Brisbane
Overview
 
Brisbane is the capital and most populous city in the Australian state of Queensland
Queensland
Queensland is a state of Australia, occupying the north-eastern section of the mainland continent. It is bordered by the Northern Territory, South Australia and New South Wales to the west, south-west and south respectively. To the east, Queensland is bordered by the Coral Sea and Pacific Ocean...

 and the third most populous city in Australia
Australia
Australia , officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country in the Southern Hemisphere comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area...

. Brisbane's metropolitan area has a population of over 2 million, and the South East Queensland
South East Queensland
South East Queensland is a region of the state of Queensland in Australia, which contains approximately two-thirds of the state population...

 urban conurbation
Conurbation
A conurbation is a region comprising a number of cities, large towns, and other urban areas that, through population growth and physical expansion, have merged to form one continuous urban and industrially developed area...

, centred around Brisbane, encompasses a population of more than 3 million.
Unanswered Questions
Encyclopedia
Brisbane is the capital and most populous city in the Australian state of Queensland
Queensland
Queensland is a state of Australia, occupying the north-eastern section of the mainland continent. It is bordered by the Northern Territory, South Australia and New South Wales to the west, south-west and south respectively. To the east, Queensland is bordered by the Coral Sea and Pacific Ocean...

 and the third most populous city in Australia
Australia
Australia , officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country in the Southern Hemisphere comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area...

. Brisbane's metropolitan area has a population of over 2 million, and the South East Queensland
South East Queensland
South East Queensland is a region of the state of Queensland in Australia, which contains approximately two-thirds of the state population...

 urban conurbation
Conurbation
A conurbation is a region comprising a number of cities, large towns, and other urban areas that, through population growth and physical expansion, have merged to form one continuous urban and industrially developed area...

, centred around Brisbane, encompasses a population of more than 3 million. The Brisbane central business district stands on the original European settlement and is situated inside a bend of the Brisbane River
Brisbane River
The Brisbane River is the longest river in south east Queensland, Australia, and flows through the city of Brisbane, before emptying into Moreton Bay. John Oxley was the first European to explore the river who named it after the Governor of New South Wales, Thomas Brisbane in 1823...

 approximately 23 kilometres from its mouth at Moreton Bay
Moreton Bay
Moreton Bay is a bay on the eastern coast of Australia 45 km from Brisbane, Queensland. It is one of Queensland's most important coastal resources...

. The metropolitan area extends in all directions along the floodplain
Floodplain
A floodplain, or flood plain, is a flat or nearly flat land adjacent a stream or river that stretches from the banks of its channel to the base of the enclosing valley walls and experiences flooding during periods of high discharge...

 of the Brisbane River valley between the bay and the Great Dividing Range
Great Dividing Range
The Great Dividing Range, or the Eastern Highlands, is Australia's most substantial mountain range and the third longest in the world. The range stretches more than 3,500 km from Dauan Island off the northeastern tip of Queensland, running the entire length of the eastern coastline through...

. While the metropolitan area is governed by several municipalities, a large proportion of central Brisbane is governed by the Brisbane City Council which is Australia's largest Local Government Area
Local Government Area
A local government area is an administrative division of a country that a local government is responsible for. The size of an LGA varies by country but it is generally a subdivision of a state, province, division, or territory....

 by population.

Brisbane is named after the river on which it sits which, in turn, was named after Scotsman Sir Thomas Brisbane
Thomas Brisbane
Major-General Sir Thomas Makdougall Brisbane, 1st Baronet GCH, GCB, FRS, FRSE was a British soldier, colonial Governor and astronomer.-Early life:...

, the Governor of New South Wales from 1821 to 1825. The first European settlement in Queensland was a penal colony
Penal colony
A penal colony is a settlement used to exile prisoners and separate them from the general populace by placing them in a remote location, often an island or distant colonial territory...

 at Redcliffe
Redcliffe, Queensland
  Redcliffe is a residential suburb of the Moreton Bay Region in the north-east of the Redcliffe peninsula, approximately north-northeast of Brisbane, the state capital of Queensland, Australia...

, 28 kilometres (17.4 mi) north of the Brisbane central business district, in 1824. That settlement was soon abandoned and moved to North Quay
North Quay, Brisbane
North Quay is a location in the Brisbane central business district and the name of street in the same area, running along the Brisbane River from an intersection near Makerston Street to the top of the Queen Street.-Location:...

 in 1825. Free settlers were permitted from 1842. Brisbane was chosen as the capital when Queensland was proclaimed a separate colony from New South Wales
New South Wales
New South Wales is a state of :Australia, located in the east of the country. It is bordered by Queensland, Victoria and South Australia to the north, south and west respectively. To the east, the state is bordered by the Tasman Sea, which forms part of the Pacific Ocean. New South Wales...

 in 1859.

