Broomrape
Overview
 
Broomrape or Broom-rape (Orobanche) is a genus of over 200 species of parasitic herbaceous plants in the family Orobanchaceae
Orobanchaceae
Orobanchaceae, the broomrape family, is a family of flowering plants of the order Lamiales, with about 90 genera and more than 2000 species. Many of these genera were formerly included in the family Scrophulariaceae sensu lato...

, mostly native to the temperate Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
The Northern Hemisphere is the half of a planet that is north of its equator—the word hemisphere literally means “half sphere”. It is also that half of the celestial sphere north of the celestial equator...

. Some species formerly included in this genus are now referred to the genus Conopholis
Conopholis
Conopholis is a small genus of flowering plants in the family Orobanchaceae.-Species:*Conopholis alpina, alpine cancer-root**Conopholis alpina var. mexicana, Mexican cancer-root...

.
The broomrape plant is small, from 10–60 cm tall depending on species. It is best recognized by its yellow-to-straw coloured stems completely lacking chlorophyll
Chlorophyll
Chlorophyll is a green pigment found in almost all plants, algae, and cyanobacteria. Its name is derived from the Greek words χλωρος, chloros and φύλλον, phyllon . Chlorophyll is an extremely important biomolecule, critical in photosynthesis, which allows plants to obtain energy from light...

, bearing yellow, white or blue, snapdragon
SnapDragon
SnapDragon is a contemporary jazz band based in San Antonio, Texas. The group released their debut CD, "Stealing a Moment" on Humbug Records in 2008, and the 10-song CD soon broke the Top 100 in U.S radio airplay...

-like flower
Flower
A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproductive structure found in flowering plants . The biological function of a flower is to effect reproduction, usually by providing a mechanism for the union of sperm with eggs...

s.
Encyclopedia
Broomrape or Broom-rape (Orobanche) is a genus of over 200 species of parasitic herbaceous plants in the family Orobanchaceae
Orobanchaceae
Orobanchaceae, the broomrape family, is a family of flowering plants of the order Lamiales, with about 90 genera and more than 2000 species. Many of these genera were formerly included in the family Scrophulariaceae sensu lato...

, mostly native to the temperate Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
The Northern Hemisphere is the half of a planet that is north of its equator—the word hemisphere literally means “half sphere”. It is also that half of the celestial sphere north of the celestial equator...

. Some species formerly included in this genus are now referred to the genus Conopholis
Conopholis
Conopholis is a small genus of flowering plants in the family Orobanchaceae.-Species:*Conopholis alpina, alpine cancer-root**Conopholis alpina var. mexicana, Mexican cancer-root...

.
The broomrape plant is small, from 10–60 cm tall depending on species. It is best recognized by its yellow-to-straw coloured stems completely lacking chlorophyll
Chlorophyll
Chlorophyll is a green pigment found in almost all plants, algae, and cyanobacteria. Its name is derived from the Greek words χλωρος, chloros and φύλλον, phyllon . Chlorophyll is an extremely important biomolecule, critical in photosynthesis, which allows plants to obtain energy from light...

, bearing yellow, white or blue, snapdragon
SnapDragon
SnapDragon is a contemporary jazz band based in San Antonio, Texas. The group released their debut CD, "Stealing a Moment" on Humbug Records in 2008, and the 10-song CD soon broke the Top 100 in U.S radio airplay...

-like flower
Flower
A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproductive structure found in flowering plants . The biological function of a flower is to effect reproduction, usually by providing a mechanism for the union of sperm with eggs...

s. The flower shoots are scaly, with a dense terminal spike of 10-20 flowers in most species, though single in O. uniflora. The leaves
Leaf
A leaf is an organ of a vascular plant, as defined in botanical terms, and in particular in plant morphology. Foliage is a mass noun that refers to leaves as a feature of plants....

 are merely triangular scales. The seeds are minute, tan-to-brown, and blacken with age. These plants generally flower from late winter to late spring. When they are not flowering, no part of these plants is visible above the surface of the soil.

As they have no chlorophyll, they are totally dependent on other plants for nutrients. Broomrape seeds remain dormant in the soil, often for many years, until stimulated to germinate by certain compounds produced by living plant roots. Broomrape seedlings put out a root-like growth, which attaches to the roots of nearby hosts. Once attached to a host, the broomrape robs its host of water and nutrients.

