Canoe racing
Overview
 
This article discusses canoe sprint and canoe marathon, competitive forms of canoeing
Canoeing
Canoeing is an outdoor activity that involves a special kind of canoe.Open canoes may be 'poled' , sailed, 'lined and tracked' or even 'gunnel-bobbed'....

 and kayaking
Kayaking
Kayaking is the use of a kayak for moving across water. Kayaking and canoeing are also known as paddling. Kayaking is distinguished from canoeing by the sitting position of the paddler and the number of blades on the paddle...

 on more or less flat water. Both sports are governed by the International Canoe Federation
International Canoe Federation
The International Canoe Federation is the umbrella organization of all national canoe organizations worldwide. It is headquartered in Lausanne, Switzerland, and administers all aspects of canoe sport worldwide...

 (ICF).

Canoe sprint, which is referred to by the IOC as "canoe/kayak sprint", is one of the two forms of the canoeing disciplines that are featured in the Summer Olympics, the other being canoe slalom. Marathon racing is not an Olympic sport.
Encyclopedia
This article discusses canoe sprint and canoe marathon, competitive forms of canoeing
Canoeing
Canoeing is an outdoor activity that involves a special kind of canoe.Open canoes may be 'poled' , sailed, 'lined and tracked' or even 'gunnel-bobbed'....

 and kayaking
Kayaking
Kayaking is the use of a kayak for moving across water. Kayaking and canoeing are also known as paddling. Kayaking is distinguished from canoeing by the sitting position of the paddler and the number of blades on the paddle...

 on more or less flat water. Both sports are governed by the International Canoe Federation
International Canoe Federation
The International Canoe Federation is the umbrella organization of all national canoe organizations worldwide. It is headquartered in Lausanne, Switzerland, and administers all aspects of canoe sport worldwide...

 (ICF).

Canoe sprint, which is referred to by the IOC as "canoe/kayak sprint", is one of the two forms of the canoeing disciplines that are featured in the Summer Olympics, the other being canoe slalom. Marathon racing is not an Olympic sport. In non-Olympic years, the main events are the World Championships.

Canoe racing combined with map navigation
Navigation
Navigation is the process of monitoring and controlling the movement of a craft or vehicle from one place to another. It is also the term of art used for the specialized knowledge used by navigators to perform navigation tasks...

 is called Canoe orienteering
Canoe orienteering
Canoe orienteering is an orienteering sport using a canoe, kayak, or other small boat. Usually, a canoe-O is a timed race in which one- or two-person boats start at staggered intervals, are timed, and are expected to perform all navigation on their own. Portages are allowed. The control points,...

.

Canoe marathon

Marathons are long distance races on rivers, lakes, estuaria or open sea. The course may include obstacles such as shallows, rocks and portage
Portage
Portage or portaging refers to the practice of carrying watercraft or cargo over land to avoid river obstacles, or between two bodies of water. A place where this carrying occurs is also called a portage; a person doing the carrying is called a porter.The English word portage is derived from the...

s. Under ICF rules, the minimum distances for international races are 20 km for men, and 15 km for women. The races may be divided in several parts and/or several days. World Cup and World Championship races normally are about 35 to 40 km long.

As there are no maximum distances, marathon racing has its extremes, such as Dipole Challenge 170 km (105 miles) non-stop through the night in November, Lithuania: Dipolio issukis, the Classique international de canots in Quebec Canada, (120 mile, 3 day, three stage event) Hawkesbury Canoe Classic
Hawkesbury Canoe Classic
The Hawkesbury Canoe Classic is an annual marathon canoe race taking place on the Hawkesbury River in Northwest Sydney usually at the end of October. The Hawkesbury Canoe Classic consists of a 111 km paddle downstream starting in Windsor and finishing in Brooklyn...

 in New South Wales
New South Wales
New South Wales is a state of :Australia, located in the east of the country. It is bordered by Queensland, Victoria and South Australia to the north, south and west respectively. To the east, the state is bordered by the Tasman Sea, which forms part of the Pacific Ocean. New South Wales...

, Australia
Australia
Australia , officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country in the Southern Hemisphere comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area...

