British Royal Family
Overview
 
The British Royal Family is the group of close relatives of the monarch
Monarchy of the United Kingdom
The monarchy of the United Kingdom is the constitutional monarchy of the United Kingdom and its overseas territories. The present monarch, Queen Elizabeth II, has reigned since 6 February 1952. She and her immediate family undertake various official, ceremonial and representational duties...

 of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

. The term is also commonly applied to the same group of people as the relations of the monarch in her or his role as sovereign of any of the other Commonwealth realms, thus sometimes at variance with official national terms for the family. Members of the Royal Family belong to, either by birth or marriage, the House of Windsor
House of Windsor
The House of Windsor is the royal house of the Commonwealth realms. It was founded by King George V by royal proclamation on the 17 July 1917, when he changed the name of his family from the German Saxe-Coburg and Gotha to the English Windsor, due to the anti-German sentiment in the United Kingdom...

, since 1917, when George V
George V
George V was king of the United Kingdom and its dominions from 1910 to 1936.George V or similar terms may also refer to:-People:* George V of Georgia * George V of Imereti * George V of Hanover...

 changed the name of the royal house from Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Saxe-Coburg and Gotha or Saxe-Coburg-Gotha served as the collective name of two duchies, Saxe-Coburg and Saxe-Gotha, in Germany. They were located in what today are the states of Bavaria and Thuringia, respectively, and the two were in personal union between 1826 and 1918...

.
Encyclopedia
The British Royal Family is the group of close relatives of the monarch
Monarchy of the United Kingdom
The monarchy of the United Kingdom is the constitutional monarchy of the United Kingdom and its overseas territories. The present monarch, Queen Elizabeth II, has reigned since 6 February 1952. She and her immediate family undertake various official, ceremonial and representational duties...

 of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

. The term is also commonly applied to the same group of people as the relations of the monarch in her or his role as sovereign of any of the other Commonwealth realms, thus sometimes at variance with official national terms for the family. Members of the Royal Family belong to, either by birth or marriage, the House of Windsor
House of Windsor
The House of Windsor is the royal house of the Commonwealth realms. It was founded by King George V by royal proclamation on the 17 July 1917, when he changed the name of his family from the German Saxe-Coburg and Gotha to the English Windsor, due to the anti-German sentiment in the United Kingdom...

, since 1917, when George V
George V
George V was king of the United Kingdom and its dominions from 1910 to 1936.George V or similar terms may also refer to:-People:* George V of Georgia * George V of Imereti * George V of Hanover...

 changed the name of the royal house from Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Saxe-Coburg and Gotha or Saxe-Coburg-Gotha served as the collective name of two duchies, Saxe-Coburg and Saxe-Gotha, in Germany. They were located in what today are the states of Bavaria and Thuringia, respectively, and the two were in personal union between 1826 and 1918...

. This decision was primarily taken because Britain and her Empire were at war with Germany and given the British Royal Family's strong German ancestry, it was felt that its public image could be improved by choosing a more British house name. The new name chosen, Windsor, had absolutely no connection other than as the name of the castle
Windsor Castle
Windsor Castle is a medieval castle and royal residence in Windsor in the English county of Berkshire, notable for its long association with the British royal family and its architecture. The original castle was built after the Norman invasion by William the Conqueror. Since the time of Henry I it...

 which was and continues to be a royal residence.

Although in the United Kingdom there is no strict legal or formal definition of who is or is not a member of the Royal Family, and different lists will include different people, those carrying the style
Style (manner of address)
A style of office, or honorific, is a legal, official, or recognized title. A style, by tradition or law, precedes a reference to a person who holds a post or political office, and is sometimes used to refer to the office itself. An honorific can also be awarded to an individual in a personal...

 Her or His Majesty (HM)
Majesty
Majesty is an English word derived ultimately from the Latin maiestas, meaning "greatness".- Origin :Originally, during the Roman republic, the word maiestas was the legal term for the supreme status and dignity of the state, to be respected above everything else...

, or Her or His Royal Highness (HRH)
Royal Highness
Royal Highness is a style ; plural Royal Highnesses...

 are always considered members, which usually results in the application of the term to the monarch, the consort of the monarch, the widowed consorts of previous monarchs, the children of the monarch and previous monarchs, the male-line grandchildren of the monarch and previous monarchs, and the spouses and the widows of a monarch's and previous monarch's sons and male-line grandsons.

Members and relatives of the British Royal Family historically represented the monarch in various places throughout the British Empire
British Empire
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom. It originated with the overseas colonies and trading posts established by England in the late 16th and early 17th centuries. At its height, it was the...

, sometimes for extended periods as viceroy
Viceroy
A viceroy is a royal official who runs a country, colony, or province in the name of and as representative of the monarch. The term derives from the Latin prefix vice-, meaning "in the place of" and the French word roi, meaning king. A viceroy's province or larger territory is called a viceroyalty...

s, or for specific ceremonies or events. Today, they often perform ceremonial and social duties throughout the United Kingdom and abroad on behalf of the UK, but, aside from the monarch, have no constitutional role in the affairs of government. This is the same for the other realms of the Commonwealth
Commonwealth Realm
A Commonwealth realm is a sovereign state within the Commonwealth of Nations that has Elizabeth II as its monarch and head of state. The sixteen current realms have a combined land area of 18.8 million km² , and a population of 134 million, of which all, except about two million, live in the six...

 though the family there acts on behalf of, is funded by, and represents the sovereign of that particular state, and not the United Kingdom.

List of members

This is a list of current members of the Royal Family who bear the style of Royal Highness
Royal Highness
Royal Highness is a style ; plural Royal Highnesses...

:
  • HM The Queen and HRH The Duke of Edinburgh
    Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh
    Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh is the husband of Elizabeth II. He is the United Kingdom's longest-serving consort and the oldest serving spouse of a reigning British monarch....

     (her prince consort
    Prince consort
    A prince consort is the husband of a queen regnant who is not himself a king in his own right.Current examples include the Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh , and Prince Henrik of Denmark .In recognition of his status, a prince consort may be given a formal...

    )
    • TRH The Prince of Wales
      Charles, Prince of Wales
      Prince Charles, Prince of Wales is the heir apparent and eldest son of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. Since 1958 his major title has been His Royal Highness The Prince of Wales. In Scotland he is additionally known as The Duke of Rothesay...

       and The Duchess of Cornwall (The Queen's eldest son and his second wife)
      • TRH The Duke and Duchess of Cambridge (The Prince of Wales' elder son and his wife)
      • HRH Prince Harry of Wales
        Prince Harry of Wales
        Prince Henry of Wales , commonly known as Prince Harry, is the younger son of Charles, Prince of Wales and the late Diana, Princess of Wales, and fourth grandchild of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh...

         (The Prince of Wales' younger son)
    • HRH The Duke of York
      Prince Andrew, Duke of York
      Prince Andrew, Duke of York KG GCVO , is the second son, and third child of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh...

       (The Queen's second son)
      • HRH Princess Beatrice of York
        Princess Beatrice of York
        Princess Beatrice of York is the elder daughter of Prince Andrew, Duke of York, and Sarah, Duchess of York...

         (The Duke of York's elder daughter)
      • HRH Princess Eugenie of York
        Princess Eugenie of York
        Princess Eugenie of York Eugenie Victoria Helena; born 23 March 1990) is the younger daughter of Prince Andrew, Duke of York, and Sarah, Duchess of York...

         (The Duke of York's younger daughter)
    • TRH The Earl
      Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex
      Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex KG GCVO is the third son and fourth child of Elizabeth II and The Duke of Edinburgh...

       and Countess of Wessex (The Queen's third son and his wife)
      • Viscount Severn
        James, Viscount Severn
        James, Viscount Severn is the second child and only son of Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex, and Sophie, Countess of Wessex, and the youngest grandchild of Elizabeth II and the Duke of Edinburgh...

         (The Earl of Wessex's son)
      • The Lady Louise Windsor
        Lady Louise Windsor
        The Lady Louise Windsor is the elder child of Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex, and Sophie, Countess of Wessex. She is the youngest granddaughter and second-youngest grandchild of Elizabeth II and the Duke of Edinburgh...

         (The Earl of Wessex's daughter)
    • HRH The Princess Royal
      Anne, Princess Royal
      Princess Anne, Princess Royal , is the only daughter of Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh...

        (The Queen's daughter)
  • TRH The Duke
    Prince Richard, Duke of Gloucester
    Prince Richard, Duke of Gloucester is a member of the British Royal Family. Prince Richard is the youngest grandchild of King George V and Queen Mary. He has been Duke of Gloucester since his father's death in 1974. He is currently 20th in the line of succession...

     and Duchess of Gloucester (The Queen's cousin and his wife)
  • TRH The Duke
    Prince Edward, Duke of Kent
    The Duke of Kent graduated from the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst on 29 July 1955 as a Second Lieutenant in the Royal Scots Greys, the beginning of a military career that would last over 20 years. He was promoted to captain on 29 July 1961. The Duke of Kent saw service in Hong Kong from 1962–63...

     and Duchess of Kent (The Queen's cousin and his wife)
  • TRH Prince
    Prince Michael of Kent
    Prince Michael of Kent is a grandson of King George V and Queen Mary, making him a cousin of Queen Elizabeth II. He is also the first cousin once removed of Prince Phillip. Prince Michael occasionally carries out royal duties representing the Queen at some functions in Commonwealth realms outside...

     and Princess Michael of Kent
    Princess Michael of Kent
    Princess Michael of Kent is an Austrian-Hungarian member of the British Royal Family. She is married to Prince Michael of Kent, who is a grandson of King George V....

     (The Queen's cousin and his wife)
  • HRH Princess Alexandra, The Honourable Lady Ogilvy
    Princess Alexandra, The Honourable Lady Ogilvy
    Princess Alexandra, The Honourable Lady Ogilvy is the youngest granddaughter of King George V of the United Kingdom and Mary of Teck. She is the widow of Sir Angus Ogilvy...

     (The Queen's cousin)

Collaterals

There are a few immediate family members (a spouse and the children and grandchildren of its current full members) carrying no official style who sometimes appear in listings:
  • VAdm Sir Timothy Laurence
    Timothy Laurence
    Vice Admiral Sir Timothy James Hamilton Laurence, KCVO, CB, ADC is a senior British naval officer and the second husband of HRH The Princess Royal, the only daughter of HM The Queen...

     (The Princess Royal's second and current husband)
    • Mr
      Peter Phillips
      Peter Phillips is the son of Anne, Princess Royal of the United Kingdom.Peter Phillips or Philips may also refer to:* Peter Philips Peter Phillips (born 1977) is the son of Anne, Princess Royal of the United Kingdom.Peter Phillips or Philips may also refer to:* Peter Philips Peter Phillips (born...

       & Mrs Peter Phillips
      Autumn Phillips
      Autumn Patricia Phillips is the wife of Peter Phillips, who is the son of Anne, Princess Royal and Captain Mark Phillips, and the oldest grandchild of Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh....

       (The Princess Royal's son by Mark Phillips
      Mark Phillips
      -Ancestry:-Issue:-Sources:...