Some species are only able to parasitise a single plant species, such as Ivy Broomrape Orobanche hederae, which is restricted to parasitising ivy
Ivy
Ivy, plural ivies is a genus of 12–15 species of evergreen climbing or ground-creeping woody plants in the family Araliaceae, native to western, central and southern Europe, Macaronesia, northwestern Africa and across central-southern Asia east to Japan and Taiwan.-Description:On level ground they...

; these species are often named after the plant they parasitise. Others can infect several genera, such as the Lesser Broomrape O. minor
Orobanche minor
Orobanche minor, or Common Broomrape, is a holoparasitic angiosperm belonging to the genus Orobanche; a genus of about 150 non-photosynthetic plants that parasitize other autotrophic plants.-Characteristics and growth requirements:...

, on Trifolium
Clover
Clover , or trefoil, is a genus of about 300 species of plants in the leguminous pea family Fabaceae. The genus has a cosmopolitan distribution; the highest diversity is found in the temperate Northern Hemisphere, but many species also occur in South America and Africa, including at high altitudes...

and other related Fabaceae
Fabaceae
The Fabaceae or Leguminosae, commonly known as the legume, pea, or bean family, is a large and economically important family of flowering plants. The group is the third largest land plant family, behind only the Orchidaceae and Asteraceae, with 730 genera and over 19,400 species...

.

Branched broomrape Orobanche ramosa, native to central and southwestern Europe
Europe
Europe is, by convention, one of the world's seven continents. Comprising the westernmost peninsula of Eurasia, Europe is generally 'divided' from Asia to its east by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways connecting...

 but widely naturalised elsewhere, is considered a major threat to crops in some areas. Plants that are parasitized are tomato
Tomato
The word "tomato" may refer to the plant or the edible, typically red, fruit which it bears. Originating in South America, the tomato was spread around the world following the Spanish colonization of the Americas, and its many varieties are now widely grown, often in greenhouses in cooler...

, eggplant, potato
Potato
The potato is a starchy, tuberous crop from the perennial Solanum tuberosum of the Solanaceae family . The word potato may refer to the plant itself as well as the edible tuber. In the region of the Andes, there are some other closely related cultivated potato species...

, cabbage
Cabbage
Cabbage is a popular cultivar of the species Brassica oleracea Linne of the Family Brassicaceae and is a leafy green vegetable...

, coleus
Coleus
Solenostemon is a genus of perennial plants, native to tropical Africa, Asia, Australia, the East Indies, the Malay Archipelago, and the Philippines...

, bell pepper
Bell pepper
Bell pepper, also known as sweet pepper or a pepper and capsicum , is a cultivar group of the species Capsicum annuum . Cultivars of the plant produce fruits in different colors, including red, yellow, orange and green. Bell peppers are sometimes grouped with less pungent pepper varieties as...

, sunflower
Sunflower
Sunflower is an annual plant native to the Americas. It possesses a large inflorescence . The sunflower got its name from its huge, fiery blooms, whose shape and image is often used to depict the sun. The sunflower has a rough, hairy stem, broad, coarsely toothed, rough leaves and circular heads...

, celery
Celery
Apium graveolens is a plant species in the family Apiaceae commonly known as celery or celeriac , depending on whether the petioles or roots are eaten: celery refers to the former and celeriac to the latter. Apium graveolens grows to 1 m tall...

, and bean
Bean
Bean is a common name for large plant seeds of several genera of the family Fabaceae used for human food or animal feed....

s. In heavily infested areas, branched broomrape can cause total crop failure.

The stems of a species parasitic on the fava bean are gathered and eaten in the region of Puglia, Italy
Italy
Italy , officially the Italian Republic languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Italy's official name is as follows:;;;;;;;;), is a unitary parliamentary republic in South-Central Europe. To the north it borders France, Switzerland, Austria and...

, where they are given the name spocchia.

Branched broomrape was found near Bowhill, South Australia in 1992 and some properties have been quarantined for more than a decade. The weed could become a national problem in Australia unless it can be contained.

