Catheter
Overview
In medicine
Medicine
Medicine is the science and art of healing. It encompasses a variety of health care practices evolved to maintain and restore health by the prevention and treatment of illness....

, a catheter (ˈkæθɪtər) is a tube that can be inserted into a body cavity, duct, or vessel. Catheters thereby allow drainage, administration of fluids or gases, or access by surgical instruments. The process of inserting a catheter is catheterization. In most uses, a catheter is a thin, flexible tube ("soft" catheter), though in some uses, it is a larger, solid ("hard") catheter.
Encyclopedia
In medicine
Medicine
Medicine is the science and art of healing. It encompasses a variety of health care practices evolved to maintain and restore health by the prevention and treatment of illness....

, a catheter (ˈkæθɪtər) is a tube that can be inserted into a body cavity, duct, or vessel. Catheters thereby allow drainage, administration of fluids or gases, or access by surgical instruments. The process of inserting a catheter is catheterization. In most uses, a catheter is a thin, flexible tube ("soft" catheter), though in some uses, it is a larger, solid ("hard") catheter. A catheter left inside the body, either temporarily or permanently, may be referred to as an indwelling catheter. A permanently inserted catheter may be referred to as a permcath (originally a trademark).

The ancient Syria
Syria
Syria , officially the Syrian Arab Republic , is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the West, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest....

ns created catheters from reed
Reed (plant)
Reed is a generic polyphyletic botanical term used to describe numerous tall, grass-like plants of wet places, which are the namesake vegetation of reed beds...

s. "Katheter - καθετήρ" originally referred to an instrument that was inserted such as a plug. The word "katheter" in turn came from "kathiemai - καθίεμαι" meaning "to sit". The ancient Greeks inserted a hollow metal tube through the urethra
Urethra
In anatomy, the urethra is a tube that connects the urinary bladder to the genitals for the removal of fluids out of the body. In males, the urethra travels through the penis, and carries semen as well as urine...

 into the bladder
Bladder
Bladder usually refers to an anatomical hollow organBladder may also refer to:-Biology:* Urinary bladder in humans** Urinary bladder ** Bladder control; see Urinary incontinence** Artificial urinary bladder, in humans...

 to empty it and the tube came to be known as a "katheter".

Uses

Placement of a catheter into a particular part of the body may allow:
  • draining urine
    Urine
    Urine is a typically sterile liquid by-product of the body that is secreted by the kidneys through a process called urination and excreted through the urethra. Cellular metabolism generates numerous by-products, many rich in nitrogen, that require elimination from the bloodstream...

     from the urinary bladder
    Urinary bladder
    The urinary bladder is the organ that collects urine excreted by the kidneys before disposal by urination. A hollow muscular, and distensible organ, the bladder sits on the pelvic floor...

     as in urinary catheterization
    Urinary catheterization
    In urinary catheterization , a latex, polyurethane or silicone tube known as a urinary catheter is inserted into a patient's bladder via his or her urethra. Catheterization allows the patient's urine to drain freely from the bladder for collection. It may be used to inject liquids used for...

    , e.g., the intermittent catheters
    Intermittent catheter
    Intermittent catheterisation is an effective technique for people who need catheter-based bladder management. Intermittent catheterisation is considered the ‘gold-standard’ of care for bladder emptying, and this approach is supported by several international and national guidelines on urinary...

     or Foley catheter
    Foley catheter
    A Foley catheter is a flexible tube that is often passed through the urethra and into the bladder. The tube has two separated channels, or lumens, running down its length. One lumen is open at both ends, and allows urine to drain out into a collection bag...

     or even when the urethra is damaged as in suprapubic catheterisation
    Suprapubic cystostomy
    A suprapubic cystostomy is a surgically-created connection between the urinary bladder and the skin which is used to drain urine from the bladder in individuals with obstruction of normal urinary flow...