      , and his wife, Autumn)
      • Miss Savannah Phillips (Peter Phillips' daughter, The Queen's only great-grandchild)
    • Mrs Zara Phillips
      Zara Phillips
      Zara Anne Elizabeth Phillips, MBE is the second child and only daughter of Princess Anne and her first husband Captain Mark Phillips and is 13th in the line of succession to the throne...

       MBE
      Order of the British Empire
      The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire is an order of chivalry established on 4 June 1917 by George V of the United Kingdom. The Order comprises five classes in civil and military divisions...

       & Michael Tindall
      Mike Tindall
      Michael James Tindall, MBE is an English rugby player who plays outside centre for Gloucester Rugby and has captained the England team...

       Esq (The Princess Royal's daughter by Mark Phillips, and her husband)


Besides these, there are many individuals descended directly and closely from Royal Highnesses:
  • Mr
    Tom Parker Bowles
    Thomas Henry Parker Bowles is the son of Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall and Andrew Parker Bowles. His stepfather and godfather is Prince Charles, Prince of Wales. His younger sister is Laura Lopes....

     & Mrs Tom Parker Bowles (The Duchess of Cornwall's son by Andrew Parker Bowles
    Andrew Parker Bowles
    Brigadier Andrew Henry Parker Bowles OBE is a retired British Army officer. He is the former husband of the Duchess of Cornwall , who is now married to the Prince of Wales....

    , and his wife, Sara)
    • Miss Lola and Master Freddy Parker Bowles (Tom Parker Bowles' children)
  • Mr & Mrs Harry Lopes
    Laura Lopes
    Laura Rose Lopes, née Parker Bowles, is the daughter of Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall and Andrew Parker Bowles, OBE. Her mother's remarriage in 2005 made HRH the Prince of Wales her stepfather. She has one elder brother, Tom Parker Bowles....

     (The Duchess of Cornwall's daughter by Andrew Parker Bowles
    Andrew Parker Bowles
    Brigadier Andrew Henry Parker Bowles OBE is a retired British Army officer. He is the former husband of the Duchess of Cornwall , who is now married to the Prince of Wales....

    , Laura, and her husband)
    • Miss Eliza, Master Gus and Master Louis Lopes (Laura Lopes' children)
  • Viscount
    David Armstrong-Jones, Viscount Linley
    -Ancestry:-External links:* * * *...

     & Viscountess Linley
    Serena Armstrong-Jones, Viscountess Linley
    Serena Alleyne Armstrong-Jones, Viscountess Linley is an Anglo-Irish aristocrat and a member, by marriage, of the extended British Royal Family. She was born in Limerick, Ireland.-Background:...

     (Princess Margaret's son and his wife)
    • The Hon Charles Armstrong-Jones
      Charles Armstrong-Jones
      Charles Patrick Inigo Armstrong-Jones is the son of Viscount Linley and Viscountess Linley. He is a great-grandson of King George VI of the United Kingdom....

       and The Hon Margarita Armstrong-Jones
      Margarita Armstrong-Jones
      The Honourable Margarita Elizabeth Rose Alleyne Armstrong-Jones is the only daughter of Viscount Linley and Viscountess Linley. She was born three months after the death of her grandmother, Princess Margaret, Countess of Snowdon, and a month and a half after the death of her great-grandmother...

       (Lord Linley's children)
  • The Lady Sarah Chatto
    Lady Sarah Chatto
    The Lady Sarah Frances Elizabeth Chatto, née Armstrong-Jones , is the only daughter of the 1st Earl of Snowdon and Princess Margaret, Countess of Snowdon, the second daughter of King George VI and Queen Elizabeth. She is 17th in line of succession to the thrones of each of the Commonwealth Realms;...

     and Daniel Chatto
    Daniel Chatto
    Daniel St. George Chatto born Daniel Chatto St. George Sproule, is a British artist and former actor. He is best known as the husband of Lady Sarah Armstrong-Jones, who is the only daughter of Princess Margaret, Countess of Snowdon and the only niece of Queen Elizabeth II .-Biography:His parents...

     Esq (Princess Margaret's daughter and her husband)
    • Master Samuel Chatto and Master Arthur Chatto (Lady Sarah's children)
  • Earl
    Alexander Windsor, Earl of Ulster
    Alexander Patrick Gregers Richard Windsor, Earl of Ulster is the only son of the Duke and Duchess of Gloucester. As the eldest son and heir of the Duke of Gloucester, he is accorded the title Earl of Ulster...

     and Countess of Ulster
    Claire Windsor, Countess of Ulster
    -Notes:* -External links:* *...

     (The Duke of Gloucester's son and his wife)
    • Lord Culloden
      Xan Windsor, Lord Culloden
      Xan Richard Anders Windsor, Lord Culloden is the elder child of Earl and Countess of Ulster.His father being the only son of the Duke and Duchess of Gloucester, Lord Culloden is second in line to the Dukedom of Gloucester, and 22nd in line to the British Throne...

       and The Lady Cosima Windsor
      Lady Cosima Windsor
      Lady Cosima Rose Alexandra Windsor is the daughter of the Earl and Countess of Ulster.Her father is the only son of the Duke and Duchess of Gloucester and she is in the line to the British Throne. She is the second of the four grandchildren of the Duke and Duchess of Gloucester and their first...

       (Lord Ulster's children)
  • The Lady Davina Lewis
    Lady Davina Lewis
    The Lady Davina Lewis is the elder daughter of Prince Richard, Duke of Gloucester and the Duchess of Gloucester, and is in the line of succession to the British Throne....

     and Mr Gary Lewis (The Duke of Gloucester's elder daughter and her husband)
    • Miss Senna Lewis (Lady Davina's daughter)
  • The Lady Rose Gilman and George Gilman Esq (The Duke of Gloucester's younger daughter and her husband)
    • Miss Lyla Gilman (Lady Rose's daughter)
  • Earl
    George Windsor, Earl of St Andrews
    George Windsor, Earl of St Andrews is the son of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and his wife, Katharine, Duchess of Kent...

     and Countess of St Andrews
    Sylvana Windsor, Countess of St Andrews
    Sylvana Palma Windsor, Countess of St Andrews , is the wife of George Windsor, Earl of St Andrews, the eldest son and heir of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent. Lady St Andrews was born in Placentia, Newfoundland and Labrador, the daughter of Maximilian Karl Tomaselli, formerly of Salzburg, and Josiane...

     (The Duke of Kent's elder son and his wife)
    • Lord Downpatrick, The Lady Marina-Charlotte Windsor
      Lady Marina-Charlotte Windsor
      The Lady Marina Charlotte Windsor is the elder daughter of George Windsor, Earl of St Andrews and Sylvana Windsor, Countess of St Andrews. She was born at the Rosie Hospital in Cambridge and named for her great-grandmother, Princess Marina, Duchess of Kent...

       and The Lady Amelia Windsor (Lord St Andrews' children)
  • The Lord
    Lord Nicholas Windsor
    The Lord Nicholas Windsor is the youngest child of the Duke and Duchess of Kent, a great-grandson of King George V of the United Kingdom, and a first cousin once removed of Queen Elizabeth II....

     and the Lady Nicholas Windsor
    Lady Nicholas Windsor
    Lady Nicholas Windsor is the wife of Lord Nicholas Windsor, son of the Duke and Duchess of Kent.-Family History:...

     (The Duke of Kent's younger son and his wife)
    • Albert Windsor Esq and Leopold Windsor Esq (Lord Nicholas' children)
  • The Lady Helen Taylor
    Lady Helen Taylor
    The Lady Helen Taylor A first cousin once removed of Queen Elizabeth II, she is a great-granddaughter of King George V of the United Kingdom and is in the line of succession to the British throne....

     and Timothy Taylor Esq (The Duke of Kent's daughter and her husband)
    • Master Columbus Taylor, Master Cassius Taylor, Miss Eloise Taylor and Miss Estella Taylor (Lady Helen's children)
  • The Lord
    Lord Frederick Windsor
    The Lord Frederick Windsor , popularly known as Lord Freddie, is a British financial analyst, and the only son of Prince and Princess Michael of Kent...

     and the Lady Frederick Windsor (Prince Michael of Kent's son and his wife, known as Sophie Winkleman
    Sophie Winkleman
    Sophie Lara Winkleman is an English actress who has worked extensively in television, film and stage. On 14 February 2009, she became engaged to Lord Frederick Windsor, the son of Prince Michael and Princess Michael of Kent. They married in Hampton Court on 12 September 2009...

    )
  • The Lady Gabriella Windsor
    Lady Gabriella Windsor
    The Lady Gabriella Marina Alexandra Ophelia Windsor , known both professionally and personally as Ella Windsor, is an English freelance feature writer, and the only daughter of Prince and Princess Michael of Kent .Her paternal great grandparents were King George V of the United Kingdom and Mary of...

     (Prince Michael of Kent's daughter)
  • Mr
    James Ogilvy
    James Robert Bruce Ogilvy is the elder child and only son of the late Sir Angus Ogilvy and Princess Alexandra of Kent. He was born in Thatched House Lodge, Richmond Park, Surrey and was the first of four babies born to royals in 1964. When he was born he was 13th in the line of succession to the...

     and Mrs James Ogilvy
    Julia Ogilvy
    Julia Caroline Ogilvy is a member of the extended British Royal Family. She is the wife of James Ogilvy, the only son of Sir Angus Ogilvy and Princess Alexandra, The Honourable Lady Ogilvy, who is a granddaughter of King George V.Julia was born in Cambridge, England...

     (Princess Alexandra's son, and his wife)
    • Master Alexander Ogilvy and Miss Flora Ogilvy (James Ogilvy's children)
  • Mrs Marina Ogilvy (Princess Alexandra's daughter)
    • Miss Zenouska Mowatt and Christian Mowatt Esq (Marina Ogilvy's children)


The following persons are descendants (or widows) of the younger children of Queen Victoria, Edward VII
Edward VII of the United Kingdom
Edward VII was King of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions and Emperor of India from 22 January 1901 until his death in 1910...

 and George V:
  • The Rt Hon The Dowager Countess of Harewood
    Patricia Lascelles, Countess of Harewood
    Patricia "Bambi" Lascelles, Countess of Harewood is an Australian violinist and fashion model.-Life and career:Patricia Elizabeth Tuckwell was born in Melbourne, the daughter of Charles Tuckwell and his wife, Elizabeth and an older sister of Barry Tuckwell...

     (second wife and widow of the 7th Earl
    George Lascelles, 7th Earl of Harewood
    George Henry Hubert Lascelles, 7th Earl of Harewood, KBE AM , styled The Hon. George Lascelles before 1929 and Viscount Lascelles between 1929 and 1947, was the elder son of the 6th Earl of Harewood , and Princess Mary, Princess Royal, the only daughter of King George V of the United Kingdom and...

    , a grandson of George V through his daughter Mary, Princess Royal
    Mary, Princess Royal and Countess of Harewood
    The Princess Mary, Princess Royal and Countess of Harewood was a member of the British Royal Family; she was the third child and only daughter of King George V and Queen Mary. She was the sixth holder of the title of Princess Royal...