Selected species

(Note: this list includes names of more recently described species that may, under further taxonomic
Taxonomy
Taxonomy is the science of identifying and naming species, and arranging them into a classification. The field of taxonomy, sometimes referred to as "biological taxonomy", revolves around the description and use of taxonomic units, known as taxa...

 scrutiny, prove to be synonyms.)

Orobanche aconiti-lycoctoni Moreno Mor. et al.

Orobanche aegyptiaca
Orobanche aegyptiaca
Egyptian Broomrape is a plant from the family Orobanchaceae.Selective control of Egyptian broomrape is extremely difficult because the close association between host crop and parasite limits the use of most mechanical and herbicidal approaches.Egyptian broomrape together with Sunflower broomrape ...

Pers. (Egyptian Broomrape; Fenzhi Broomrape)

Orobanche akiana Honda

Orobanche alba Stephan ex Willd. (Thyme Broomrape; Baihua Broomrape)

Orobanche alexandri Tineo

Orobanche almeriensis A.Pujadas

Orobanche alpigena K.Koch

Orobanche alsatica Kirschl. (Alsace Broomrape; Duose Broomrape)

Orobanche amethystea Thuill. (Eryngium Broomrape)

Orobanche amoena C.A.Mey.

Orobanche anatolica Boiss. & Reut.

Orobanche androssovii Novopokr.

Orobanche angelicifixa Peteaux & St.-Lag.

Orobanche angustisepala F.W.Schultz

Orobanche angustelaciniata Gilli

Orobanche arbuti Sennen

Orobanche arcuata F.W.Schultz

Orobanche arenaria Borkh. (Wormwood Broomrape)

Orobanche ariana Gontsch.

Orobanche armena Tzvelev

Orobanche artemisiae-campestris Vaucher ex Gaudin

Orobanche astragali size=1>Mouterde

Orobanche auranitica Mouterde

Orobanche australiana F.Muell.

Orobanche austrohispanica M.J.Y.Foley

Orobanche badchysensis Novopokr. & V.V.Nikitin

Orobanche balearica Sennen & Pau

Orobanche ballotae A.Pujadas

Orobanche baumanniorum size=1>Greuter

Orobanche benkertii Rätzel & Uhlich

Orobanche berthelotti Webb & Berthel.

Orobanche boissieri Rchb.f.

Orobanche borbasiana size=1>Beck

Orobanche borealis Turcz.

Orobanche borissovae size=1>Novopokr.

Orobanche brachypoda Novopokr.

Orobanche bracteata Viv.

Orobanche brassicae (Novopokr.) Novopokr.

Orobanche brevidens Novopokr.

Orobanche breviflora F.W.Schultz

Orobanche bucharica Novopokr.

Orobanche bulbosa
Orobanche bulbosa
Orobanche bulbosa is a species of broomrape known by the common name chaparral broomrape. It is native to the chaparral of California and Baja California, where it is a parasite growing attached to the roots of shrubs, usually chamise. This plant arises from a thick root and a bulbous, twisted,...

Beck

Orobanche bungeana size=1>Beck

Orobanche caerulescens Steph. ex Willd.

Orobanche calendulae size=1>Pomel

Orobanche californica
Orobanche californica
Orobanche californica is a species of broomrape known by the common name California broomrape. It is native to western North America from British Columbia to Idaho to Baja California where it is a parasite growing attached to the roots of other plants, usually members of the Asteraceae, in many...

Cham. & Schltdl.

Orobanche camptolepis Boiss. & Reut.

Orobanche canescens size=1>C.Presl

Orobanche carnea Guss.

Orobanche caryophyllacea Sm. (Bedstraw Broomrape; Simao Broomstraw)

Orobanche cathae Deflers

Orobanche caucasica Beck

Orobanche caudata De Not.

Orobanche cernua Loefl. (Nodding Broomrape; Wanguan Broomrape)

Orobanche chassia Formánek

Orobanche chironii Lojac.

Orobanche chrysacanthi size=1>Maire

Orobanche cilicica size=1>Beck

Orobanche cistanchoides Beck

Orobanche clarkei size=1>Hook.f. (Xizang Broomrape)

Orobanche clausonis Pomel

Orobanche clavata size=1>Schiman-Czeika

Orobanche clementei C.Vicioso

Orobanche coelestis (Reut.) Boiss. & Reut. ex Beck (Changchi Broomrape)

Orobanche coerulescens Stephan ex Willd.