, Devizes to Westminster Marathon
Devizes to Westminster International Canoe Marathon
The Devizes to Westminster International Canoe Marathon is a marathon canoe race in England. The race is held every Easter over a course of from Devizes in Wiltshire to Westminster in central London. It has been run since 1948. Starting at Devizes wharf, the route follows the Kennet and Avon...

 in England (125 miles, i.e. about 200 km), the Tour de Gudenå
Tour de Gudenå
The is a 120 km flatwater kayak and canoe race along the Gudenå river in Denmark. It is held on the second weekend of September each year.Starting in Skanderborg, participants paddle to Silkeborg via the Skanderborg lake, Mossø lake, Julsø lake and several other, minor lakes along the Gudenå river...

 in Denmark (120 km), the Texas Water Safari
Texas Water Safari
The Texas Water Safari, billed as the "World's Toughest Boat Race", is a trek down waterways from San Marcos, Texas, to Seadrift, Texas. The primary requirement is a boat powered only by human muscle. The event was first held in 1963, and is run annually....

 (262 mi), the Missouri River 340
Missouri River 340
The Missouri River 340, or MR340, is a 340 mile kayak and canoe race from Kansas City, Missouri to St. Charles, Missouri that follows the Missouri River...

 (nonstop 340 miles), the Au Sable River Canoe Marathon (nonstop 120 miles), the Berg River Canoe Marathon
Berg River Canoe Marathon
The Berg River Canoe Marathon takes place annually in South Africa's Western Cape Province over a distance of some 240km from Paarl to the small harbour of Velddrif on the West Coast. The two other notable South African canoe races are the Dusi Canoe Marathon and the Fish River Canoe Marathon. ...

 (248 km), Fish River Canoe Marathon
Fish River Canoe Marathon
The Fish River Canoe Marathon is a two-day event taking place every October on South Africa's Fish River in the Eastern Cape Province over a distance of some 81km, from Grassridge Dam southward to Cradock. The two other notable South African canoe marathons are the Dusi Canoe Marathon and the Berg...

 (81 km), Dusi Canoe Marathon
Dusi Canoe Marathon
The Unlimited Dusi Canoe Marathon is a canoe race between Pietermaritzburg and Durban, South Africa. It is run along the Msunduzi River, which is more commonly referred to as the Dusi river. The 2006 race attracted roughly 2000 paddlers and two to three thousand seconders, helpers and supporters...

 (125 km), Vaal River Marathon, in South Africa, the YMCA (formerly Red Cross) Murray Marathon, 404 km down the Murray River in Australia, the Yukon River Quest (742 km) from Whitehorse to Dawson on the Yukon River
Yukon River
The Yukon River is a major watercourse of northwestern North America. The source of the river is located in British Columbia, Canada. The next portion lies in, and gives its name to Yukon Territory. The lower half of the river lies in the U.S. state of Alaska. The river is long and empties into...

, and the longest canoe and kayak race, the Yukon 1000 (1000 miles, 1600 km) on the Yukon River
Yukon River
The Yukon River is a major watercourse of northwestern North America. The source of the river is located in British Columbia, Canada. The next portion lies in, and gives its name to Yukon Territory. The lower half of the river lies in the U.S. state of Alaska. The river is long and empties into...

 from Whitehorse to the last road access point on the river in Alaska.

Canoe sprint

Canoe sprint takes place on a straight course divided in lanes, on calm water. The distances recognised by the ICF for international races are 200 m, 500 m, and 1000 m. Each boat has its own designated lane, except for races over more than 1000 m, where there also may be turning points. Men race in canoes and in kayaks, women in kayaks except in Canada and the United States where women's canoe is an event raced at both Canada Games and National Championships. For each race a number of heats, semi-finals and a final may be necessary, depending on the number of competitors.

Canoe sprint has been part of the Olympic Games
Olympic Games
The Olympic Games is a major international event featuring summer and winter sports, in which thousands of athletes participate in a variety of competitions. The Olympic Games have come to be regarded as the world’s foremost sports competition where more than 200 nations participate...

 since 1936 (Berlin)
1936 Summer Olympics
The 1936 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XI Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event which was held in 1936 in Berlin, Germany. Berlin won the bid to host the Games over Barcelona, Spain on April 26, 1931, at the 29th IOC Session in Barcelona...

 for men, and since 1948 (London)
1948 Summer Olympics
The 1948 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XIV Olympiad, were an international multi-sport event which was held in London, England, United Kingdom. After a 12-year hiatus because of World War II, these were the first Summer Olympics since the 1936 Games in Berlin...

 for women. Notable Olympic gold medal
Gold medal
A gold medal is typically the medal awarded for highest achievement in a non-military field. Its name derives from the use of at least a fraction of gold in form of plating or alloying in its manufacture...

 winners are Birgit Fischer-Schmidt
Birgit Fischer
Birgit Fischer is a kayaker, who has won eight gold medals over six different Olympic Games, a record she shares with Aladár Gerevich, spanning seven Olympiads: twice representing East Germany , then four times representing the reunited nation...