    )
    • The late Earl's children and grandchildren, including the 8th Earl
    • The children and grandchildren of his late brother, The Hon Gerald Lascelles
      Gerald Lascelles
      The Honourable Gerald David Lascelles was the younger son of the 6th Earl of Harewood and Mary, Princess Royal, the only daughter of King George V of the United Kingdom and Mary of Teck. He was the first cousin of Queen Elizabeth II. He was styled The Honourable Gerald Lascelles...

  • HG The Duke of Fife
    James Carnegie, 3rd Duke of Fife
    James George Alexander Bannerman Carnegie, 3rd Duke of Fife is a great grandson of King Edward VII of the United Kingdom and a member of the extended British Royal Family, in the line of succession to the British Throne...

     (female-line great-grandson of Edward VII)
    • The Duke's children and grandchildren
  • The Rt Hon The Lady Saltoun
    Flora Fraser, 21st Lady Saltoun
    Marjorie Flora Fraser, 21st Lady SaltounIt has recently been determined that Margaret Abernethy succeeded her brother, Alexander Abernethy, 9th Lord Saltoun in 1668, but only survived him by about 6 weeks and had not been counted in the title's numbering. This new information has resulted in the...

     (widow of Alexander Ramsay of Mar
    Alexander Ramsay of Mar
    Captain Alexander Arthur Alfonso David Maule Ramsay of Mar was the only child of HRH Princess Patricia of Connaught, who renounced her royal title and style when she married then-Captain the Hon. Alexander Ramsay in February 1919...

    , a female-line grandson of Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn
    Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn
    Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn was a member of the shared British and Saxe-Coburg and Gotha royal family who served as the Governor General of Canada, the 10th since Canadian Confederation.Born the seventh child and third son of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and...

    , himself the third son of Queen Victoria)
    • Ramsay's children and grandchildren
  • The Most Hon The Marquess of Milford Haven
    George Mountbatten, 4th Marquess of Milford Haven
    George Ivar Louis Mountbatten, 4th Marquess of Milford Haven , styled Earl of Medina before 1970, is a British businessman, peer, and current Head of the House of Mountbatten.-Family:...

     (great-great-grandson of HRH The Princess Alice
    Princess Alice of the United Kingdom
    The Princess Alice was a member of the British royal family, the third child and second daughter of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha.Alice's education was devised by Albert's close friend and adviser, Baron Stockmar...

    , Grand Duchess of Hesse and by Rhine, 2nd daughter of HM Queen Victoria) and his family
  • The Rt Hon The Countess Mountbatten of Burma
    Patricia Knatchbull, 2nd Countess Mountbatten of Burma
    Patricia Edwina Victoria Knatchbull, 2nd Countess Mountbatten of Burma, is a British peeress and former lady-in-waiting to her third cousin, Queen Elizabeth II. She was the elder daughter of Louis Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma and his wife, the heiress Edwina Ashley, a patrilineal...

     (Lord Milford Haven's first cousin once-removed) and her family


The late Earl of Harewood was a female-line first cousin of the Queen. The Duke of Fife, the Marquess of Milford Haven, the Countess Mountbatten of Burma, and the Lady Saltoun, and their respective families, as well as the late Lord Harewood's descendants, are so distant from the reigning Sovereign that they are relatives of, rather than members of, the Royal Family.

None of these persons receive any money from the State or undertake official engagements on behalf of the Queen. However, the Queen does invite them to private family functions and to participate in official royal occasions, such as the Trooping the Colour
Trooping the Colour
Trooping the Colour is a ceremony performed by regiments of the British and the Commonwealth armies. It has been a tradition of British infantry regiments since the 17th century, although the roots go back much earlier. On battlefields, a regiment's colours, or flags, were used as rallying points...

, the Golden Jubilee
Golden Jubilee
A Golden Jubilee is a celebration held to mark a 50th anniversary.- In Thailand :King Bhumibol Adulyadej, the world's longest-reigning monarch, celebrated his Golden Jubilee on 9 June 1996.- In the Commonwealth Realms :...

 celebrations, and ceremonial or state funerals.

There are three living former spouses of members of the British Royal Family:
  • Sarah, Duchess of York
    Sarah, Duchess of York
    Sarah, Duchess of York is a British charity patron, spokesperson, writer, film producer, television personality and former member of the British Royal Family. She is the former wife of Prince Andrew, Duke of York, whom she married from 1986 to 1996...

     (former wife of HRH The Duke of York
    Prince Andrew, Duke of York
    Prince Andrew, Duke of York KG GCVO , is the second son, and third child of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh...

     and the mother of HRH Princess Beatrice
    Princess Beatrice of York
    Princess Beatrice of York is the elder daughter of Prince Andrew, Duke of York, and Sarah, Duchess of York...

     and HRH Princess Eugenie
    Princess Eugenie of York
    Princess Eugenie of York Eugenie Victoria Helena; born 23 March 1990) is the younger daughter of Prince Andrew, Duke of York, and Sarah, Duchess of York...

    )
  • Capt Mark Phillips
    Mark Phillips
    -Ancestry:-Issue:-Sources:...

     (the first husband of The Princess Royal)
  • The Rt Hon The Earl of Snowdon
    Antony Armstrong-Jones, 1st Earl of Snowdon
    Antony Charles Robert Armstrong-Jones, 1st Earl of Snowdon, GCVO, RDI is an English photographer and film maker. He was married to Princess Margaret, younger daughter of King George VI and younger sister of Queen Elizabeth II....

     (the former husband of the late Princess Margaret)


Recently deceased members of the Royal Family include:
  • HM Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother (widow of HM King George VI
    George VI of the United Kingdom
    George VI was King of the United Kingdom and the Dominions of the British Commonwealth from 11 December 1936 until his death...

     and mother of HM The Queen)
  • HRH The Princess Margaret, Countess of Snowdon
    Princess Margaret, Countess of Snowdon
    Princess Margaret, Countess of Snowdon was the younger sister of Queen Elizabeth II and the younger daughter of King George VI....

     (sister of HM The Queen)
  • HRH Princess Alice, Duchess of Gloucester
    Princess Alice, Duchess of Gloucester
    Princess Alice, Duchess of Gloucester was a member of the British Royal Family, the wife and then widow of Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester, the third son of George V and Queen Mary.The daughter of the 7th Duke of Buccleuch & Queensberry, Scotland’s largest landowner, her brothers Walter and...

     (widow of HRH The Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester
    Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester
    The Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester was a soldier and member of the British Royal Family, the third son of George V of the United Kingdom and Queen Mary....

    , and mother to the present Duke of Gloucester)
  • Diana, Princess of Wales
    Diana, Princess of Wales
    Diana, Princess of Wales was the first wife of Charles, Prince of Wales, whom she married on 29 July 1981, and an international charity and fundraising figure, as well as a preeminent celebrity of the late 20th century...

     (first wife of HRH The Prince of Wales
    Charles, Prince of Wales
    Prince Charles, Prince of Wales is the heir apparent and eldest son of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. Since 1958 his major title has been His Royal Highness The Prince of Wales. In Scotland he is additionally known as The Duke of Rothesay...

     and the mother of HRH The Duke of Cambridge and HRH Prince Harry
    Prince Harry of Wales
    Prince Henry of Wales , commonly known as Prince Harry, is the younger son of Charles, Prince of Wales and the late Diana, Princess of Wales, and fourth grandchild of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh...

    ).


The Rt Hon Sir Angus Ogilvy
Angus Ogilvy
Sir Angus James Bruce Ogilvy, was a British businessman best known as the husband of Princess Alexandra of Kent, a first cousin of Queen Elizabeth II....

, who died in 2004, was the husband of Princess Alexandra, The Hon Lady Ogilvy and a first-cousin-in law of HM The Queen. He supported his wife in her Royal duties and sometimes accompanied the Princess during her Royal tours abroad. As a husband of a princess of the blood royal, he was listed as an immediate member of the Royal Family in the same way as it is today with The Princess Royal's current husband, Sir Timothy Laurence
Timothy Laurence
Vice Admiral Sir Timothy James Hamilton Laurence, KCVO, CB, ADC is a senior British naval officer and the second husband of HRH The Princess Royal, the only daughter of HM The Queen...

.

The Prince of Wales
Charles, Prince of Wales
Prince Charles, Prince of Wales is the heir apparent and eldest son of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. Since 1958 his major title has been His Royal Highness The Prince of Wales. In Scotland he is additionally known as The Duke of Rothesay...

' first wife, Diana, Princess of Wales
Diana, Princess of Wales
Diana, Princess of Wales was the first wife of Charles, Prince of Wales, whom she married on 29 July 1981, and an international charity and fundraising figure, as well as a preeminent celebrity of the late 20th century...

, died in a car crash in 1997. They had divorced in 1996. She lost the HRH title but was allowed the style "Diana, Princess of Wales
Princess of Wales
Princess of Wales is a British courtesy title held by the wife of The Prince of Wales since the first "English" Prince of Wales in 1283.Although there have been considerably more than ten male heirs to the throne, there have been only ten Princesses of Wales. The majority of Princes of Wales...

" and remained a member of the Royal Family to reflect the fact she was the mother of the second and third in line to the throne, HRH The Duke of Cambridge (Prince William) and HRH Prince Harry
Prince Harry of Wales
Prince Henry of Wales , commonly known as Prince Harry, is the younger son of Charles, Prince of Wales and the late Diana, Princess of Wales, and fourth grandchild of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh...

.

Family tree of members




Notes

Members of the British Royal Family since 1714

  • HM King George I
    George I of Great Britain
    George I was King of Great Britain and Ireland from 1 August 1714 until his death, and ruler of the Duchy and Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg in the Holy Roman Empire from 1698....

     (1660-1727)
    • HM King George II
      George II of Great Britain
      George II was King of Great Britain and Ireland, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and Archtreasurer and Prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire from 11 June 1727 until his death.George was the last British monarch born outside Great Britain. He was born and brought up in Northern Germany...

       (1683-1760)
      • HRH The Prince Frederick, Prince of Wales
        Frederick, Prince of Wales
        Frederick, Prince of Wales was a member of the House of Hanover and therefore of the Hanoverian and later British Royal Family, the eldest son of George II and father of George III, as well as the great-grandfather of Queen Victoria...

         (1707-1751)
        • HM King George III
          George III of the United Kingdom
          George III was King of Great Britain and King of Ireland from 25 October 1760 until the union of these two countries on 1 January 1801, after which he was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until his death...

           (1738-1820)
          • HM King George IV
            George IV of the United Kingdom
            George IV was the King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and also of Hanover from the death of his father, George III, on 29 January 1820 until his own death ten years later...

             (1762-1830)
            • HRH Princess Charlotte of Wales, Princess Leopold of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, Duchess in Saxony (1796-1817)
          • HRH The Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany
            Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany
            The Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany was a member of the Hanoverian and British Royal Family, the second eldest child, and second son, of King George III...

             (1763-1827)
          • HM King William IV
            William IV of the United Kingdom
            William IV was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and of Hanover from 26 June 1830 until his death...