Orobanche colorata size=1>K.Koch

Orobanche columbiana H.St.John & English

Orobanche comosula Novopokr.

Orobanche compacta Viv.

Orobanche concreta Rouy

Orobanche connata K.Koch

Orobanche consimilis Schiman-Czeika

Orobanche cooperi
Orobanche cooperi
Orobanche cooperi is a species of broomrape known by the common name desert broomrape and burroweed strangler. It is native to the desert regions of the southwestern United States and northern Mexico, where it is a parasite growing attached to the roots of other plants, usually members of the...

(A.Gray) A.Heller (Cooper's Broomrape)

Orobanche corymbosa
Orobanche corymbosa
Orobanche corymbosa is a species of broomrape known by the common name flat-top broomrape. It is native to western North America where it is a parasite growing attached to the roots of other plants, usually sagebrush...

(Rydb.) Ferris (Flat-top Broomrape)

Orobanche crenata size=1>Forssk. (Bean Broomrape)

Orobanche cuprea Boiss. & Balansa ex Boiss.

Orobanche curvata Pomel

Orobanche cypria size=1>Kotschy

Orobanche cyrenaica size=1>Beck

Orobanche cyrnea Jeanm., Habashi & Manen

Orobanche densiflora Salzm. ex Reut.

Orobanche denudata Moris

Orobanche dhofarensis M.J.Y.Foley

Orobanche ducellieri size=1>Maire

Orobanche dugesii (S.Watson) Munz

Orobanche ebuli Huter & Rigo

Orobanche elatior Sutton (Knapweed Broomrape; Duanchun Broomrape)

Orobanche eriophora Bornm. & Gauba

Orobanche esulae size=1>Pančić

Orobanche euglossa Rchb.f.

Orobanche fasciculata
Orobanche fasciculata
Orobanche fasciculata is a species of broomrape known by the common name clustered broomrape. It is native to much of western and central North America from Alaska to northern Mexico to the Great Lakes region, where it grows in many types of habitat...

Nutt. (Cluster Broomrape; Fascicled Broomrape)

Orobanche feddei H.Lév.

Orobanche felicicola Nakai ex Hyun, Y.S.Lim & H.C.Shin

Orobanche flava Mart. ex F.W.Schultz (Butterbur Broomrape)

Orobanche foetida size=1>Poir.

Orobanche fuliginosa Reut. ex Jord.

Orobanche fuscovinosa size=1>Maire

Orobanche gamosepala size=1>Reut.

Orobanche georgii-reuteri size=1>(Carlon et al.) A.Pujadas

Orobanche glabrata size=1>C.A.Mey.

Orobanche glabricaulis size=1>Tzvelev

Orobanche gontscharovii size=1>Novopokr. & Nepli

Orobanche gracilis Sm.(Slender Broomrape)

Orobanche grandisepala size=1>F.W.Schultz

Orobanche grayana Beck (Gray's Broomrape)

Orobanche grigorjevii size=1>Novopokr.

Orobanche grisebachii size=1>Reut.

Orobanche grossheimii size=1>Novopokr.

Orobanche hadroantha size=1>Beck

Orobanche haenseleri size=1>Reut.

Orobanche hederae Duby (Ivy Broomrape)

Orobanche helianthemi size=1>J.St.-Hil.

Orobanche hellebori Miégev.

Orobanche hermonis size=1>Mouterde

Orobanche hirtiflora size=1>Tzvelev

Orobanche hookeriana size=1>Ball

Orobanche humbertii size=1>Maire

Orobanche hydrocotylei size=1>Colenso

Orobanche hymenocalyx size=1>Reut.

Orobanche hypertomentosa size=1>M.J.Y.Foley

Orobanche iammonensis size=1>A.Pujadas & P.Fraga

Orobanche ianthina size=1>Franch.

 

Orobanche icterica size=1>Pau

Orobanche insignis size=1>E.D.Clarke

Orobanche insolita size=1>Guim.

Orobanche interrupta size=1>Pers.

Orobanche inulae size=1>Novopokr. & Abramov

Orobanche ionantha size=1>Kern.

