based on Dan Brown's worldwide bestselling 2003 novel, The Da Vinci Code...

(2006), replaced Kidman as spokesmodel for the No. 5 fragrance in 2008. Tautou officially became a spokesmodel for the perfume in 2009 when she appeared in the second short film for the fragrance. The short film was unveiled on 5 May (5th of the 5th – in honour of No.5) on the Chanel website, 88 years to the day after the fragrance was introduced. The short film was directed by French director Jean-Pierre Jeunet
Jean-Pierre Jeunet
-Life and career:Jean-Pierre Jeunet was born in Roanne, Loire, France. He bought his first camera at the age of 17 and made short films while studying animation at Cinémation Studios. He befriended Marc Caro, a designer and comic book artist who became his longtime collaborator and...

 and was released in conjunction with Tautou's film Coco avant Chanel
Coco avant Chanel
Coco Before Chanel is a 2009 French film directed by Anne Fontaine, about the early life of the famed French fashion designer Coco Chanel....

, in which Tautou portrays Coco Chanel.

Coco Mademoiselle

British actress Keira Knightley
Keira Knightley
Keira Christina Knightley born 26 March 1985) is an English actress and model. She began acting as a child and came to international notice in 2002 after co-starring in the film Bend It Like Beckham...

, current spokesperson for the Coco Mademoiselle
Coco Mademoiselle
Coco Mademoiselle is a women's perfume in the Chanel collection that was introduced in 2001 for the younger Chanel fans.The fragrance was created by Jacques Polge, the nose of Chanel since 1978.-Coco Mademoiselle le Film:...

 fragrance, starred as the young Coco Chanel
Coco Chanel
Gabrielle Bonheur "Coco" Chanel was a pioneering French fashion designer whose modernist thought, menswear-inspired fashions, and pursuit of expensive simplicity made her an important figure in 20th-century fashion. She was the founder of one of the most famous fashion brands, Chanel...

 in a short advertisement film for the fragrance directed by the English film director Joe Wright.

Bleu de Chanel

In August 2010, Chanel released the first short film for one of its men's fragrances – Bleu de Chanel. French actor Gaspard Ulliel
Gaspard Ulliel
Gaspard Ulliel is a French film actor and model. He began appearing in made-for-television films during the late 1990s and early 2000s, and then began to be known as a film actor in France, as well as starring in the title role in the thriller Hannibal Rising.-Life and career:Ulliel was born in...

 became the face of the new fragrance and the film, directed by Academy Award-winner Martin Scorsese
Martin Scorsese
Martin Charles Scorsese is an American film director, screenwriter, producer, actor, and film historian. In 1990 he founded The Film Foundation, a nonprofit organization dedicated to film preservation, and in 2007 he founded the World Cinema Foundation...

.

Chance Eau Tendre

Chance Eau Tendre was developed by Chanel’s in-house perfumer, Jacques Polge, and the fruity floral features notes of grapefruit, quince, hyacinth, jasmine, amber, cedar, iris and white musk.

External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
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