             (1765-1837)
            • HRH Princess Charlotte of Clarence (1819)
            • HRH Princess Elizabeth of Clarence (1820-1821)
          • HRH The Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn (1767-1820)
            • HM Queen Victoria (1819-1901)
              • HRH King Edward VII (1841-1910)
                • HRH Prince Albert Victor of Wales, Duke of Clarence and Avondale (1864-1892)
                • HM King George V
                  George V
                  George V was king of the United Kingdom and its dominions from 1910 to 1936.George V or similar terms may also refer to:-People:* George V of Georgia * George V of Imereti * George V of Hanover...

                   (1865-1936)
                  • HM King Edward VIII (1894-1972)
                  • HM King George VI (1895-1952)
                    • HM The Queen (1926-)
                      • HRH The Prince of Wales
                        Charles, Prince of Wales
                        Prince Charles, Prince of Wales is the heir apparent and eldest son of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. Since 1958 his major title has been His Royal Highness The Prince of Wales. In Scotland he is additionally known as The Duke of Rothesay...

                         (1948-)
                        • HRH The Duke of Cambridge (1982-)
                        • HRH Prince Henry of Wales
                          Prince Harry of Wales
                          Prince Henry of Wales , commonly known as Prince Harry, is the younger son of Charles, Prince of Wales and the late Diana, Princess of Wales, and fourth grandchild of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh...

                           (1984-)
                      • HRH The Duke of York
                        Prince Andrew, Duke of York
                        Prince Andrew, Duke of York KG GCVO , is the second son, and third child of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh...

                         (1960-)
                        • HRH Princess Beatrice of York
                          Princess Beatrice of York
                          Princess Beatrice of York is the elder daughter of Prince Andrew, Duke of York, and Sarah, Duchess of York...

                           (1988-)
                        • HRH Princess Eugenie of York
                          Princess Eugenie of York
                          Princess Eugenie of York Eugenie Victoria Helena; born 23 March 1990) is the younger daughter of Prince Andrew, Duke of York, and Sarah, Duchess of York...

                           (1990-)
                      • HRH The Earl of Wessex
                        Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex
                        Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex KG GCVO is the third son and fourth child of Elizabeth II and The Duke of Edinburgh...

                         (1964-)
                        • Viscount Severn
                          James, Viscount Severn
                          James, Viscount Severn is the second child and only son of Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex, and Sophie, Countess of Wessex, and the youngest grandchild of Elizabeth II and the Duke of Edinburgh...

                           (2007-)
                        • The Lady Louise Windsor
                          Lady Louise Windsor
                          The Lady Louise Windsor is the elder child of Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex, and Sophie, Countess of Wessex. She is the youngest granddaughter and second-youngest grandchild of Elizabeth II and the Duke of Edinburgh...

                           (2003-)
                      • HRH The Princess Royal
                        Anne, Princess Royal
                        Princess Anne, Princess Royal , is the only daughter of Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh...

                         (1950-)
                    • HRH Princess Margaret, Countess of Snowdon
                      Princess Margaret, Countess of Snowdon
                      Princess Margaret, Countess of Snowdon was the younger sister of Queen Elizabeth II and the younger daughter of King George VI....

                       (1930-2002)
                  • HRH The Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester
                    Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester
                    The Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester was a soldier and member of the British Royal Family, the third son of George V of the United Kingdom and Queen Mary....

                     (1900-1974)
                    • HRH Prince William of Gloucester
                      Prince William of Gloucester
                      Prince William of Gloucester was a member of the British Royal Family, a grandson of George V.-Early life:...

                       (1941-1972)
                    • HRH The Duke of Gloucester
                      Prince Richard, Duke of Gloucester
                      Prince Richard, Duke of Gloucester is a member of the British Royal Family. Prince Richard is the youngest grandchild of King George V and Queen Mary. He has been Duke of Gloucester since his father's death in 1974. He is currently 20th in the line of succession...

                       (1944-)
                  • HRH The Prince George, Duke of Kent
                    Prince George, Duke of Kent
                    Prince George, Duke of Kent was a member of the British Royal Family, the fourth son of George V and Mary of Teck, and younger brother of Edward VIII and George VI...

                     (1902-1942)
                    • HRH The Duke of Kent
                      Prince Edward, Duke of Kent
                      The Duke of Kent graduated from the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst on 29 July 1955 as a Second Lieutenant in the Royal Scots Greys, the beginning of a military career that would last over 20 years. He was promoted to captain on 29 July 1961. The Duke of Kent saw service in Hong Kong from 1962–63...

                       (1935-)
                    • HRH Prince Michael of Kent
                      Prince Michael of Kent
                      Prince Michael of Kent is a grandson of King George V and Queen Mary, making him a cousin of Queen Elizabeth II. He is also the first cousin once removed of Prince Phillip. Prince Michael occasionally carries out royal duties representing the Queen at some functions in Commonwealth realms outside...

                       (1942-)
                    • HRH Princess Alexandra of Kent, The Hon Lady Ogilvy
                      Princess Alexandra, The Honourable Lady Ogilvy
                      Princess Alexandra, The Honourable Lady Ogilvy is the youngest granddaughter of King George V of the United Kingdom and Mary of Teck. She is the widow of Sir Angus Ogilvy...

                       (1936-)
                  • HRH The Prince John
                    Prince John of the United Kingdom
                    The Prince John was a member of the British Royal Family, the youngest son of King George V and Queen Mary. The Prince had epilepsy and consequently was largely hidden from the public eye.-Early life:...

                     (1905-1919)
                  • HRH The Princess Mary, Princess Royal, Countess of Harewood
                    Mary, Princess Royal and Countess of Harewood
                    The Princess Mary, Princess Royal and Countess of Harewood was a member of the British Royal Family; she was the third child and only daughter of King George V and Queen Mary. She was the sixth holder of the title of Princess Royal...

                     (1897-1965)
                • HRH Prince Alexander John of Wales
                  Prince Alexander John of Wales
                  Prince Alexander John Charles Albert of Wales was the youngest son and sixth child of Prince Albert Edward, Prince of Wales and his wife Princess Alexandra, Princess of Wales and grandson of Queen Victoria and Christian IX of Denmark.-Life:Prince Alexander John Charles Albert of Wales was born...

                   (1871)
                • HRH The Princess Louise, Princess Royal, Duchess of Fife
                  Louise, Princess Royal and Duchess of Fife
                  The Princess Louise, Princess Royal and Duchess of Fife was the third child and the eldest daughter of King Edward VII and Alexandra of Denmark...

                   (1867-1931)
                • HRH The Princess Victoria (1868-1935)
                • HM The Princess Maud, Queen of Norway
                  Maud of Wales
                  Princess Maud of Wales was Queen of Norway as spouse of King Haakon VII. She was a member of the British Royal Family as the youngest daughter of Edward VII and Alexandra of Denmark and granddaughter of Queen Victoria and also of Christian IX of Denmark. She was the younger sister of George V...

                   (1869-1938)
              • HRH The Prince Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
                Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
                Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha was the third Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, and reigned from 1893 to 1900. He was also a member of the British Royal Family, the second son and fourth child of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha...

                 (1844-1900)
                • HRH Prince Alfred of Edinburgh, Hereditary Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (1874-1899)
                • HM Princess Marie of Edinburgh and Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, Queen of Romania
                  Marie of Romania
                  Marie of Romania was Queen consort of Romania from 1914 to 1927, as the wife of Ferdinand I of Romania.-Early life:...

                   (1875-1938)
                • HIH Princess Victoria of Edinburgh and Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, Grand Duchess of Hesse and by Rhine, Grand Duchess Viktoria Feodorovna of Russia (1876-1936)
                • HRH Princess Alexandra of Edinburgh and Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, Princess of Hohenlohe-Langenburg (1878-1942)
                • HRH Princess Beatrice of Edinburgh and Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, Duchess of Galliera (1884-1966)
              • HRH The Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn
                Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn
                Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn was a member of the shared British and Saxe-Coburg and Gotha royal family who served as the Governor General of Canada, the 10th since Canadian Confederation.Born the seventh child and third son of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and...

                 (1850-1942)
                • HRH Prince Arthur of Connaught
                  Prince Arthur of Connaught
                  Prince Arthur of Connaught and Strathearn was a member of the British Royal Family, a grandson of Queen Victoria. Prince Arthur held the title of a British prince with the style His Royal Highness...

                   (1883-1938)
                  • HH Prince Alastair of Connaught (1914-1943)
                • HRH Princess Margaret of Connaught, Crown Princess of Sweden
                  Princess Margaret of Connaught
                  Princess Margaret of Connaught was the daughter of Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught, third son of Queen Victoria, and his wife, Princess Luise Margarete of Prussia...

                   (1882-1920)
                • HRH Princess Patricia of Connaught, Lady Patricia Ramsay
                  Princess Patricia of Connaught
                  Princess Patricia of Connaught was a member of the British Royal Family, a granddaughter of Queen Victoria...

                   (1886-1974)
              • HRH The Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany
                Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany
                The Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany was the eighth child and fourth son of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. Leopold was later created Duke of Albany, Earl of Clarence, and Baron Arklow...

                 (1853-1884)
                • HRH Prince Charles Edward, Duke of Albany, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
                  Charles Edward, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
                  Charles Edward, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha was the fourth and last reigning Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, two duchies in Germany , and the head of the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha from 1900 until his death in 1954...

                   (1884-1953)
                  • HH Prince John Leopold of Albany, Hereditary Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
                    Johann Leopold, Hereditary Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
                    Johann Leopold, Hereditary Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha was the eldest son of Charles Edward, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha and Princess Victoria Adelaide of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg...

                     (1906-1972)
                  • HH Prince Hubert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha and Albany
                    Prince Hubertus of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (1909–1943)
                    Prince Hubertus of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha was a member of the House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, the second eldest son of Charles Edward, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha and his wife, Princess Victoria Adelaide of Schleswig-Holstein....

                     (1909-1943)
                  • HH Princess Sibylla of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha and Albany
                    Princess Sibylla of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
                    Princess Sibylla of Sweden, Duchess of Västerbotten , was the wife of Prince Gustav Adolf, Duke of Västerbotten, and is the mother of the current King of Sweden, Carl XVI Gustaf.-Early life:She was the daughter of Charles Edward,...

                     (1908-1972)
                  • HH Princess Caroline Matilda of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha and Albany
                    Princess Caroline Mathilde of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
                    Princess Caroline Matilda of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha -Early life:...

                     (1912-1983)
                • HRH Princess Alice of Albany, Countess of Athlone
                  Princess Alice, Countess of Athlone
                  Princess Alice, Countess of Athlone was a member of the British Royal Family. She was the longest-lived Princess of the Blood Royal of the British Royal Family and the last surviving grandchild of Queen Victoria...

                   (1883-1981)
              • HI&RM The Princess Victoria, Princess Royal, German Empress, Queen of Prussia
                Victoria, Princess Royal
                The Princess Victoria, Princess Royal was the eldest child of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom and Prince Albert. She was created Princess Royal of the United Kingdom in 1841. She became German Empress and Queen of Prussia by marriage to German Emperor Frederick III...

                 (1840-1901)
              • HRH The Princess Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse and by Rhine
                Princess Alice of the United Kingdom
                The Princess Alice was a member of the British royal family, the third child and second daughter of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha.Alice's education was devised by Albert's close friend and adviser, Baron Stockmar...