The city played a central role in the Allied
Allies of World War II
The Allies of World War II were the countries that opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War . Former Axis states contributing to the Allied victory are not considered Allied states...

 campaign during World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

 as the South West Pacific headquarters
South West Pacific Area
South West Pacific Area was the name given to the Allied supreme military command in the South West Pacific Theatre of World War II. It was one of four major Allied commands in the Pacific theatres of World War II, during 1942–45...

 for General Douglas MacArthur
Douglas MacArthur
General of the Army Douglas MacArthur was an American general and field marshal of the Philippine Army. He was a Chief of Staff of the United States Army during the 1930s and played a prominent role in the Pacific theater during World War II. He received the Medal of Honor for his service in the...

. Brisbane has hosted many large cultural and sporting events including the 1982 Commonwealth Games
1982 Commonwealth Games
The 1982 Commonwealth Games were held in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia from 30 September–9 October 1982. The Opening Ceremony was held at the QEII Stadium , in the Brisbane suburb of Nathan. The QEII Stadium was also the venue which was used for the athletics and archery competitions during the...

, World Expo '88
Expo '88
World Expo 88, also known as Expo '88, was a World's Fair held in Brisbane, the state capital of Queensland, Australia, during a six-month period between Saturday, 30 April 1988 and Sunday, 30 October 1988...

 and the final Goodwill Games
Goodwill Games
The Goodwill Games was an international sports competition, created by Ted Turner in reaction to the political troubles surrounding the Olympic Games of the 1980s...

 in 2001. Brisbane is the largest economy between Sydney and Singapore and in 2008 it was classified as a Beta− world city
Global city
A global city is a city that is deemed to be an important node in the global economic system...

 in the World Cities Study Group’s inventory by Loughborough University
Loughborough University
Loughborough University is a research based campus university located in the market town of Loughborough, Leicestershire, in the East Midlands of England...

. It was also rated the 16th most livable city in the world in 2009 by The Economist
The Economist
The Economist is an English-language weekly news and international affairs publication owned by The Economist Newspaper Ltd. and edited in offices in the City of Westminster, London, England. Continuous publication began under founder James Wilson in September 1843...

.

History

Prior to European settlement, the Brisbane area was inhabited by the Turrbal
Turrbal
The Turrbal are a tribe of Australian Aboriginal people who inhabited the region around the city of Brisbane before European settlement of Australia. Tom Petrie, an early pioneer of Brisbane, shows the kind and trustworthy nature of the Turrbal people. He demonstrates how they were forgiving, even...

 and Jagera
Jagera
Jagera is a genus of 4 species of small tree in the soapberry family Sapindaceae. Three are found in the rainforests of eastern Australia, the other is found in the Moluccas and New Guinea....

 people,. They knew the area as Mian-jin, meaning "place shaped as a spike". The Moreton Bay
Moreton Bay
Moreton Bay is a bay on the eastern coast of Australia 45 km from Brisbane, Queensland. It is one of Queensland's most important coastal resources...

 area was initially explored by Matthew Flinders
Matthew Flinders
Captain Matthew Flinders RN was one of the most successful navigators and cartographers of his age. In a career that spanned just over twenty years, he sailed with Captain William Bligh, circumnavigated Australia and encouraged the use of that name for the continent, which had previously been...

. On 17 July 1799, Flinders landed at what is now known as Woody Point
Woody Point, Queensland
Woody Point is a residential suburb of the Moreton Bay Region at the south-east of the Redcliffe peninsula, approximately north-northeast of Brisbane, the state capital of Queensland, Australia. It was formerly a banana plantation.-Attractions and features:...

, which he named "Red Cliff Point", after the red-coloured cliffs visible from the bay. In 1823, Governor of New South Wales
Governors of New South Wales
The Governor of New South Wales is the state viceregal representative of the Australian monarch, Queen Elizabeth II, who is equally shared with 15 other sovereign nations in a form of personal union, as well as with the eleven other jurisdictions of Australia, and resides predominantly in her...

, Thomas Brisbane
Thomas Brisbane
Major-General Sir Thomas Makdougall Brisbane, 1st Baronet GCH, GCB, FRS, FRSE was a British soldier, colonial Governor and astronomer.-Early life:...

, instructed that a new northern penal settlement
Convictism in Australia
During the late 18th and 19th centuries, large numbers of convicts were transported to the various Australian penal colonies by the British government. One of the primary reasons for the British settlement of Australia was the establishment of a penal colony to alleviate pressure on their...

 be developed, and an exploration party led by John Oxley
John Oxley
John Joseph William Molesworth Oxley was an explorer and surveyor of Australia in the early period of English colonisation.October 1802 he was engaged in coastal survey work including an expedition to Western Port in 1804-05...

 further explored Moreton Bay.