 (eight gold medals between 1980
1980 Summer Olympics
The 1980 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXII Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event celebrated in Moscow in the Soviet Union. In addition, the yachting events were held in Tallinn, and some of the preliminary matches and the quarter-finals of the football tournament...

 and 2004
2004 Summer Olympics
The 2004 Summer Olympic Games, officially known as the Games of the XXVIII Olympiad, was a premier international multi-sport event held in Athens, Greece from August 13 to August 29, 2004 with the motto Welcome Home. 10,625 athletes competed, some 600 more than expected, accompanied by 5,501 team...

) and Gert Fredriksson
Gert Fredriksson
Gert Fridolf Fredriksson was a Swedish sprint canoer who competed from 1942 to 1964...

 (six gold medals between 1948
1948 Summer Olympics
The 1948 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XIV Olympiad, were an international multi-sport event which was held in London, England, United Kingdom. After a 12-year hiatus because of World War II, these were the first Summer Olympics since the 1936 Games in Berlin...

 and 1960
1960 Summer Olympics
The 1960 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XVII Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event held from August 25 to September 11, 1960 in Rome, Italy...

).

List of Olympic events:
  • C-1 200 m (canoe single) Men
  • C-1 1000 m (canoe single) Men
  • C-2 1000 m (canoe double) Men
  • K-1 200 m (kayak single) Men
  • K-1 200 m (kayak single) Women
  • K-1 500 m (kayak single) Women
  • K-1 1000 m (kayak single) Men
  • K-2 200 m (kayak double) Men
  • K-2 500 m (kayak double) Women
  • K-2 1000 m (kayak double) Men
  • K-4 500 m (kayak four) Women
  • K-4 1000 m (kayak four) Men


In European Championships and World Championship competitions following events are also on the program. (Women's canoe debuted at the 2010 championships
2010 ICF Canoe Sprint World Championships
The 2010 ICF Canoe Sprint World Championships were held 19–22 August 2010 in Poznań, Poland, on Lake Malta. This is the third time that the Polish city will host the championships, having done so previously in 1990 and 2001...

 in Poznań
Poznan
Poznań is a city on the Warta river in west-central Poland, with a population of 556,022 in June 2009. It is among the oldest cities in Poland, and was one of the most important centres in the early Polish state, whose first rulers were buried at Poznań's cathedral. It is sometimes claimed to be...

, Poland
Poland
Poland , officially the Republic of Poland , is a country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west; the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south; Ukraine, Belarus and Lithuania to the east; and the Baltic Sea and Kaliningrad Oblast, a Russian exclave, to the north...

.)
  • C-1 200 m (canoe single) Women
  • C-1 500 m (canoe single) Men & Women
  • C-1 4 x 200 m (canoe single relay) Men
  • C-2 200 m (canoe double) Men & Women
  • C-2 500 m (canoe double) Men & Women
  • C-4 200 m (canoe four) Men
  • C-4 500 m (canoe four) Men
  • C-4 1000 m (canoe four) Men
  • K-1 500 m (kayak single) Men
  • K-1 4 x 200 m (kayak single relay) Men & Women
  • K-2 200 m (kayak double) Women
  • K-2 500 m (kayak double) Men
  • K-2 1000 m (kayak double) Women
  • K-4 200 m (kayak four) Men & Women
  • K-4 500 m (kayak four) Men
  • K-4 1000 m (kayak four) Women


This list of events appears in the European Championships and the World Championships, although 200 m races are not for juniors.

Equipment

The official boats recognised by the ICF as 'International Boats' are the following: K1, K2, K4, C1, C2 and C4, where the number indicates the number of paddlers, “K” stands for kayak and “C” for Canadian or canoe, depending on location. Kayaks have a steering rudder
Rudder
A rudder is a device used to steer a ship, boat, submarine, hovercraft, aircraft or other conveyance that moves through a medium . On an aircraft the rudder is used primarily to counter adverse yaw and p-factor and is not the primary control used to turn the airplane...

, which is operated by the (frontmost) paddler with his feet; in a kayak a paddler is sitting, while in a canoe he is kneeling on one knee. The ICF rules for these boats define, among others, the maximum length, the minimum weight and the shape of the boats. For example, by ICF rules, a K1 is at most 520 cm long, and weighs at least 8 kg for marathons or 12 kg for sprints. In 2000, after the Olympic Games in Sydney, the ICF withdrew width restrictions on all boats, spurring a fury of innovations in boat designs. Modern boats are usually made of carbon fiber
Carbon fiber
Carbon fiber, alternatively graphite fiber, carbon graphite or CF, is a material consisting of fibers about 5–10 μm in diameter and composed mostly of carbon atoms. The carbon atoms are bonded together in crystals that are more or less aligned parallel to the long axis of the fiber...

 and/or aramid fiber
Aramid
Aramid fibers are a class of heat-resistant and strong synthetic fibers. They are used in aerospace and military applications, for ballistic rated body armor fabric and ballistic composites, in bicycle tires, and as an asbestos substitute. The name is a portmanteau of "aromatic polyamide"...