Orobanche irtyschensis size=1>Serg.

Orobanche karatavica size=1>Pavlov

Orobanche kashmirica size=1>C.B.Clarke ex Hook.f.

Orobanche kelleri size=1>Novopokr. (Duanchi Broomrape)

Orobanche kotschyi Reut. (Yitong Broomrape)

Orobanche krylowii size=1>Beck (Siduomao Broomrape)

Orobanche kurdica Boiss. & Hausskn.

Orobanche lactucae size=1>Arv.-Touv.

Orobanche langei size=1>Huter, Porta & Rigo

Orobanche lanuginosa (C.A.Mey.) Beck ex Krylov (Mao Broomrape)

Orobanche laserpitii-sileris Reut. ex Jord.

Orobanche latisquama size=1>(F.W.Schultz) Batt.

Orobanche lavandulacea Rchb.

Orobanche laxissima Uhlich & Rätzel

Orobanche leptantha size=1>Pomel

Orobanche linczevskii size=1>Novopokr.

Orobanche longibracteata size=1>Schiman-Czeika

Orobanche lucana size=1>Terracc.

Orobanche lucorum size=1>A.Braun (Barberry Broomrape)

Orobanche ludoviciana Nutt. (Prairie Broomrape; Desert Broomrape)

Orobanche lutea Baumg. (Medick Broomrape)

Orobanche lycica size=1>F.W.Schultz

Orobanche mariana A.Pujadas

Orobanche maritima Pugsley (Carrot Broomrape)

Orobanche megalantha Harry Sm. (Dahua Broomrape)

Orobanche melitensis size=1>Beck

Orobanche minor
Orobanche minor
Orobanche minor, or Common Broomrape, is a holoparasitic angiosperm belonging to the genus Orobanche; a genus of about 150 non-photosynthetic plants that parasitize other autotrophic plants.-Characteristics and growth requirements:...

Sm. (Common Broomrape; Clover Broomrape; Lesser Broomrape; Small Broomrape)

Orobanche mongolica Beck (Zhonghua Broomrape)

Orobanche montserratii A.Pujadas & D.Gómez García

Orobanche mulgedii size=1>Novopokr.

Orobanche multicaulis size=1>Brandegee

Orobanche mupinensis size=1>Hu (Baoxing Broomrape)

Orobanche muteliformis size=1>F.J.Y.Foley

Orobanche myrtilli H.Lév. & É.Labbé

Orobanche nikitinii size=1>Novopokr.

Orobanche nowackiana size=1>Markgr.

Orobanche obtusata size=1>Raf.

Orobanche ombrochares size=1>Hance (Maoyao Broomrape)

Orobanche orientalis size=1>Beck

Orobanche oxyloba (Reut.) Beck

Orobanche ovata size=1>Blakelock

Orobanche ozanonis size=1>Beck

Orobanche pachypoda size=1>Butkov

Orobanche pamim-alaica size=1>Gontsch. & Novopokr.

Orobanche pancicii size=1>Beck

Orobanche paralias size=1>L.Corb.

Orobanche parishii
Orobanche parishii
Orobanche parishii is a species of broomrape known by the common name Parish's broomrape. It is native to the coast and mountains of California and Baja California, where it is a parasite growing attached to the roots of other plants, usually shrubs of the Asteraceae, such as Menzies' goldenbush...

(Jeps.) Heckard

Orobanche pedunculata size=1>Vell.

Orobanche pelargonii size=1>Caldesi

Orobanche penduliflora size=1>Gilli

Orobanche perangustata size=1>M.J.Y.Foley

Orobanche petraea size=1>Vell.

Orobanche picridis size=1>F.W.Schultz (Oxtongue Broomrape)

Orobanche pinorum
Orobanche pinorum
Orobanche pinorum is a species of broomrape known by the common name conifer broomrape. It is native to the forests of western North America, where it is a parasite growing attached to the roots of other plants, usually Holodiscus species. This plant has an erect stem with a wide, thickened base...

Geyer ex Hook.

Orobanche portoilicitana A.Pujadas & M.B.Crespo

Orobanche psila C.B.Clarke ex Hook.f.

Orobanche psilostemon size=1>Novopokr.