Oxley discovered, named and explored the Brisbane River
Brisbane River
The Brisbane River is the longest river in south east Queensland, Australia, and flows through the city of Brisbane, before emptying into Moreton Bay. John Oxley was the first European to explore the river who named it after the Governor of New South Wales, Thomas Brisbane in 1823...

 as far as Goodna
Goodna, Queensland
Goodna is a suburb on the eastern edge of the City of Ipswich in Queensland, Australia.It is bounded to the north by the Brisbane River. Founded in 1856 when the area was still part of New South Wales, it celebrated its 150 year anniversary in 2006. Its beginnings can be traced back further to...

, 20 kilometres (12.4 mi) upstream from the Brisbane central business district. Oxley recommended Red Cliff Point for the new colony, reporting that ships could land at any tide and easily get close to the shore. The party settled in Redcliffe
Redcliffe, Queensland
  Redcliffe is a residential suburb of the Moreton Bay Region in the north-east of the Redcliffe peninsula, approximately north-northeast of Brisbane, the state capital of Queensland, Australia...

 on 13 September 1824, under the command of Lieutenant Henry Miller with 14 soldiers; some with wives and children; and 29 convicts. However, this settlement was abandoned after a year, and the colony was moved to a site on the Brisbane River now known as North Quay
North Quay, Brisbane
North Quay is a location in the Brisbane central business district and the name of street in the same area, running along the Brisbane River from an intersection near Makerston Street to the top of the Queen Street.-Location:...

, 28 kilometres (17.4 mi) south, that offered a more reliable water supply. Chief Justice Forbes gave the new settlement the name of Edenglassie before it was named Brisbane. Non-convict European settlement of the Brisbane region commenced in 1838. German missionaries settled at Zions Hill, Nundah
Nundah, Queensland
Nundah is an inner suburb in the city of Brisbane, Australia, located approximately 8 kilometers north-east of the Brisbane central business district, in the local government area of the City of Brisbane....

, as early as 1837, five years before Brisbane was officially declared a free settlement. The band consisted of two ministers, Christopher Eipper
Christopher Eipper
Christoph Eipper, was a pioneering missionary and Presbyterian minister in Australia.Christoph Eipper was born to Georg Christoph Eipper and Sophie Juliane Schaettler...

 (1813–1894) and Carl Wilhelm Schmidt
Carl Wilhelm Schmidt
Reverend Carl Wilhelm Schmidt , also known as Karl Schmidt, was a German missionary, and an ordained minister of the Prussian United Church. Schmidt's missionary work took him to Queensland and Samoa, where he founded a number of Lutheran institutions and settlements.-Early life:Schmidt was born...

, and lay missionaries Haussmann, Johann Gottried Wagner, Niquet, Hartenstein, Zillman, Franz, Rode, Doege and Schneider. They were allocated 260 hectares and set about establishing the mission, which became known as German Station.

Free settlers entered the area over the following five years and by the end of 1840 Robert Dixon
Robert Dixon (explorer)
Robert Dixon was an Australian surveyor and explorer, born in Darlington, England.-Arrival in Tasmania:Dixon arrived in Tasmania in May 1821 with his brother George...

 began work on the first plan of Brisbane Town in anticipation of future development. Queensland was proclaimed a separate colony on 6 June 1859, with Brisbane chosen as its capital, although it was not incorporated as a city until 1902. Over twenty small municipalities and shires were amalgamated in 1925, to form the City of Brisbane which is governed by the Brisbane City Council. 1930 was a significant year for Brisbane, with the completion of Brisbane City Hall, then the city's tallest building and the Shrine of Remembrance
Shrine of Remembrance, Brisbane
The Shrine of Remembrance is located in ANZAC Square, between Ann Street and Adelaide Street, in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. With its 'Eternal Flame', the Shrine is a war memorial dedicated to the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps ....

, in ANZAC Square
Anzac Square, Brisbane
ANZAC Square, named in honour of the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps, is a Queensland state memorial to men and women who participated in overseas armed service. It is located between Ann Street and Adelaide Street , in Brisbane, Australia. ANZAC Square is adjacent to ANZAC Square Arcade...

, which has become Brisbane's main war memorial
War memorial
A war memorial is a building, monument, statue or other edifice to celebrate a war or victory, or to commemorate those who died or were injured in war.-Historic usage:...

.
These historic buildings along with the Story Bridge
Story Bridge, Brisbane
The Story Bridge is a cantilever bridge spanning the Brisbane River. Part of Bradfield Highway , it connects Fortitude Valley to Kangaroo Point. Before the opening of the Sydney Harbour Bridge in 1932 the Government of Queensland asked John Bradfield to design a new bridge in Brisbane...

, opened in 1940 are key landmarks that help define the character of the city.

During World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

, Brisbane became central to the Allied
Allies of World War II
The Allies of World War II were the countries that opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War . Former Axis states contributing to the Allied victory are not considered Allied states...

 campaign when the AMP Building (now called MacArthur Central
MacArthur Central, Brisbane
MacArthur Central is an English Renaissance styled building located on the north-east corner of Queen Street and Edward Street in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia...