    .
  • drainage of urine from the kidney by percutaneous (through the skin) nephrostomy
    Nephrostomy
    A nephrostomy is an artificial opening created between the kidney and the skin which allows for the urinary diversion directly from the upper part of the urinary system ....

  • drainage of fluid collections, e.g. an abdominal abscess
    Abscess
    An abscess is a collection of pus that has accumulated in a cavity formed by the tissue in which the pus resides due to an infectious process or other foreign materials...

  • administration of intravenous fluids, medication
    Medication
    A pharmaceutical drug, also referred to as medicine, medication or medicament, can be loosely defined as any chemical substance intended for use in the medical diagnosis, cure, treatment, or prevention of disease.- Classification :...

     or parenteral nutrition with a peripheral venous catheter
    Peripheral venous catheter
    In medicine, a peripheral venous catheter is a catheter placed into a peripheral vein in order to administer medication or fluids...

  • angioplasty
    Angioplasty
    Angioplasty is the technique of mechanically widening a narrowed or obstructed blood vessel, the latter typically being a result of atherosclerosis. An empty and collapsed balloon on a guide wire, known as a balloon catheter, is passed into the narrowed locations and then inflated to a fixed size...

    , angiography, balloon septostomy
    Balloon septostomy
    Balloon septostomy is the widening of a foramen ovale, patent foramen ovale , or atrial septal defect via cardiac catheterization using a balloon catheter...

    , balloon sinuplasty
    Sinuplasty (procedure)
    Balloon sinuplasty is an endoscopic surgical procedure for the treatment of blocked nasal sinuses. Patients diagnosed with chronic sinusitis but not responding well to medications may be candidates for some type of sinus surgery...

    , cardiac electrophysiology testing
    Cardiac electrophysiology
    Cardiac electrophysiology is the science of elucidating, diagnosing, and treating the electrical activities of the heart. The term is usually used to describe studies of such phenomena by invasive catheter recording of spontaneous activity as well as of cardiac responses to programmed electrical...

    , catheter ablation
    Catheter ablation
    Catheter ablation is an invasive procedure used to remove a faulty electrical pathway from the hearts of those who are prone to developing cardiac arrhythmias such as atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, supraventricular tachycardias and Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome.It involves advancing several...

    . Often the Seldinger technique
    Seldinger technique
    The Seldinger technique is a medical procedure to obtain safe access to blood vessels and other hollow organs. It is named after Dr. Sven-Ivar Seldinger , a Swedish radiologist from Mora, Dalarna County, who introduced the procedure in 1953....

     is used.
  • direct measurement of blood pressure
    Blood pressure
    Blood pressure is the pressure exerted by circulating blood upon the walls of blood vessels, and is one of the principal vital signs. When used without further specification, "blood pressure" usually refers to the arterial pressure of the systemic circulation. During each heartbeat, BP varies...

     in an artery
    Artery
    Arteries are blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart. This blood is normally oxygenated, exceptions made for the pulmonary and umbilical arteries....

     or vein
    Vein
    In the circulatory system, veins are blood vessels that carry blood towards the heart. Most veins carry deoxygenated blood from the tissues back to the heart; exceptions are the pulmonary and umbilical veins, both of which carry oxygenated blood to the heart...

  • direct measurement of intracranial pressure
    Intracranial pressure
    Intracranial pressure is the pressure inside the skull and thus in the brain tissue and cerebrospinal fluid . The body has various mechanisms by which it keeps the ICP stable, with CSF pressures varying by about 1 mmHg in normal adults through shifts in production and absorption of CSF...

  • administration of anaesthetic medication into the epidural
    Epidural
    The term epidural is often short for epidural analgesia, a form of regional analgesia involving injection of drugs through a catheter placed into the epidural space...

     space, the subarachnoid space
    Subarachnoid space
    In the central nervous system, the subarachnoid cavity is the interval between the arachnoid membrane and pia mater....