                 (1843-1878)
              • HRH The Princess Helena, Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein
                Princess Helena of the United Kingdom
                Princess Helena was a member of the British Royal Family, the third daughter and fifth child of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert....

                 (1846-1923)
              • HRH The Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll
                Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll
                The Princess Louise was a member of the British Royal Family, the sixth child and fourth daughter of Queen Victoria and her husband, Albert, Prince Consort.Louise's early life was spent moving between the various royal residences in the...

                 (1848-1939)
              • HRH The Princess Beatrice, Princess Henry of Battenberg
                Princess Beatrice of the United Kingdom
                The Princess Beatrice was a member of the British Royal Family. She was the fifth daughter and youngest child of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert. Juan Carlos, King of Spain, is her great-grandson...

                 (1857-1944)
          • HM The Prince Ernest Augustus, Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale, King Ernst August I of Hanover
            Ernest Augustus I of Hanover
            Ernest Augustus I was King of Hanover from 20 June 1837 until his death. He was the fifth son and eighth child of George III, who reigned in both the United Kingdom and Hanover...

             (1771-1851)
            • HM Prince George, Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale, King Georg V of Hanover
              George V of Hanover
              George V was King of Hanover, the only child of Ernest Augustus I, and a grandchild of King George III of the United Kingdom. In the peerage of Great Britain, he was 2nd Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale, 2nd Earl of Armagh...

               (1819-1878)
              • HRH Prince Ernest Augustus, Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale, Crown Prince of Hanover (1845-1923)
                • HRH Prince George William of Hanover and Cumberland (1880-1912)
                • HRH Prince Christian of Hanover and Cumberland (1885-1901)
                • HRH Prince Ernest Augustus of Hanover and Cumberland, Duke of Brunswick (1887-1953)
                  • HRH Prince Ernest Augustus of Hanover and Cumberland, Hereditary Prince of Brunswick (1914-1987)
                  • HRH Prince George William of Hanover and Cumberland (1915-2006)
                  • HRH Princess Frederica of Hanover and Cumberland (1917-1981)
                • HRH Princess Marie Louise of Hanover and Cumberland, Princess Maximilian of Baden (1879-1948)
                • HRH Princess Alexandra of Hanover and Cumberland, Grand Duchess of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (1882-1963)
                • HRH Princess Olga of Hanover and Cumberland (1884-1958)
              • HRH Princess Frederica of Hanover and Cumberland, Baroness von Pawel-Rammingen
                Princess Frederica of Hanover
                Princess Frederica of Hanover, was a member of the House of Hanover. After her marriage, she lived mostly in England, where she was a prominent member of Society.-Early life:...

                 (1848-1926)
              • HRH Princess Marie of Hanover and Cumberland
                Princess Marie of Hanover
                Princess Marie of Hanover was the younger daughter of King George V of Hanover and of his wife, Princess Marie of Saxe-Altenburg.-Biography:...

                 (1849-1904)
          • HRH The Prince Augustus Frederick, Duke of Sussex
            Prince Augustus Frederick, Duke of Sussex
            The Prince Augustus Frederick, Duke of Sussex , was the sixth son of George III of the United Kingdom and his consort, Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. He was the only surviving son of George III who did not pursue an army or naval career.- Early life :His Royal Highness The Prince Augustus...

             (1773-1843)
          • HRH The Prince Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge
            Prince Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge
            The Prince Adolphus, 1st Duke of Cambridge , was the tenth child and seventh son of George III and Queen Charlotte. He held the title of Duke of Cambridge from 1801 until his death. He also served as Viceroy of Hanover on behalf of his brothers George IV and William IV...

             (1774-1850)
            • HRH Prince George, Duke of Cambridge
              Prince George, Duke of Cambridge
              Prince George, Duke of Cambridge was a member of the British Royal Family, a male-line grandson of King George III. The Duke was an army officer and served as commander-in-chief of the British Army from 1856 to 1895...

               (1819-1904)
            • HRH Princess Augusta of Cambridge, Grand Duchess of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (1822-1916)
            • HRH Princess Mary Adelaide of Cambridge, Duchess of Teck
              Princess Mary Adelaide of Cambridge
              Princess Mary Adelaide Wilhelmina Elizabeth of Cambridge was a member of the British Royal Family, a granddaughter of George III, and great-grandmother of Elizabeth II. She held the title of Duchess of Teck through marriage.Mary Adelaide is remembered as the mother of Queen Mary, the consort of...

               (1833-1897)
          • HRH The Prince Octavius
            Prince Octavius of Great Britain
            The Prince Octavius was a member of the British Royal Family as the thirteenth child and eighth son of King George III and his queen consort Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. Six months after the death of his brother Prince Alfred, Octavius was inoculated from the smallpox virus. Several days...

             (1779-1783)
          • HRH The Prince Alfred
            Prince Alfred of Great Britain
            The Prince Alfred was a member of the British Royal Family as the fourteenth child and ninth son of King George III and his queen consort Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz...

             (1780-1782)
          • HM The Princess Charlotte, Princess Royal, Queen of Württemberg
            Charlotte, Princess Royal
            The Princess Charlotte, Princess Royal was a member of the British Royal Family, the eldest daughter of George III. She was later the Queen Consort of Frederick of Württemberg...

             (1766-1828)
          • HRH The Princess Augusta Sophia
            Princess Augusta Sophia of the United Kingdom
            The Princess Augusta Sophia was a member of the British Royal Family, second daughter of George III and Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. She was a Princess of the United Kingdom and a Princess of Hanover....

             (1768-1840)
          • HRH The Princess Elizabeth, Landgravine of Hesse-Homburg
            Princess Elizabeth of the United Kingdom
            The Princess Elizabeth was a member of the British Royal Family, the seventh child and third daughter of King George III and Queen Charlotte...

             (1770-1840)
          • HRH The Princess Mary, Duchess of Gloucester and Edinburgh
            Princess Mary, Duchess of Gloucester and Edinburgh
            The Princess Mary, Duchess of Gloucester and Edinburgh was a member of the British Royal Family, the eleventh child and fourth daughter of George III....

             (1776-1857)
          • HRH The Princess Sophia
            Princess Sophia of the United Kingdom
            The Princess Sophia was a member of the British Royal Family, the twelfth child and fifth daughter of King George III and Queen Charlotte...

             (1777-1848)
          • HRH The Princess Amelia
            Princess Amelia of the United Kingdom
            Princess Amelia of the United Kingdom was a member of the British Royal Family as the youngest daughter of King George III of the United Kingdom and his queen consort Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz.-Early life:...

             (1783-1810)
        • HRH Prince Edward, Duke of York and Albany (1739-1767)
        • HRH Prince William Henry, Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh
          Prince William Henry, Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh
          Prince William, Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh was a member of the British Royal Family, a grandson of George II and a younger brother of George III.-Early life:...

           (1743-1805)
          • HRH Prince William Frederick, Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh
            Prince William Frederick, Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh
            Prince William, Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh was a member of the British Royal Family, a great-grandson of George II and nephew of George III.-Early life:...

             (1776-1834)
          • HRH Princess Sophia of Gloucester
            Princess Sophia of Gloucester
            Princess Sophia of Gloucester was a member of the British Royal Family, a great granddaughter of George II and niece of George III.-Early life:...

             (1773-1844)
          • HH Princess Caroline of Gloucester (1774-1775)
        • HRH Prince Henry, Duke of Cumberland and Strathearn (1745-1790)
        • HRH Prince Frederick (1750-1765)
        • HRH Princess Augusta, Duchess of Brunswick (1737-1813)
        • HRH Princess Elizabeth (1740-1759)
        • HRH Princess Louisa (1749-1768)
        • HM Princess Caroline Matilda, Queen of Denmark and Norway (1751-1775)
      • HRH Prince George William (1717-1718)
      • HRH The Prince William, Duke of Cumberland (1721-1765)
      • HRH The Princess Anne, Princess Royal, Princess of Orange
        Anne, Princess Royal and Princess of Orange
        Anne, Princess Royal and Princess of Orange was the second child and eldest daughter of King George II of Great Britain and his consort, Caroline of Ansbach. She was the spouse of William IV, Prince of Orange, the first hereditary stadtholder of the Netherlands...

         (1709-1759)
      • HRH The Princess Amelia (1711-1786)
      • HRH The Princess Caroline (1713-1757)
      • HRH The Princess Mary, Landgravine of Hesse-Kassel
        Princess Mary of Great Britain
        The Princess Mary was a member of the British Royal Family, a daughter of George II and Caroline of Ansbach.-Early life:...

         (1723-1772)
      • HM The Princess Louise, Queen of Denmark and Norway
        Louise of Great Britain
        Louise of Great Britain was the youngest surviving daughter of George II of Great Britain and Caroline of Ansbach, and became queen consort of Denmark and Norway.-Early life:...

         (1724-1751)
    • HM The Princess Sophia Dorothea, Queen in Prussia
      Sophia Dorothea of Hanover
      Sophia Dorothea of Hanover was a Queen consort in Prussia as wife of Frederick William I. She was the sister of George II of Great Britain and the mother of Frederick the Great.- Biography :...

       (1687-1757)

Public role and image

Members of the Royal Family participate in hundreds of public engagements yearly throughout the whole of the United Kingdom, as formally recorded in the Court Circular
Court Circular
The Court Circular is the official record that lists the engagements carried out by the Monarch of the United Kingdom and of the other Commonwealth Realms; the Royal Family; and appointments to their staff and to the court. It is issued by Buckingham Palace and printed a day in arrears at the back...

, to honour, encourage and learn about the achievements or endeavours of individuals, institutions and enterprises in a variety of areas of life. As representatives of HM The Queen, they often also join the nation in commemorating historical events, holidays, celebratory and tragic occurrences, and may also sponsor or participate in numerous charitable, cultural and social activities. Their travels abroad on behalf of the UK (called State Visit
State visit
A state visit is a formal visit by a foreign head of state to another nation, at the invitation of that nation's head of state. State visits are the highest form of diplomatic contact between two nations, and are marked by ceremonial pomp and diplomatic protocol. In parliamentary democracies, heads...

s when the sovereign officially meets with other heads of state) draw celebrity-like attention to amicable relations within and between the Commonwealth and other nations, to British goods and trade, and to Britain as a historical, vacation, and tourist destination. Their presence, activities and traditional roles constitute the apex of a modern "royal court
Noble court
The court of a monarch, or at some periods an important nobleman, is a term for the extended household and all those who regularly attended on the ruler or central figure...

," and provide a distinctly British and historical pageantry to ceremonies (e.g. Trooping the Colour
Trooping the Colour
Trooping the Colour is a ceremony performed by regiments of the British and the Commonwealth armies. It has been a tradition of British infantry regiments since the 17th century, although the roots go back much earlier. On battlefields, a regiment's colours, or flags, were used as rallying points...

) and flavour to public events (e.g. Garden Parties, Ascot). Throughout their lives they draw enormous media coverage in the form of photographic, written and televised commentary on their activities, family relationships, rites of passage
Rites of Passage
Rites of Passage is an African American History program sponsored by the Stamford, Connecticut US public schools. The program consists of an extra day of schooling on Saturday for 12 weeks, service projects, and a culminating educational trip to Gambia and Senegal. Gambia and Senegal are the...