) was used as the South West Pacific headquarters for General Douglas MacArthur
Douglas MacArthur
General of the Army Douglas MacArthur was an American general and field marshal of the Philippine Army. He was a Chief of Staff of the United States Army during the 1930s and played a prominent role in the Pacific theater during World War II. He received the Medal of Honor for his service in the...

, chief of the Allied Pacific forces, until his headquarters were moved to Hollandia
Jayapura
Jayapura City is the capital of Papua province, Indonesia, on the island of New Guinea. It is situated on Yos Sudarso Bay . Its approximate population in 2002 was 200,000....

 in August 1944. MacArthur had previously rejected use of the University of Queensland complex as his headquarters, as the distinctive bends in the river at St Lucia could have aided enemy bombers. Also used as a headquarters by the American troops during World War II was the T & G Building
T & G Building, Brisbane
The T & G Building building stands on the corner of Queen Street and Albert Street in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.The original building stood from 1923 to 1966. It was taken over by Lieutenant Robert Melloy of the Hirings Section, No. 1 Lines of Communication , Australian Army, and was occupied...

. Approximately 1 million US troops passed through Australia during the war, as the primary coordination point for the South West Pacific
South West Pacific Area
South West Pacific Area was the name given to the Allied supreme military command in the South West Pacific Theatre of World War II. It was one of four major Allied commands in the Pacific theatres of World War II, during 1942–45...

. In 1942 Brisbane was the site of a violent clash between visiting US military personnel and Australian servicemen and civilians which resulted in one death and several injuries. This incident became known colloquially as the Battle of Brisbane
Battle of Brisbane
The "Battle of Brisbane" was violence between United States military personnel on one side and Australian servicemen and civilians on the other, in Brisbane, Australia on 26–27 November 1942, during World War II. Australia and the US were Allies at the time...

.

Postwar Brisbane had developed a "big country town" stigma, an image the city's politicians and marketers were very keen to remove. In the late 1950s an anonymous poet known as The Brisbane Bard generated much attention on the city which helped to shake this stigma. Despite steady growth, Brisbane's development was punctuated by infrastructure problems. The State government under Joh Bjelke-Petersen
Joh Bjelke-Petersen
Sir Johannes "Joh" Bjelke-Petersen, KCMG , was an Australian politician. He was the longest-serving and longest-lived Premier of Queensland, holding office from 1968 to 1987, a period that saw considerable economic development in the state...

 began a major program of change and urban renewal
Urban renewal
Urban renewal is a program of land redevelopment in areas of moderate to high density urban land use. Renewal has had both successes and failures. Its modern incarnation began in the late 19th century in developed nations and experienced an intense phase in the late 1940s – under the rubric of...

, beginning with the central business district and inner suburbs. Trams in Brisbane
Trams in Brisbane
The Brisbane tramway network once served Brisbane, the capital city of Queensland, Australia. It operated between 1885 and 1969 and ran on standard gauge track. The electric system was originally energised to 500 volts, and subsequently increased to 600 volts. All tramcars built in Brisbane up to...

 were a popular mode of public transport, until the network was closed in 1969, leaving Melbourne as the last Australian city to operate a tram network. The 1974 Brisbane flood
1974 Brisbane flood
The 1974 Brisbane flood occurred in January 1974 in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia, when waterways in the city experienced significant flooding...

 was a major disaster which temporarily crippled the city. During this era, Brisbane grew and modernised rapidly becoming a destination of interstate migration. Some of Brisbane's popular landmarks were lost, including the Bellevue Hotel in 1979 and Cloudland
Cloudland
Originally called "Luna Park", Cloudland Dance Hall was a famous Brisbane entertainment venue located in Bowen Hills. It was demolished in 1982 and the site was subsequently developed into an apartment complex....

 in 1982, demolished in controversial circumstances by the Deen Brothers demolition crew. Major public works included the Riverside Expressway
Riverside Expressway
The Riverside Expressway is part of the Pacific Motorway that runs through Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. It is located on the western side of the Brisbane CBD and is made up of various bridges and overpasses...

, the Gateway Bridge, and later, the redevelopment of South Bank
South Bank, Queensland
South Bank is a cultural, educational and recreational precinct in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. The precinct is located in the suburb of South Brisbane, on the southern bank of the Brisbane River.-South Bank Parklands:...

, starting with the Queensland Art Gallery
Queensland Art Gallery
The Queensland Art Gallery is part of the Queensland Cultural Centre, and is located nearest to Brisbane River at South Bank...

.

Brisbane hosted the 1982 Commonwealth Games
1982 Commonwealth Games
The 1982 Commonwealth Games were held in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia from 30 September–9 October 1982. The Opening Ceremony was held at the QEII Stadium , in the Brisbane suburb of Nathan. The QEII Stadium was also the venue which was used for the athletics and archery competitions during the...

 and the 1988 World Exposition (known locally as World Expo 88). These events were accompanied by a scale of public expenditure, construction and development not previously seen in the state of Queensland. Brisbane's population growth has exceeded the national average every year since 1990 at an average rate of around 2.2% per year. Brisbane was again hit by a major flood in January 2011. The Brisbane River did not reach the same height as the previous 1974 flood but still caused extensive damage and disruption to the city.