    , or around a major nerve bundle such as the brachial plexus
    Brachial plexus
    The brachial plexus is a network of nerve fibers, running from the spine, formed by the ventral rami of the lower four cervical and first thoracic nerve roots...

  • administration of oxygen
    Oxygen
    Oxygen is the element with atomic number 8 and represented by the symbol O. Its name derives from the Greek roots ὀξύς and -γενής , because at the time of naming, it was mistakenly thought that all acids required oxygen in their composition...

    , volatile anesthetic agents, and other breathing gases into the lungs using a tracheal tube
    Tracheal tube
    A tracheal tube is a catheter that is inserted into the trachea in order for the primary purpose of establishing and maintaining a patent airway and to ensure the adequate exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide. Many different types of tracheal tubes are available, suited for different specific...

  • subcutaneous administration of insulin
    Insulin
    Insulin is a hormone central to regulating carbohydrate and fat metabolism in the body. Insulin causes cells in the liver, muscle, and fat tissue to take up glucose from the blood, storing it as glycogen in the liver and muscle....

     or other medications, with the use of an infusion set
    Infusion set
    An infusion set is used with an insulin pump as part of intensive insulin therapy. The purpose of an infusion set is to deliver insulin under the skin...

     and insulin pump
    Insulin pump
    The insulin pump is a medical device used for the administration of insulin in the treatment of diabetes mellitus, also known as continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion therapy.The device includes:...

  • A central venous catheter
    Central venous catheter
    In medicine, a central venous catheter is a catheter placed into a large vein in the neck , chest or groin...

     is a conduit for giving drugs
    Medication
    A pharmaceutical drug, also referred to as medicine, medication or medicament, can be loosely defined as any chemical substance intended for use in the medical diagnosis, cure, treatment, or prevention of disease.- Classification :...

     or fluids into a large-bore catheter positioned either in a vein
    Vein
    In the circulatory system, veins are blood vessels that carry blood towards the heart. Most veins carry deoxygenated blood from the tissues back to the heart; exceptions are the pulmonary and umbilical veins, both of which carry oxygenated blood to the heart...

     near the heart
    Heart
    The heart is a myogenic muscular organ found in all animals with a circulatory system , that is responsible for pumping blood throughout the blood vessels by repeated, rhythmic contractions...

     or just inside the atrium
    Atrium (anatomy)
    In anatomy, the atrium , sometimes called auricle , refers to a chamber or space. For example, the term is used for a portion of the lateral ventricle in the brain and the blood collection chamber of the heart...

    .
  • A Swan-Ganz catheter is a special type of catheter placed into the pulmonary artery
    Pulmonary artery
    The pulmonary arteries carry deoxygenated blood from the heart to the lungs. They are the only arteries that carry deoxygenated blood....

     for measuring pressures in the heart.
  • An embryo transfer
    Embryo transfer
    Embryo transfer refers to a step in the process of assisted reproduction in which embryos are placed into the uterus of a female with the intent to establish a pregnancy...

     catheter
    is designed to insert fertilized embryos from in vitro fertilization into the uterus. They may vary in length from approximately 150 mm to 190 mm.
  • An umbilical line
    Umbilical line
    An umbilical line is a catheter that is inserted into one of the two arteries or the vein of the umbilical cord. Generally the UAC/UVC is used in Neonatal Intensive Care Units as it provides quick access to the central circulation of premature infants...

     is a catheter used in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit
    Neonatal intensive care unit
    A Neonatal Intensive Care Unit —also called a Special Care Nursery, newborn intensive care unit, intensive care nursery , and special care baby unit —is an intensive care unit specializing in the care of ill or premature newborn infants.The problem of premature and congenitally ill infants is not a...

    s (NICU) providing quick access to the central circulation of premature infants
    Premature birth
    In humans preterm birth refers to the birth of a baby of less than 37 weeks gestational age. The cause for preterm birth is in many situations elusive and unknown; many factors appear to be associated with the development of preterm birth, making the reduction of preterm birth a challenging...

