Cerebral peduncle
Mainly, the three common areas that give rise to the cerebral peduncles are the cortex, the spinal cord and the cerebellum. The cerebral peduncle, by most classifications, is everything in the mesencephalon
The midbrain or mesencephalon is a portion of the central nervous system associated with vision, hearing, motor control, sleep/wake, arousal , and temperature regulation....

 except the tectum. The region includes the midbrain tegmentum
Midbrain tegmentum
The midbrain tegmentum is the part of the midbrain extending from the substantia nigra to the cerebral aqueduct in a horizontal section of the midbrain. It forms the floor of the midbrain which surrounds the cerebral aqueduct.-External links:*...

, crus cerebri and pretectum
The pretectum, also known as the pretectal area, is a region of neurons found between the thalamus and midbrain. It receives binocular sensory input from retinal ganglion cells of the eyes, and is the region responsible for maintaining the pupillary light reflex.-Outputs:The pretectum, after...

. By this definition, the cerebral peduncles are also known as the basis pedunculi, while the large ventral bundle of efferent fibers is referred to as the crus cerebri or the pes pedunculi. There are numerous nerve tracts located within this section of the brainstem. Of note, in the cerebral peduncular loop fibers from motor areas of the brain project to the cerebral peduncle and then project to various thalamic nuclei
The thalamus is a midline paired symmetrical structure within the brains of vertebrates, including humans. It is situated between the cerebral cortex and midbrain, both in terms of location and neurological connections...


Important fibers running through the cerebral peduncles include the corticospinal tract
Corticospinal tract
The corticospinal or pyramidal tract is a collection of axons that travel between the cerebral cortex of the brain and the spinal cord....

 and the corticobulbar tract
Corticobulbar tract
The corticobulbar tract is a white matter pathway connecting the cerebral cortex to the brainstem. The 'bulb' is an archaic term for the medulla oblongata; in modern clinical usage, it sometimes includes the pons as well...

, among others. In as much as the peduncles are an anatomic landmark, for details regarding the function of this area interested readers are referred to the individual referenced articles. On a broad scale, though, this area contains many nerve tracts conveying motor information to and from the brain to the rest of the body.

External links

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