Geography

Brisbane is in the southeast corner of Queensland, Australia. The city is centred along the Brisbane River, and its eastern suburbs line the shores of Moreton Bay. The greater Brisbane region is on the coastal plain east of the Great Dividing Range
Great Dividing Range
The Great Dividing Range, or the Eastern Highlands, is Australia's most substantial mountain range and the third longest in the world. The range stretches more than 3,500 km from Dauan Island off the northeastern tip of Queensland, running the entire length of the eastern coastline through...

. Brisbane's metropolitan area sprawls along the Moreton Bay floodplain from Caboolture in the north to Beenleigh in the south, and across to Ipswich
Ipswich
Ipswich is a large town and a non-metropolitan district. It is the county town of Suffolk, England. Ipswich is located on the estuary of the River Orwell...

 in the south west.

The city of Brisbane is hilly. The urban area, including the central business district, are partially elevated by spurs of the Herbert Taylor Range
Taylor Range (Queensland)
The Taylor Range or Herbert Taylor Range is a mountain range on the western edge of Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. It was first named The Glenmorrison Range by John Oxley during his exploration of the area in January 1824....

, such as the summit of Mount Coot-tha, reaching up to 300 metres (984.3 ft) and the smaller Enoggera Hill
Enoggera Hill
Enoggera Hill is a small mountain of the Taylor Range in the Brisbane suburb of The Gap.Enoggera Hill is close to Mount Cootha and like this peak, it is mostly covered by bushland. The hill is located within the grounds of the Enoggera Barracks.-References:...

. Other prominent rises in Brisbane are Mount Gravatt
Mount Gravatt, Queensland
Mount Gravatt is the name of both a major suburb of Brisbane, Queensland, Australia and a prominent hill in this suburb. The suburb is situated in the south-east of the city and was one of Brisbane's largest...

 and nearby Toohey Mountain
Toohey Mountain
Toohey Mountain is a medium sized mountain at the eastern side of the City of Brisbane's suburb of Moorooka. The rise was named after James Toohey, an Irish born Sydneysider who made his wealth in the California gold rush, before settling in the newly formed state of Queensland.To the north of the...

. Mount Petrie
Mount Petrie
Mount Petrie is a small mountain in the south east of the city of Brisbane. The 170 metre rise sometimes referred to as Petrie Hill, elevates semi-rural residential parts in the suburbs of Mackenzie and Burbank....

 at 170 metres (557.7 ft) and the lower rises of Highgate Hill
Highgate Hill, Queensland
Highgate Hill is suburb of inner Brisbane, Australia and is located 2 km south of the Brisbane CBD on the Brisbane River. The topography of the suburb is undulating hills no more than above sea level....

, Mount Ommaney, Stephens Mountain and Whites Hill are dotted across the city.

The city is on a low-lying floodplain
Floodplain
A floodplain, or flood plain, is a flat or nearly flat land adjacent a stream or river that stretches from the banks of its channel to the base of the enclosing valley walls and experiences flooding during periods of high discharge...

. Many suburban creeks criss-cross the city, increasing the risk of flooding. The city has suffered three major floods since colonisation, in February 1893
1893 Brisbane flood
The 1893 Brisbane flood, occasionally referred to as the Great Flood of 1893 or the Black February flood, occurred when the Brisbane River burst its banks on three occasions in February 1893. It is the occurrence of three major floods in the same month that saw the period named "Black February"....

, January 1974, and January 2011
2010–2011 Queensland floods
A series of floods hit Australia, beginning in December 2010, primarily in the state of Queensland including its capital city, Brisbane. The floods forced the evacuation of thousands of people from towns and cities. At least seventy towns and over 200,000 people were affected. Damage initially was...

. The 1974 Brisbane flood
1974 Brisbane flood
The 1974 Brisbane flood occurred in January 1974 in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia, when waterways in the city experienced significant flooding...

 occurred partly as a result of "Cyclone Wanda". Heavy rain had fallen continuously for three weeks before the Australia Day
Australia Day
Australia Day is the official national day of Australia...

 weekend flood (26 – 27 January 1974). The flood damaged many parts of the city, especially the suburbs of Oxley
Oxley, Queensland
Oxley is a south-western suburb of Brisbane located approximately 11 km from the Brisbane CBD. It was named after the early Australian explorer John Oxley. The suburb supports a mix of residential, retail and industrial land use....

, Bulimba
Bulimba, Queensland
Bulimba is an inner suburb of Brisbane, Australia. It is 4 kilometres south-east of the CBD, and is located on the southern bank of the Brisbane River...