    .
  • A Touhy borst adapter is a medical device used for attaching catheters to various other devices.
  • A Quinton catheter is a double or triple lumen, external catheter used for hemodialysis
    Hemodialysis
    In medicine, hemodialysis is a method for removing waste products such as creatinine and urea, as well as free water from the blood when the kidneys are in renal failure. Hemodialysis is one of three renal replacement therapies .Hemodialysis can be an outpatient or inpatient therapy...

    .
  • An intrauterine catheter, such as a device known as a 'tom cat', may be used to insert specially 'washed' sperm directly into the uterus in artificial insemination
    Artificial insemination
    Artificial insemination, or AI, is the process by which sperm is placed into the reproductive tract of a female for the purpose of impregnating the female by using means other than sexual intercourse or natural insemination...

    . A physician is required to administer this procedure.

Inventors

The first form of a catheter was invented in the Americas during the 18th century. Extending his inventiveness to his family's medical problems, Benjamin Franklin
Benjamin Franklin
Dr. Benjamin Franklin was one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. A noted polymath, Franklin was a leading author, printer, political theorist, politician, postmaster, scientist, musician, inventor, satirist, civic activist, statesman, and diplomat...

 invented the flexible catheter in 1752 when his brother John suffered from bladder stones. Dr. Franklin's flexible catheter was made of metal with segments hinged together in order for a wire enclosed inside to increase rigidity during insertion.

The modern application of the catheter was in use at least by 1868 when Dr. N.B.Sornborger patented the Syringe and Catheter (patent #73402) with features for fastening it to the body and controlling the depth of insertion.

David S. Sheridan
David S. Sheridan
David S. Sheridan was the inventor of the "disposable" plastic endotracheal tube....

 was the inventor of the modern disposable catheter in the 1940s. In his lifetime he started and sold four catheter companies and was dubbed the "Catheter King" by Forbes Magazine in 1988. He is also credited with the invention of the modern "disposable" plastic endotracheal tube now used routinely in surgery. Prior to his invention, red rubber tubes were used, sterilized, and then re-used which often led to the spread of disease and also held a high risk of infection. As a result Mr Sheridan is credited with saving thousands of lives.

In the early 1900s, a Dubliner named Walsh and a famous Scottish urinologist called Norman Gibbon teamed together to create the standard catheter used in hospitals today. Named after the two creators, it was called the Gibbon-Walsh catheter. The Gibbon and the Walsh catheters have been described and their advantages over other catheters shown. The Walsh catheter is particularly useful after prostatectomy
Prostatectomy
A prostatectomy is the surgical removal of all or part of the prostate gland. Abnormalities of the prostate, such as a tumour, or if the gland itself becomes enlarged for any reason, can restrict the normal flow of urine along the urethra....

 for it drains the bladder without infection or clot retention. The Gibbon catheter has largely obviated the necessity of performing emergency prostatectomy. It is also very useful in cases of urethral fistula
Fistula
In medicine, a fistula is an abnormal connection or passageway between two epithelium-lined organs or vessels that normally do not connect. It is generally a disease condition, but a fistula may be surgically created for therapeutic reasons.-Locations:Fistulas can develop in various parts of the...

. A simple procedure such as dilatation of the urethra and passage of a Gibbon catheter often causes the fistula to close. This catheter is also of use in the treatment of urethral stricture and, as a temporary measure, in the treatment of retention of urine caused by carcinoma of the prostate.

Materials

A range of polymer
Polymer
A polymer is a large molecule composed of repeating structural units. These subunits are typically connected by covalent chemical bonds...

s are used for the construction of catheters, including silicone rubber
Silicone rubber
Silicone rubber is an elastomer composed of silicone—itself a polymer—containing silicon together with carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Silicone rubbers are widely used in industry, and there are multiple formulations...