, personalities, attire, behaviour, and public roles. Senior members of the Royal Family often drive themselves instead of having a driver.

In a lengthy interview conducted by PBS
Public Broadcasting Service
The Public Broadcasting Service is an American non-profit public broadcasting television network with 354 member TV stations in the United States which hold collective ownership. Its headquarters is in Arlington, Virginia....

 prior to the death of Diana, Princess of Wales
Diana, Princess of Wales
Diana, Princess of Wales was the first wife of Charles, Prince of Wales, whom she married on 29 July 1981, and an international charity and fundraising figure, as well as a preeminent celebrity of the late 20th century...

 in August 1997, Max Hastings
Max Hastings
Sir Max Hugh Macdonald Hastings, FRSL is a British journalist, editor, historian and author. He is the son of Macdonald Hastings, the noted British journalist and war correspondent and Anne Scott-James, sometime editor of Harper's Bazaar.-Life and career:Hastings was educated at Charterhouse...

, editor of the Daily Telegraph between 1986 and 1995, discussed the impact of Andrew Morton
Andrew Morton (writer)
Andrew David Morton is a former British Fleet Street journalist, a notable writer and biographer.Before moving into a career in journalism, he attended grammar school, then studied history at the University of Sussex....

's and Jonathan Dimbleby
Jonathan Dimbleby
Jonathan Dimbleby is a British presenter of current affairs and political radio and television programmes, a political commentator and a writer. He is the son of Richard Dimbleby and younger brother of British TV presenter David Dimbleby.-Education:Dimbleby was educated at Charterhouse School, a...

's biographies of, respectively, Diana, Princess of Wales
Diana, Princess of Wales
Diana, Princess of Wales was the first wife of Charles, Prince of Wales, whom she married on 29 July 1981, and an international charity and fundraising figure, as well as a preeminent celebrity of the late 20th century...

 and HRH The Prince of Wales
Charles, Prince of Wales
Prince Charles, Prince of Wales is the heir apparent and eldest son of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. Since 1958 his major title has been His Royal Highness The Prince of Wales. In Scotland he is additionally known as The Duke of Rothesay...

 on subsequent news coverage of the Royal Family in the UK.

Funding

Members of the Royal Family carry out public duties; these individuals receive an annual payment known as a Parliamentary Annuity, the funds being supplied to cover office costs.

These amounts are repaid by HM The Queen from her private funds.

Though always voluntarily subject to the Value Added Tax and other indirect taxes, HM The Queen agreed to pay taxes on income and capital gains from 1992, although the details of this arrangement are both voluntary and secret. At the same time it was announced that only HM The Queen and HRH The Duke of Edinburgh
Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh
Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh is the husband of Elizabeth II. He is the United Kingdom's longest-serving consort and the oldest serving spouse of a reigning British monarch....

 would receive civil list
Civil list
-United Kingdom:In the United Kingdom, the Civil List is the name given to the annual grant that covers some expenses associated with the Sovereign performing their official duties, including those for staff salaries, State Visits, public engagements, ceremonial functions and the upkeep of the...

 payments. Since 1993, HM The Queen's personal estate (e.g. shareholdings, personal jewellery, Sandringham House
Sandringham House
Sandringham House is a country house on of land near the village of Sandringham in Norfolk, England. The house is privately owned by the British Royal Family and is located on the royal Sandringham Estate, which lies within the Norfolk Coast Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty.-History and current...

 and Balmoral Castle
Balmoral Castle
Balmoral Castle is a large estate house in Royal Deeside, Aberdeenshire, Scotland. It is located near the village of Crathie, west of Ballater and east of Braemar. Balmoral has been one of the residences of the British Royal Family since 1852, when it was purchased by Queen Victoria and her...

) will be subject to Inheritance Tax, though bequests from Sovereign to Sovereign are exempt.

Royal styles and titles

The style His Majesty or Her Majesty (HM)
Majesty
Majesty is an English word derived ultimately from the Latin maiestas, meaning "greatness".- Origin :Originally, during the Roman republic, the word maiestas was the legal term for the supreme status and dignity of the state, to be respected above everything else...

 is enjoyed by a king, a queen regnant, a queen consort
Queen consort
A queen consort is the wife of a reigning king. A queen consort usually shares her husband's rank and holds the feminine equivalent of the king's monarchical titles. Historically, queens consort do not share the king regnant's political and military powers. Most queens in history were queens consort...

, and a queen dowager
Queen Dowager
A queen dowager or dowager queen is a title or status generally held by the widow of a deceased king. In the case of the widow of a deceased emperor, the title of empress dowager is used...

.
Use of the style His Royal Highness or Her Royal Highness (HRH)
Royal Highness
Royal Highness is a style ; plural Royal Highnesses...

 and the titular dignity of Prince or Princess are governed by Letters Patent issued by George V
George V of the United Kingdom
George V was King of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions, and Emperor of India, from 6 May 1910 through the First World War until his death in 1936....

 on 30 November 1917 and published in the London Gazette
London Gazette
The London Gazette is one of the official journals of record of the British government, and the most important among such official journals in the United Kingdom, in which certain statutory notices are required to be published...

 on 11 December 1917. These Letters Patent state that henceforth only the children of the Sovereign, the children of the sons of the Sovereign, and the eldest son of the eldest son of the Prince of Wales
Prince of Wales
Prince of Wales is a title traditionally granted to the heir apparent to the reigning monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the 15 other independent Commonwealth realms...

 would "have and at all times hold and enjoy the style, title or attribute of Royal Highness with their titular dignity of Prince or Princess prefixed to their respective Christian names or with their other titles of honour." They further state, "the grandchildren of the sons of any such Sovereign in the direct male line (save only the eldest living son of the eldest son of the Prince of Wales
Prince of Wales
Prince of Wales is a title traditionally granted to the heir apparent to the reigning monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the 15 other independent Commonwealth realms...

) shall have the style and title enjoyed by the children of Dukes."

Under these conventions, HM The Queen's children, the children of HRH The Prince of Wales
Charles, Prince of Wales
Prince Charles, Prince of Wales is the heir apparent and eldest son of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. Since 1958 his major title has been His Royal Highness The Prince of Wales. In Scotland he is additionally known as The Duke of Rothesay...

, HRH The Duke of York
Prince Andrew, Duke of York
Prince Andrew, Duke of York KG GCVO , is the second son, and third child of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh...

 and HRH The Earl of Wessex
Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex
Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex KG GCVO is the third son and fourth child of Elizabeth II and The Duke of Edinburgh...

 would all be titled Princes or Princesses and styled Royal Highness, as would be the eldest son of HRH The Duke of Cambridge. However, upon HRH The Earl of Wessex
Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex
Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex KG GCVO is the third son and fourth child of Elizabeth II and The Duke of Edinburgh...

's marriage in 1999, it was announced that his children would always be styled as an earl's children. The Duke of Gloucester
Prince Richard, Duke of Gloucester
Prince Richard, Duke of Gloucester is a member of the British Royal Family. Prince Richard is the youngest grandchild of King George V and Queen Mary. He has been Duke of Gloucester since his father's death in 1974. He is currently 20th in the line of succession...

, The Duke of Kent
Prince Edward, Duke of Kent
The Duke of Kent graduated from the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst on 29 July 1955 as a Second Lieutenant in the Royal Scots Greys, the beginning of a military career that would last over 20 years. He was promoted to captain on 29 July 1961. The Duke of Kent saw service in Hong Kong from 1962–63...

, Princess Alexandra, The Hon Lady Ogilvy
Princess Alexandra, The Honourable Lady Ogilvy
Princess Alexandra, The Honourable Lady Ogilvy is the youngest granddaughter of King George V of the United Kingdom and Mary of Teck. She is the widow of Sir Angus Ogilvy...

 and Prince Michael of Kent
Prince Michael of Kent
Prince Michael of Kent is a grandson of King George V and Queen Mary, making him a cousin of Queen Elizabeth II. He is also the first cousin once removed of Prince Phillip. Prince Michael occasionally carries out royal duties representing the Queen at some functions in Commonwealth realms outside...

 enjoy the titular dignity of Prince or Princess and the style Royal Highness as male-line grandchildren of HM King George V. However, none of their children (being merely great-grandchildren of a monarch) have royal titles. For example, the children of Prince Michael of Kent
Prince Michael of Kent
Prince Michael of Kent is a grandson of King George V and Queen Mary, making him a cousin of Queen Elizabeth II. He is also the first cousin once removed of Prince Phillip. Prince Michael occasionally carries out royal duties representing the Queen at some functions in Commonwealth realms outside...

 are known as Lord Frederick Windsor
Lord Frederick Windsor
The Lord Frederick Windsor , popularly known as Lord Freddie, is a British financial analyst, and the only son of Prince and Princess Michael of Kent...

 and Lady Gabriella Windsor
Lady Gabriella Windsor
The Lady Gabriella Marina Alexandra Ophelia Windsor , known both professionally and personally as Ella Windsor, is an English freelance feature writer, and the only daughter of Prince and Princess Michael of Kent .Her paternal great grandparents were King George V of the United Kingdom and Mary of...

, the courtesy titles as children of a duke. They are not entitled to any royal title. The children of HRH The Princess Royal
Anne, Princess Royal
Princess Anne, Princess Royal , is the only daughter of Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh...

, HRH Princess Alexandra
Princess Alexandra, The Honourable Lady Ogilvy
Princess Alexandra, The Honourable Lady Ogilvy is the youngest granddaughter of King George V of the United Kingdom and Mary of Teck. She is the widow of Sir Angus Ogilvy...

, and the late Princess Margaret, Countess of Snowdon
Princess Margaret, Countess of Snowdon
Princess Margaret, Countess of Snowdon was the younger sister of Queen Elizabeth II and the younger daughter of King George VI....

, are not entitled to any royal title since princesses do not transmit their titles to their children. An exception to this rule was when HM King George VI issued Letters Patent such that his heiress presumptive, HRH The Princess Elizabeth, Duchess of Edinburgh, could transmit her title to her children. HRH Princess Margaret, Countess of Snowdon
Princess Margaret, Countess of Snowdon
Princess Margaret, Countess of Snowdon was the younger sister of Queen Elizabeth II and the younger daughter of King George VI....

's son enjoys the courtesy title Viscount Linley as the son and heir of The Earl of Snowdon
Antony Armstrong-Jones, 1st Earl of Snowdon
Antony Charles Robert Armstrong-Jones, 1st Earl of Snowdon, GCVO, RDI is an English photographer and film maker. He was married to Princess Margaret, younger daughter of King George VI and younger sister of Queen Elizabeth II....

, while her daughter enjoys the courtesy title Lady. The children of HRH The Princess Royal
Anne, Princess Royal
Princess Anne, Princess Royal , is the only daughter of Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh...

 and of HRH Princess Alexandra
Princess Alexandra, The Honourable Lady Ogilvy
Princess Alexandra, The Honourable Lady Ogilvy is the youngest granddaughter of King George V of the United Kingdom and Mary of Teck. She is the widow of Sir Angus Ogilvy...

 have no titles, because Mark Phillips
Mark Phillips
-Ancestry:-Issue:-Sources:...

 and Sir Angus Ogilvy
Angus Ogilvy
Sir Angus James Bruce Ogilvy, was a British businessman best known as the husband of Princess Alexandra of Kent, a first cousin of Queen Elizabeth II....

 did not accept hereditary peerage
Peerage
The Peerage is a legal system of largely hereditary titles in the United Kingdom, which constitute the ranks of British nobility and is part of the British honours system...

s upon marriage.