, Rocklea
Rocklea, Queensland
The large Brisbane suburb of Rocklea is located 12 kilometres south of the city. At times the suburb has experienced significant flooding from the nearby Brisbane River. The west of the suburb is bordered by the Oxley Creek....

, Coorparoo
Coorparoo, Queensland
Coorparoo is a southern suburb of Brisbane, Queensland, Australia, located approximately four kilometres from the city. Surrounding suburbs include Camp Hill, Holland Park, Greenslopes, East Brisbane, Norman Park and Seven Hills.-Aboriginal history:...

, Toowong
Toowong, Queensland
Toowong is an inner suburb of Brisbane, Australia which is located 5 km west of the Brisbane CBD. At the centre of Toowong is a commercial precinct including Toowong Village and several office buildings...

 and New Farm
New Farm, Queensland
New Farm is an inner suburb of Brisbane, Australia, located 2 km east of the Brisbane CBD on a large bend of the Brisbane River. New Farm is partly surrounded by the Brisbane River, with land access from the north west through Fortitude Valley and from the north through...

. The City Botanic gardens
Brisbane City Botanic Gardens
The City Botanic Gardens is located on a point known as Gardens Point on the Brisbane River adjacent to the central business district of the city of Brisbane...

 were inundated, leading to a new colony of mangrove
Mangrove
Mangroves are various kinds of trees up to medium height and shrubs that grow in saline coastal sediment habitats in the tropics and subtropics – mainly between latitudes N and S...

s forming in the City Reach of the Brisbane River.

Urban structure

The Brisbane central business district (CBD) lies in a curve of the Brisbane river. The CBD covers only
2.2 km² (0.849424748903577 sq mi) and is walkable. Central streets are named after members of the royal family
House of Hanover
The House of Hanover is a deposed German royal dynasty which has ruled the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg , the Kingdom of Hanover, the Kingdom of Great Britain, the Kingdom of Ireland and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland...

. Queen Street
Queen Street, Brisbane
Queen Street in Brisbane, the capital of Queensland, Australia, is one of the city's major streets. It is the city's central road, partly covered by a pedestrian mall called the Queen Street Mall. Queen Street ends at the Victoria Bridge and is bounded by two of the Brisbane River's central reaches...

 is Brisbane's traditional main street
Main Street
Main Street is the metonym for a generic street name of the primary retail street of a village, town, or small city in many parts of the world...

. Streets named after female members (Adelaide
Adelaide Street, Brisbane
Adelaide Street, which is a major thoroughfare in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia, runs parallel to Queen Street and Ann Street.Notable buildings and parks along Adelaide Street include Brisbane City Hall, King George Square, ANZAC Square with the Shrine of Remembrance , ANZAC Square Arcade, Law...

, Alice
Alice Street, Brisbane
Alice Street is a central road in Brisbane, Australia. It is the most southern major road in the city's central business district, running parallel to the other female named streets in the city....

, Ann
Ann Street, Brisbane
Ann Street runs parallel to Adelaide Street and is the northern-most street in the Brisbane CBD in Queensland, Australia. It is a major thoroughfare, running straight through the city and linking the suburb of Fortitude Valley with the Riverside Expressway....

, Charlotte
Charlotte Street, Brisbane
Charlotte Street is a road in the central business district of Brisbane. The street is one of a number that were named after female queens and princesses of the royal family shortly after the penal colony was settled...

, Elizabeth
Elizabeth Street, Brisbane
Elizabeth Street in Brisbane, Australia is a major street in the centre of the city. The street was established at the beginning of settlement in Brisbane as a penal colony...

, Margaret
Margaret Street, Brisbane
Margaret Street is a major road in the central business district of Brisbane. The street is one of a number that were named after female members of the royal family shortly after the penal colony was settled....

, Mary
Mary Street, Brisbane
Mary Street is a major road in the Brisbane central business district. The street is one of a number that were named after female queens and princesses of the royal family shortly after the penal colony was settled...

) run parallel to Queen Street
Queen Street, Brisbane
Queen Street in Brisbane, the capital of Queensland, Australia, is one of the city's major streets. It is the city's central road, partly covered by a pedestrian mall called the Queen Street Mall. Queen Street ends at the Victoria Bridge and is bounded by two of the Brisbane River's central reaches...

 and Queen Street Mall
Queen Street Mall, Brisbane
The Queen Street Mall is a pedestrian mall on Queen Street in the centre of Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.It is Brisbane's predominant retail district, featuring shopping centres, hotels, restaurant and coffee shops, cinemas, clothing, music, jewellery and book stores, newsagencies, and banks...

 (named in honour of Queen Victoria
Victoria of the United Kingdom
Victoria was the monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she used the additional title of Empress of India....

) and perpendicular to streets named after male members (Albert
Albert Street, Brisbane
Albert Street is a road in Brisbane, Australia. It was named after Prince Albert, the Prince Consort of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom, and it runs between George Street and Edward Street, and from Alice Street to Wickham Terrace....