, latex
Latex
Latex is the stable dispersion of polymer microparticles in an aqueous medium. Latexes may be natural or synthetic.Latex as found in nature is a milky fluid found in 10% of all flowering plants . It is a complex emulsion consisting of proteins, alkaloids, starches, sugars, oils, tannins, resins,...

, and thermoplastic elastomer
Thermoplastic elastomer
Thermoplastic elastomers , sometimes referred to as thermoplastic rubbers, are a class of copolymers or a physical mix of polymers which consist of materials with both thermoplastic and elastomeric properties...

s. Silicone is one of the most common choices because it is inert and unreactive to body fluids and a range of medical fluids with which it might come into contact. On the other hand, the polymer is weak mechanically, and a number of serious fractures have occurred in catheters. For example, silicone is used in Foley catheter
Foley catheter
A Foley catheter is a flexible tube that is often passed through the urethra and into the bladder. The tube has two separated channels, or lumens, running down its length. One lumen is open at both ends, and allows urine to drain out into a collection bag...

s where fractures have been reported, often requiring surgery to remove the tip left in the bladder.
there are many different types of catheters for the bladder problems.
Typically modern intermittent catheter
Intermittent catheter
Intermittent catheterisation is an effective technique for people who need catheter-based bladder management. Intermittent catheterisation is considered the ‘gold-standard’ of care for bladder emptying, and this approach is supported by several international and national guidelines on urinary...

 is made from polyurethane and comes in different lengths and sizes for men, women and children. The most advanced catheters have a thin hydrophilic surface coating. When immersed in water this coating swells to a smooth, slippery film making the catheter safer and more comfortable to insert. Some catheters are packed in a sterile saline solution.

Interventional procedures

Different catheter tips can be used to guide the catheter into the target vessel.
Refer to for a picture of different catheter tips and their respective names.

See also

  • Breast implant
  • Cannula
    Cannula
    A cannula or canula is a tube that can be inserted into the body, often for the delivery or removal of fluid or for the gathering of data...

  • Foley catheter
    Foley catheter
    A Foley catheter is a flexible tube that is often passed through the urethra and into the bladder. The tube has two separated channels, or lumens, running down its length. One lumen is open at both ends, and allows urine to drain out into a collection bag...

  • Forensic engineering
    Forensic engineering
    Forensic engineering is the investigation of materials, products, structures or components that fail or do not operate or function as intended, causing personal injury or damage to property. The consequences of failure are dealt with by the law of product liability. The field also deals with...

  • French catheter scale chart
  • Gastrostomy
    Gastrostomy
    Gastrostomy refers to a surgical opening into the stomach. Creation of an artificial external opening into the stomach for nutritional support or gastrointestinal compression....

  • G-Tube
  • Jejunostomy
    Jejunostomy
    Jejunostomy refers to an artificial opening into the jejunum. It is performed to allow feeding tube placement. Jejunostomy is an alternative to gastrostomy when the stomach is unsuitable for a feeding tube....

  • Murphy drip
    Murphy drip
    A Murphy drip is a rectal infusion apparatus to administer the medical procedure of proctoclysis, also known as rectoclysis. During the procedure, an end of the Murphy drip is inserted into the rectum and large quantities of liquid are infused into the rectum drop-by-drop...

  • Seldinger technique
    Seldinger technique
    The Seldinger technique is a medical procedure to obtain safe access to blood vessels and other hollow organs. It is named after Dr. Sven-Ivar Seldinger , a Swedish radiologist from Mora, Dalarna County, who introduced the procedure in 1953....

  • Stent
    Stent
    In the technical vocabulary of medicine, a stent is an artificial 'tube' inserted into a natural passage/conduit in the body to prevent, or counteract, a disease-induced, localized flow constriction. The term may also refer to a tube used to temporarily hold such a natural conduit open to allow...


External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
x
OK