Orobanche pubescens d'Urv. (Hairy Broomrape)

Orobanche pulchra size=1>Gilli

Orobanche purpurea Jacq. (Yarrow Broomrape)

Orobanche pushpitoi size=1>M.R.Almeida

Orobanche pycnostachya size=1>Hance (Huanghua Broomrape)

Orobanche ramosa
Orobanche ramosa
Orobanche ramosa is a species of broomrape known by the common names hemp broomrape and branching broomrape. It is native to Eurasia and North Africa, but it is known in many other places as an introduced species and sometimes a noxious weed...

L. (Branched Broomrape; Hemp Broomrape)

Orobanche rapum-genistae
Orobanche rapum-genistae
Orobanche rapum-genistae, the greater broomrape, is a plant species in the genus Orobanche.O. rapum-genistae contains verbascoside and orobanchoside-See also:* List of the vascular plants of Britain and Ireland 6* Biota of the Isle of Man...

Thuill. (Greater Broomrape)

Orobanche rechingeri Gilli

Orobanche reticulata Wallr. (Thistle Broomrape)

Orobanche rhaetica Brügger

Orobanche riparia L.T.Collins

Orobanche rosea Tzvelev

Orobanche salviae F.W.Schultz ex Koch

Orobanche sanguinea size=1>C.Presl

Orobanche santolinae Loscos & J.Pardo

Orobanche sarmatica Kotov

Orobanche schelkovnikovii Tzvelev

Orobanche schugnanica Novopokr.

Orobanche schultzii size=1>Mutel

Orobanche schweinfurthii size=1>Beck

Orobanche schwingenschussii Gilli

Orobanche scolymi size=1>Pomel

Orobanche serbica Beck & Petrovič

Orobanche serratocalyx size=1>Beck

Orobanche sideana size=1>Gilli

Orobanche sideritis Porta

Orobanche sinensis Harry Sm. (Sichuan Broomrape)

Orobanche singarensis Beck ex Hand.-Mazz.

Orobanche sintenisii size=1>Beck

Orobanche sogdiana size=1>Novopokr.

Orobanche solenanthi size=1>Novopokr. & Pissjauk.

Orobanche solmsii size=1>C.B.Clarke (Changbao Broomrape)

Orobanche sordida size=1>C.A.Mey. (Danhuang Broomrape)

Orobanche stans size=1>Noronha

Orobanche stocksii size=1>Boiss.

Orobanche subverticillata size=1>F.W.Schultz

Orobanche tacnaensis size=1>Mattf.

Orobanche tarapacana size=1>Phil.

Orobanche tetuanensis size=1>Ball

Orobanche teucrii Holandre (Germander Broomrape)

Orobanche todari Lojac.

Orobanche transcaucasica size=1>Tzvelev

Orobanche trichocalyx (Webb & Berthel.) Beck

Orobanche trotzkii size=1>Wagn. ex Claus

Orobanche tunetana size=1>Beck

Orobanche uniflora
Orobanche uniflora
Orobanche uniflora, commonly known as Oneflowered Broomrape, Cancer Root, or Naked Broomrape is an annual parasitic herb...

L. (Naked Broomrape; One-flower Cancer-root)

Orobanche uralensis size=1>Beck (Duochi Broomrape)

Orobanche ussuriensis Novopokr.

Orobanche valida
Orobanche valida
Orobanche valida is a species of broomrape known by the common name Rock Creek broomrape. It is endemic to California, where its two uncommon subspecies grow in mountainous habitats separated by several hundred miles. Howell's broomrape, ssp...

Jeps.

Orobanche vallicola
Orobanche vallicola
Orobanche vallicola is a species of broomrape known by the common name hillside broomrape. It is endemic to California, where it is an uncommon member of the flora in forests and woodlands. The plant is a parasite growing attached to the roots of other plants, generally Sambucus species...

(Jeps.) Heckard

Orobanche viridis Hazsl.

Orobanche vitellina size=1>Novopokr.

Orobanche weberbaueri Mattf.

Orobanche wiedemanni Boiss.

Orobanche xanthostachya Novopokr.

Orobanche yunnanensis (Beck) Hand.-Mazz. (Dianlie Broomrape)

 
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