, Edward
Edward Street, Brisbane
Edward Street is a busy thoroughfare in the Brisbane central business district, Queensland, Australia. It is a one way street located between Albert Street and Creek Street, and runs from Upper Edward Street to Alice Street....

, George
George Street, Brisbane
George Street is a main street located in the Brisbane CBD in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. A major thoroughfare, George Street connects to the Queensland University of Technology as well as the state Botanical Gardens, to the commercial centre of Brisbane, Queen Street and Queen Street Mall.The...

, William
William Street, Brisbane
William Street is a small, relatively quiet road in the uptown part of the Brisbane central business district. The street is historical significant to the city's early development as a penal colony...

). The city has retained some heritage buildings dating back to 1820's. The Old Windmill, in Wickham Park
Wickham Park, Brisbane
Wickham Park is on Wickham Terrace in Spring Hill, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.Wickham Park is located next to the Roma Street Parkland in the section of the parkland which used to be called Albert Park. Wickham Park, which was named after John Clements Wickham, contains The Old Windmill, the...

, built by convict labour in 1824, is the oldest surviving building in Brisbane. The Old Windmill was originally used for the grinding of grain and a punishment for the convicts who manually operated the grinding mill. The Old Windmill tower’s other significant claim to fame, largely ignored, is that the first television signals in the southern hemisphere were transmitted from it by experimenters in April 1934 – long before TV commenced in most places. These experimental TV broadcasts continued until World War II.

The Old Commissariat Store, on William Street, built by convict labour in 1828, was originally used partly as a grainhouse, has also been a hostel for immigrants and used for the storage of records. Built with Brisbane tuff
Tuff
Tuff is a type of rock consisting of consolidated volcanic ash ejected from vents during a volcanic eruption. Tuff is sometimes called tufa, particularly when used as construction material, although tufa also refers to a quite different rock. Rock that contains greater than 50% tuff is considered...

 from the nearby Kangaroo Point Cliffs
Kangaroo Point Cliffs
The Kangaroo Point Cliffs are located at Kangaroo Point just across the Brisbane River from the Brisbane CBD in Queensland, Australia. A popular recreation spot, they are conveniently close to the city and the South Bank Parklands...

 and sandstone from a quarry near today's Albion Park Racecourse, it is now the home of the Royal Historical Society of Brisbane. It contains a museum and can also be hired for small functions. The city has a density of 379.4 people per square kilometre, which is high for an Australian city and comparable to that of Sydney. However like many western cities, Brisbane sprawls into the greater metropolitan area. This results from the fact that most of Brisbane's housing stock consists of detached houses.

Early legislation decreed a minimum size for residential blocks resulting in few terrace houses being constructed in Brisbane. Recently the density of the city and inner city
Inner city
The inner city is the central area of a major city or metropolis. In the United States, Canada, United Kingdom and Ireland, the term is often applied to the lower-income residential districts in the city centre and nearby areas...

 neighbourhoods has increased with the construction of apartments, with the result that the population of the central business district has doubled over the last 5 years. The high density housing that historically existed came in the form of miniature Queenslander
Queenslander (architecture)
Queenslander architecture is a modern term for the vernacular type of architecture of Queensland, Australia. It is also found in the northern parts of the adjacent state of New South Wales and shares many traits with architecture in other states of Australia but is distinct and unique...

-style houses which resemble the much larger traditional styles but are sometimes only one quarter the size. These miniature Queenslanders are becoming scarce but can still be seen in the inner city suburbs. Multi residence accommodations (such as apartment blocks) are relatively new to Brisbane, with few such blocks built before 1970, other than in inner suburbs such as New Farm
New Farm, Queensland
New Farm is an inner suburb of Brisbane, Australia, located 2 km east of the Brisbane CBD on a large bend of the Brisbane River. New Farm is partly surrounded by the Brisbane River, with land access from the north west through Fortitude Valley and from the north through...

.

Pre-1950 housing was often built in a distinctive architectural style known as a Queenslander
Queenslander (architecture)
Queenslander architecture is a modern term for the vernacular type of architecture of Queensland, Australia. It is also found in the northern parts of the adjacent state of New South Wales and shares many traits with architecture in other states of Australia but is distinct and unique...

, featuring timber construction with large verandah
Verandah
A veranda or verandah is a roofed opened gallery or porch. It is also described as an open pillared gallery, generally roofed, built around a central structure...

s and high ceilings. The relatively low cost of timber in South-East Queensland meant that until recently most residences were constructed of timber, rather than brick or stone. Many of these houses are elevated on stumps (also called "stilts"), that were originally timber, but are now frequently replaced by steel or concrete.