 (e.g., Kevlar
Kevlar
Kevlar is the registered trademark for a para-aramid synthetic fiber, related to other aramids such as Nomex and Technora. Developed at DuPont in 1965, this high strength material was first commercially used in the early 1970s as a replacement for steel in racing tires...

) with epoxy resin.

Some famous kayak marathon racers are Ivan Lawler, a seven-time world champion, and Anna Hemmings, a three-time world champion. At Olympic level, Hungary was the most successful canoeing nation overall in Sydney 2000, whilst Germany topped the Athens 2004 and Beijing 2008 canoeing medal tables.

In Canada, a racing class exists for the C-15 or WC or "War Canoe
War Canoe
A war canoe is a watercraft of the canoe type designed and outfitted for warfare, and which is found in various forms in many world cultures. In modern times, such designs have become adapted as a sport, and "war canoe" can mean a type of flatwater racing canoe.-War canoes as sport:War canoe is...

", as well as a similarly designed C-4 (which is much shorter and more squat than an 'International' C-4). An antiquated boat class is the C-7, resembling a large C4 which was debuted by the ICF with little success.

Paddle
Paddle
A paddle is a tool used for pushing against liquids, either as a form of propulsion in a boat or as an implement for mixing.-Materials and designs:...

s for propelling are double-bladed for kayaks, and single-bladed for canoes, and are usually made of carbon fiber with epoxy. For kayaks so-called wing paddles are generally used, the blades of which are shaped to resemble a wing
Wing
A wing is an appendage with a surface that produces lift for flight or propulsion through the atmosphere, or through another gaseous or liquid fluid...

. These paddles are more efficient than traditional paddles, presumably because they create extra "lift
Lift (force)
A fluid flowing past the surface of a body exerts a surface force on it. Lift is the component of this force that is perpendicular to the oncoming flow direction. It contrasts with the drag force, which is the component of the surface force parallel to the flow direction...

" in the direction the kayak moves. The wing blade has undergone many evolutions in the past two decades, evolving from a flatter blade to one with a more pronounced curve to better catch the water. For racing canoes
Sprint canoe
A sprint canoe is a special type of canoe used in the sport of flatwater canoe racing.A one-person sprint canoe is 5.20 metres long; a traveling canoe of a similar length would be suitable for 2 to 3 people with gear...

, the blade will typically be short and broad, with a 'power face' on one side that is either flat or scalloped out. The shaft will typically be longer than a tripping canoe paddle, because the kneeling position puts the paddler higher above the surface of the water. More recent designs of canoe racing paddles often have a slight bent shaft (a concept of Gene Jensen in the 1950s) but not to the degree used in marathon paddles. Many high-performance canoe paddlers prefer the feel of a carbon-fibre shaft mated to a wooden blade, while nearly all high-performance kayak paddlers use paddles made completely of carbon fiber.

See also

  • Concrete canoe
    Concrete canoe
    A concrete canoe is a canoe made of concrete, typically created for an engineering competition.In spirit, the event is similar to that of a cardboard boat race—make the seemingly unfloatable float...

  • Canoe orienteering
    Canoe orienteering
    Canoe orienteering is an orienteering sport using a canoe, kayak, or other small boat. Usually, a canoe-O is a timed race in which one- or two-person boats start at staggered intervals, are timed, and are expected to perform all navigation on their own. Portages are allowed. The control points,...

  • Sprint canoe
    Sprint canoe
    A sprint canoe is a special type of canoe used in the sport of flatwater canoe racing.A one-person sprint canoe is 5.20 metres long; a traveling canoe of a similar length would be suitable for 2 to 3 people with gear...

  • List of Olympic medalists in canoeing (men)
  • List of Olympic medalists in canoeing (women)
  • List of Canoe/Kayak athletes by Country

Additional sources


External links

  • Watch River of Life a National Film Board of Canada
    National Film Board of Canada
    The National Film Board of Canada is Canada's twelve-time Academy Award-winning public film producer and distributor. An agency of the Government of Canada, the NFB produces and distributes documentary, animation, alternative drama and digital media productions...

    documentary about the Yukon River Quest
The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
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