Women marrying sons and male-line grandsons of a Sovereign are normally styled Her Royal Highness followed by the feminised version of her husband's highest title. The wives of royal peers are known as "HRH The Duchess of ..." or " HRH The Countess of ..." Thus, the wives of HRH The Duke of Cambridge, HRH The Earl of Wessex
Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex
Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex KG GCVO is the third son and fourth child of Elizabeth II and The Duke of Edinburgh...

, HRH The Duke of Gloucester
Prince Richard, Duke of Gloucester
Prince Richard, Duke of Gloucester is a member of the British Royal Family. Prince Richard is the youngest grandchild of King George V and Queen Mary. He has been Duke of Gloucester since his father's death in 1974. He is currently 20th in the line of succession...

 and HRH The Duke of Kent
Prince Edward, Duke of Kent
The Duke of Kent graduated from the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst on 29 July 1955 as a Second Lieutenant in the Royal Scots Greys, the beginning of a military career that would last over 20 years. He was promoted to captain on 29 July 1961. The Duke of Kent saw service in Hong Kong from 1962–63...

 are "HRH The Duchess of Cambridge," "HRH The Countess of Wessex," "HRH The Duchess of Gloucester," and "HRH The Duchess of Kent," respectively. Before their divorces, Diana, Princess of Wales
Diana, Princess of Wales
Diana, Princess of Wales was the first wife of Charles, Prince of Wales, whom she married on 29 July 1981, and an international charity and fundraising figure, as well as a preeminent celebrity of the late 20th century...

 and Sarah, Duchess of York
Sarah, Duchess of York
Sarah, Duchess of York is a British charity patron, spokesperson, writer, film producer, television personality and former member of the British Royal Family. She is the former wife of Prince Andrew, Duke of York, whom she married from 1986 to 1996...

 enjoyed the respective titles and styles of "HRH The Princess of Wales
Princess of Wales
Princess of Wales is a British courtesy title held by the wife of The Prince of Wales since the first "English" Prince of Wales in 1283.Although there have been considerably more than ten male heirs to the throne, there have been only ten Princesses of Wales. The majority of Princes of Wales...

," and "HRH The Duchess of York
Duchess of York
Duchess of York is the principal courtesy title held by the wife of the Duke of York. The title is gained with marriage alone and is forfeited upon divorce. Four of the twelve Dukes of York did not marry or had already assumed the throne prior to marriage, therefore there have only ever been eleven...

". However, when a woman marries a prince who does not hold a peerage, she is known as HRH Princess [Her husband's Christian name], followed by whatever territorial or titular designation. For example, the former Baroness Marie-Christine von Reibnitz enjoys the title and style of "HRH Princess Michael of Kent
Princess Michael of Kent
Princess Michael of Kent is an Austrian-Hungarian member of the British Royal Family. She is married to Prince Michael of Kent, who is a grandson of King George V....

," and not "HRH Princess Marie-Christine of Kent." Similarly, the former Birgitte Eva van Deurs was titled "HRH Princess Richard of Gloucester" from her wedding
Wedding
A wedding is the ceremony in which two people are united in marriage or a similar institution. Wedding traditions and customs vary greatly between cultures, ethnic groups, religions, countries, and social classes...

 until her husband succeeded to his father's dukedom in 1974. The widows of princes remain HRH. However, under HM The Queen's 21 August 1996 Letters Patent, a divorced wife of a Prince of The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland "shall not be entitled to hold and enjoy the style, title or attribute of Royal Highness."

There has been one exception to the convention that wives of princes take their husband's rank. In Letters Patent dated 28 May 1937, King George VI
George VI of the United Kingdom
George VI was King of the United Kingdom and the Dominions of the British Commonwealth from 11 December 1936 until his death...

 specifically denied the style HRH to the wife of HRH The Duke of Windsor, the former King Edward VIII
Edward VIII of the United Kingdom
Edward VIII was King of the United Kingdom and the Dominions of the British Commonwealth, and Emperor of India, from 20 January to 11 December 1936.Before his accession to the throne, Edward was Prince of Wales and Duke of Cornwall and Rothesay...

. Therefore, the former Wallis Warfield Simpson was known as "Her Grace The Duchess of Windsor," not "HRH The Duchess of Windsor."

Another exception was made in the case of the last blue-blood to marry into the British Royal Family: Princess Marina who, being a Princess of Greece
Greece
Greece , officially the Hellenic Republic , and historically Hellas or the Republic of Greece in English, is a country in southeastern Europe....

 and Denmark
Denmark
Denmark is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe. The countries of Denmark and Greenland, as well as the Faroe Islands, constitute the Kingdom of Denmark . It is the southernmost of the Nordic countries, southwest of Sweden and south of Norway, and bordered to the south by Germany. Denmark...

 by birth, reverted to her own princely style ("HRH Princess Marina, Duchess of Kent") after being widowed, rather than a dowager's style "HRH The Dowager Duchess of Kent". Her sister-in-law (born The Lady Alice Montagu Douglas Scott) was given special dispensation by HM The Queen to use a similar style when she was widowed (HRH Princess Alice, Duchess of Gloucester
Princess Alice, Duchess of Gloucester
Princess Alice, Duchess of Gloucester was a member of the British Royal Family, the wife and then widow of Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester, the third son of George V and Queen Mary.The daughter of the 7th Duke of Buccleuch & Queensberry, Scotland’s largest landowner, her brothers Walter and...

) despite not being herself a princess, rather than the more usual dowager's style, "HRH The Dowager Duchess of Gloucester".

Following on a reluctance by the public to universally support the second wife of HRH The Prince of Wales
Charles, Prince of Wales
Prince Charles, Prince of Wales is the heir apparent and eldest son of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. Since 1958 his major title has been His Royal Highness The Prince of Wales. In Scotland he is additionally known as The Duke of Rothesay...

, it was announced by Clarence House
Clarence House
Clarence House is a royal home in London, situated on The Mall, in the City of Westminster. It is attached to St. James's Palace and shares the palace's garden. For nearly 50 years, from 1953 to 2002, it was home to Queen Elizabeth, the Queen Mother, but is since then the official residence of The...

 that, should the Prince become King, his wife HRH The Duchess of Cornwall will not be known as HM The Queen but will take the lesser title of HRH The Princess Consort. Out of respect for the late Diana, Princess of Wales
Diana, Princess of Wales
Diana, Princess of Wales was the first wife of Charles, Prince of Wales, whom she married on 29 July 1981, and an international charity and fundraising figure, as well as a preeminent celebrity of the late 20th century...

, it was also announced that HRH would not be known as The Princess of Wales.

The daughters and male-line granddaughters of the Sovereign do not lose their royal titles upon marriage. Men who marry the daughters and the male-line granddaughters of the Sovereign, however, do not acquire their wives' royal rank and the style HRH.

Peerages

Female consorts of the British sovereign have not been created peers or peeresses. Male consorts, however, have sometimes been granted dukedoms. Prince George of Denmark, the husband of the future Queen Anne
Anne of Great Britain
Anne ascended the thrones of England, Scotland and Ireland on 8 March 1702. On 1 May 1707, under the Act of Union, two of her realms, England and Scotland, were united as a single sovereign state, the Kingdom of Great Britain.Anne's Catholic father, James II and VII, was deposed during the...

, was created Duke of Cumberland
Duke of Cumberland
Duke of Cumberland is a peerage title that was conferred upon junior members of the British Royal Family, named after the county of Cumberland.-History:...

 in 1683. Queen Victoria's husband, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, was given the style Royal Highness before his marriage. In 1857, Queen Victoria granted him title of Prince Consort
Prince consort
A prince consort is the husband of a queen regnant who is not himself a king in his own right.Current examples include the Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh , and Prince Henrik of Denmark .In recognition of his status, a prince consort may be given a formal...

; however, Prince Albert was not made a British peer. Prince Philip, husband of the present Queen, was created Duke of Edinburgh
Duke of Edinburgh
The Duke of Edinburgh is a British royal title, named after the city of Edinburgh, Scotland, which has been conferred upon members of the British royal family only four times times since its creation in 1726...

 and granted the style Royal Highness the day before his wedding (which occurred prior to her accession).

Generally, the sons of the Sovereign are awarded peerage dignities to mark either adulthood or marriage. Originally, younger sons of the Sovereign were not styled Princes (except the Prince of Wales); thus, to indicate their exalted rank, peerage dignities were conferred upon them. From the time of Edward III
Edward III of England
Edward III was King of England from 1327 until his death and is noted for his military success. Restoring royal authority after the disastrous reign of his father, Edward II, Edward III went on to transform the Kingdom of England into one of the most formidable military powers in Europe...

, nearly every son of a Sovereign surviving into adulthood became a Duke. Certain dukedoms were granted more often than others, including the dukedoms of York
Duke of York
The Duke of York is a title of nobility in the British peerage. Since the 15th century, it has, when granted, usually been given to the second son of the British monarch. The title has been created a remarkable eleven times, eight as "Duke of York" and three as the double-barreled "Duke of York and...

, Albany
Duke of Albany
Duke of Albany is a peerage title that has occasionally been bestowed on the younger sons in the Scottish, and later the British, royal family, particularly in the Houses of Stuart and Hanover....

 and Clarence
Duke of Clarence
Duke of Clarence is a title which has been traditionally awarded to junior members of the English and British Royal families. The first three creations were in the Peerage of England, the fourth in the Peerage of Great Britain, and the fifth in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.The title was first...

. Normally, a peerage once awarded to a member of the Royal Family is not thereafter granted to any person outside the Royal Family (though some exceptions do exist).

The Dukedom of York is generally created for the second son of the Sovereign. The first creation was in 1384; the dukedom merged in the Crown in 1461. Every Duke thereafter has either died without heirs or succeeded to the Crown, and so has not been able to leave the Royal Family. The pattern of awarding the dukedom to the second-eldest son of the Sovereign was upset by George I
George I of Great Britain
George I was King of Great Britain and Ireland from 1 August 1714 until his death, and ruler of the Duchy and Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg in the Holy Roman Empire from 1698....

, who gave the Dukedom of York and Albany to his younger brother. The Dukedom of York and Albany was next granted by George II
George II of Great Britain
George II was King of Great Britain and Ireland, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and Archtreasurer and Prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire from 11 June 1727 until his death.George was the last British monarch born outside Great Britain. He was born and brought up in Northern Germany...

 to the second son of his son, who had predeceased him. York and Albany featured one last time as a dukedom in 1784, when George III granted it to his second son. Thereafter, the dukedom has always borne the designation York, rather than York and Albany. The current duke is The Prince Andrew, second son of Queen Elizabeth II.

The Dukedom of Albany served a function similar to the Dukedom of York in Scotland. The dukedom was created in 1398 for Robert Stewart
Robert Stewart, 1st Duke of Albany
Robert Stewart, Duke of Albany , a member of the Scottish royal house, served as Regent to three different Scottish monarchs...

, brother of King Robert III
Robert III of Scotland
Robert III was King of Scots from 1390 to his death. His given name was John Stewart, and he was known primarily as the Earl of Carrick before ascending the throne at age 53...

. It was at the time the only dukedom other than the Dukedom of Rothesay. It was created thrice more in Scotland: twice for the second son of a Sovereign, and once for a brother of a Sovereign. It was last created in 1881, for the fourth son of Queen Victoria; the dukedom was then suspended under the Titles Deprivation Act after its holder fought on the side of Germany
Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

 during World War I
World War I
World War I , which was predominantly called the World War or the Great War from its occurrence until 1939, and the First World War or World War I thereafter, was a major war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918...

. It is therefore considered neither available nor desirable for regrant.

There are several other dukedoms that have been used for members of the Royal Family. Clarence was first used as a dukedom in 1362, most of the time being granted to the third son of the Sovereign. Among the dukedoms granted to still younger sons of the Sovereign are Cambridge, Connaught, Cumberland, Edinburgh, Gloucester, Kent and Sussex — others in the Scottish peerage have included Ross and Kintyre. Some of those dukedoms were used for younger brothers, nephews and other kinsmen of Sovereigns. The dukedom of Windsor was also a Royal dukedom, being granted to Edward VIII
Edward VIII of the United Kingdom
Edward VIII was King of the United Kingdom and the Dominions of the British Commonwealth, and Emperor of India, from 20 January to 11 December 1936.Before his accession to the throne, Edward was Prince of Wales and Duke of Cornwall and Rothesay...

 after he abdicated so that he could marry against the tenets of the Church of England
Church of England
The Church of England is the officially established Christian church in England and the Mother Church of the worldwide Anglican Communion. The church considers itself within the tradition of Western Christianity and dates its formal establishment principally to the mission to England by St...

.

Often, sons of the Sovereign were granted titles associated with England and Scotland, later with Ireland, and most recently with Wales. Thus, the Dukedom of Strathearn (named after a place in Scotland) has been held with the Dukedoms of Connaught (named after an Irish province), Kent and Cumberland (both named after English places). This pattern continues in the present Royal Family. The current Duke of York, for example, is also Earl of Inverness
Inverness
Inverness is a city in the Scottish Highlands. It is the administrative centre for the Highland council area, and is regarded as the capital of the Highlands of Scotland...

 and Baron Killyleagh
Killyleagh
Killyleagh is a village in County Down, Northern Ireland. It is on the A22 road from Downpatrick, on the western side of Strangford Lough. It had a population of 2,483 people in the 2001 Census. It is best known for its 12th century Killyleagh Castle...

; the subsidiary titles are associated with Scotland and Northern Ireland, respectively.

The convention of granting dukedoms to senior members of the Royal Family was broken most recently in 1999, when The Prince Edward was created Earl of Wessex. The Earldom of Wessex had not been created earlier by an English or British Sovereign since 1066. It has been suggested that the Dukedom of Edinburgh will eventually be granted to The Earl of Wessex. The current dukedom will descend to The Prince of Wales, however, and not to the Earl of Wessex. Should The Prince of Wales become Sovereign, or should he already be Sovereign when the dukedom passes to him, the dukedom would merge in the Crown and then only become available for a regrant.

The highest peerage dignity belonging to a Prince may be used as a part of the title of that Prince's children. Thus, the unmarried son of The Prince of Wales is Prince Harry of Wales
Prince Harry of Wales
Prince Henry of Wales , commonly known as Prince Harry, is the younger son of Charles, Prince of Wales and the late Diana, Princess of Wales, and fourth grandchild of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh...

; the daughters of the Duke of York are Princess Beatrice of York
Princess Beatrice of York
Princess Beatrice of York is the elder daughter of Prince Andrew, Duke of York, and Sarah, Duchess of York...

 and Princess Eugenie of York
Princess Eugenie of York
Princess Eugenie of York Eugenie Victoria Helena; born 23 March 1990) is the younger daughter of Prince Andrew, Duke of York, and Sarah, Duchess of York...

; the children of the Earl of Wessex are Lady Louise Windsor
Lady Louise Windsor
The Lady Louise Windsor is the elder child of Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex, and Sophie, Countess of Wessex. She is the youngest granddaughter and second-youngest grandchild of Elizabeth II and the Duke of Edinburgh...

 and Viscount Severn
James, Viscount Severn
James, Viscount Severn is the second child and only son of Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex, and Sophie, Countess of Wessex, and the youngest grandchild of Elizabeth II and the Duke of Edinburgh...

. (In the last case, Lady Louise and Lord Severn are always (and without exception) referred to as such, at the wishes of their parents and by order of The Queen, but are nonetheless thought by some experts to legally retain their princely titles (i.e. Princess Louise of Wessex and Prince James of Wessex))

Sovereigns, especially Charles II, have sometimes granted peerage dignities to illegitimate children. James Scott
James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth
James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth, 1st Duke of Buccleuch, KG, PC , was an English nobleman. Originally called James Crofts or James Fitzroy, he was born in Rotterdam in the Netherlands, the eldest illegitimate son of Charles II and his mistress, Lucy Walter...

 became Duke of Monmouth in 1663. Many more creations, mostly earldoms, followed in the 1670s: Charles FitzCharles
Charles FitzCharles, 1st Earl of Plymouth
Charles FitzCharles, 1st Earl of Plymouth was the illegitimate son of King Charles II of England, by Catherine Pegge. He had a sister called Catherine FitzCharles who became a nun. His mother went on to marry Sir Edward Greene of Samford in Essex, but they had no further children...

 became Earl of Plymouth, Charles FitzRoy Duke of Southampton, Henry FitzRoy
Henry FitzRoy, 1st Duke of Grafton
Henry FitzRoy, 1st Duke of Grafton KG was the illegitimate son of King Charles II by Barbara Villiers, Countess of Castlemaine....

 Earl of Euston, George FitzRoy
George FitzRoy, 1st Duke of Northumberland
Lieutenant-General George FitzRoy, 1st Duke of Northumberland, KG, PC was the third and youngest illegitimate son of King Charles II and his mother Barbara Villiers, Countess of Castlemaine...

 Earl of Northumberland, Charles Beauclerk
Charles Beauclerk, 1st Duke of St Albans
Charles Beauclerk, 1st Duke of St Albans, KG was an illegitimate son of King Charles II of England by his mistress Nell Gwynne.-Life:...

 Earl of Burford and Charles Lennox Duke of Richmond and Lennox. Many of the earls who were sons of Charles later became Dukes. Of the current Dukes, four are male-line descendants of Charles in the illegitimate line: the Duke of Richmond, Lennox and Gordon, the Duke of Buccleuch and Queensberry, the Duke of Grafton and the Duke of St Alban's.

In other Commonwealth realms

As the Royal Family is shared by other Commonwealth realm
Commonwealth Realm
A Commonwealth realm is a sovereign state within the Commonwealth of Nations that has Elizabeth II as its monarch and head of state. The sixteen current realms have a combined land area of 18.8 million km² , and a population of 134 million, of which all, except about two million, live in the six...

s, its members will often also conduct official and non-official duties outside the United Kingdom, on behalf of the relevant state.
Further information: Royal Family's role in the realms

Other related articles

  • Commonwealth realm monarchies
  • List of monarchs in the British Isles
  • Lists of members of the British Royal Family through history
  • British prince
    British prince
    This is a list of British princes from the accession of George I in 1714. The title of prince is at the will of the sovereign, who can both grant and revoke the title. Individuals holding the title of prince will usually also be styled His Royal Highness or formerly His Highness...

  • British princess
    British princess
    This is a list of British princesses from the accession of King George I in 1714. This article deals with both princesses of the blood royal and women who become princesses upon marriage....

  • House of Windsor
    House of Windsor
    The House of Windsor is the royal house of the Commonwealth realms. It was founded by King George V by royal proclamation on the 17 July 1917, when he changed the name of his family from the German Saxe-Coburg and Gotha to the English Windsor, due to the anti-German sentiment in the United Kingdom...

  • British monarchs' family tree
    British monarchs' family tree
    This is the British monarchs' family tree, from James VI of Scotland to the present queen, Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom.-Before James VI/I:-House of Stuart:-House of Hanover:...

  • Line of succession to the British Throne
    Line of succession to the British Throne
    The line of succession to the British throne is the ordered sequence of those people eligible to succeed to the throne of the United Kingdom and the other 15 Commonwealth realms. By the terms of the Act of Settlement 1701, the succession is limited to the descendants of the Electress Sophia of...

  • List of godchildren of members of the British Royal Family
  • Genealogy of the British Royal Family
    Genealogy of the British Royal Family
    The recorded genealogy of the British Royal Family traces back to the early Middle Ages. Although there is no strict legal or formal definition of who is or is not a member of the Royal Family, and different lists will include different people, those carrying the style His or Her Majesty or His or...

  • Royal Descent
    Royal Descent
    A royal descent is a lineal descent from a monarch. Royal descent is sometimes claimed as a mark of distinction and is seen as a desirable goal of genealogy research. Pretenders and those hoping to improve their social status have often claimed royal descent and, as a result, fabricated lineages...


Further reading

  • Burke's Guide to the Royal Family. Burke's Peerage, 1973.
  • Cannon, John Ashton. The Oxford Illustrated History of the British Monarchy. Oxford University Press, 1988.
  • Churchill, Randolph S. They Serve the Queen: A New and Authoritative Account of the Royal Household. ("Prepared for Coronation Year") Hutchinson, 1953.
  • Fraser, Antonia (ed). The Lives of the Kings & Queens of England. Revised & updated edition. University of California Press, 1998.
  • Hayden, Ilse. Symbol and Privilege: The Ritual Context of British Royalty. University of Arizona Press, 1987.
  • Longford, Elizabeth Harman (Countess of Longford). The Royal House of Windsor. Revised edition. Crown, 1984.
  • Weir, Alison. Britain's Royal Families: The Complete Genealogy. Pimlico/Random House, 2002.

  • Royal Family
    Royal Family (documentary)
    Royal Family is a documentary commisioned by the British Royal Family in 1969. The idea was to give the British public a chance to see behind the scenes at Buckingham Palace and show that they were just like everyone else. On its broadcast, it was viewed by around two thirds of the population of...

     (1969) is a celebrated and reverential BBC
    BBC
    The British Broadcasting Corporation is a British public service broadcaster. Its headquarters is at Broadcasting House in the City of Westminster, London. It is the largest broadcaster in the world, with about 23,000 staff...

     documentary
    Documentary film
    Documentary films constitute a broad category of nonfictional motion pictures intended to document some aspect of reality, primarily for the purposes of instruction or maintaining a historical record...

     made by Richard Cawston to accompany the investiture of the current Prince of Wales
    Prince of Wales
    Prince of Wales is a title traditionally granted to the heir apparent to the reigning monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the 15 other independent Commonwealth realms...

    . The documentary is frequently held responsible for the greater press intrusion into the Royal Family's private life since its first broadcast.

External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
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