Brisbane is home to several of Australia's tallest buildings. Brisbane's tallest buildings are Soleil at 243 metres, Aurora Tower
Aurora Tower
Aurora Tower is a skyscraper in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. At 207 metres height, it is Brisbane's second tallest building, and tallest building if measured to roof height, soon to be overtaken by currently under construction Soleil and Infinity. Aurora has 69 storeys comprising four floors of...

 at 207 metres, Riparian Plaza at 200 metres, One One One Eagle Street
One One One Eagle Street
One One One Eagle Street is to become the tallest office building in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. With 6 star Green Star office design rating, the building will be part of the CBD's 'Golden Triangle' district. Its location is the site of the old Indigo House building, which was demolished over...

 at 195 metres, and Infinity
Infinity Tower (Brisbane)
The Infinity Tower is a skyscraper under construction at 43 Herschel Street Brisbane, Australia. Excavation began in November 2009 after Meriton purchased the site, which was formerly a ground level carpark, for AU$25 million...

, at 249 metres, which is currently under construction.

Climate

Brisbane has a humid subtropical climate
Humid subtropical climate
A humid subtropical climate is a climate zone characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters...

 (Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by Crimea German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen himself, notably in 1918 and 1936...

 Cfa) with warm to hot and humid summers and dry, moderately warm winters. From November to March, thunderstorms are common over Brisbane, with the more severe events accompanied by large damaging hail stones, torrential rain and destructive winds.

The city's highest recorded temperature was 43.2 °C (109.8 °F) on 26 January 1940. On 19 July 2007, Brisbane's temperature fell below the freezing point for the first time since records began, registering -0.1 °C at the airport. In 2009 Brisbane recorded its hottest winter day at 35.4 °C (95.7 °F) on 24 August.

Brisbane's wettest day was 21 January 1887, when 465 millimetres (18.3 in) of rain fell on the city, the highest maximum daily rainfall of Australia's capital cities.

From 2001 until 2010, Brisbane and surrounding temperate areas had been experiencing the most severe drought in over a century, with dam levels dropping to 16.9% of their capacity on 10 August 2007. Residents were mandated by local laws to observe level 6 water restrictions on gardening and other outdoor water usage. Per capita water usage is below 140 litres per day, giving Brisbane one of the lowest per capita usages of water of any Western city in the world. On Sunday January 9, 2011, a weak cyclone crossed north of Brisbane and dropped rainfull on the already saturated South East Coast of Qld, resulting in severe flooding and damage in Brisbane and the surrounding area, ironically the same storm season also resulted in the water storage climbing to over 98% of maximum capacity and breaking the drought. Water restrictions have been replaced with water conservation measures that aim at a target of 200 litres per day/per person, but consumption is rarely over 160 litres.

Dust storm
Dust storm
A dust / sand storm is a meteorological phenomenon common in arid and semi-arid regions. Dust storms arise when a gust front or other strong wind blows loose sand and dirt from a dry surface. Particles are transported by saltation and suspension, causing soil to move from one place and deposition...

s in Brisbane are extremely rare; on 23 September 2009, however, a severe dust storm
2009 Australian dust storm
In 2009, a dust storm swept across the Australian states of New South Wales and Queensland from 22 to 24 September. The capital, Canberra, experienced the dust storm on 22 September, and on 23 September the storm reached Sydney and Brisbane....

 blanketed Brisbane, as well as other parts of eastern Australia.

Brisbane also lies in the Tropical Cyclone risk area. Although cyclones hitting Brisbane are rare, they have happened in the past. The last cyclone to affect Brisbane but not directly cross the city was Tropical Cyclone Hamish in March 2009, although the cyclone remained approx 350 km (217.5 mi) north of Brisbane but caused significant damage to beaches and caused the worst oil spill in Moreton Bay
Moreton Bay
Moreton Bay is a bay on the eastern coast of Australia 45 km from Brisbane, Queensland. It is one of Queensland's most important coastal resources...

.

Average annual temperature of the sea is 24 °C (75 °F), from 21 °C (70 °F) in July to 27 °C (81 °F) in February.

In November 2011, Brisbane saw 22 days with no recorded rainfall, which is the driest start to November since 1919.



Governance

Unlike other Australian capital cities, a large portion of the greater metropolitan area of Brisbane is controlled by a single local government
Local government in Australia
Local government in Australia is the third tier of government, administered by the states and territories which in turn are beneath the Commonwealth or federal tier. Unlike New Zealand, the US or the UK, there is only one level of local government in all states, with no distinction such as...

 entity, the Brisbane City Council, inside the City of Brisbane
City of Brisbane
The City of Brisbane is the Local Government Area that has jurisdiction over the inner portion of the metropolitan area of Brisbane, Queensland, Australia...

 LGA. Since the creation of the Brisbane City Council in 1925 the urban areas of Brisbane have expanded considerably past the City Council boundaries. Prior to that, a far smaller area (comprising the inner suburbs of Brisbane today) was controlled by the Brisbane Municipal Council
Brisbane Municipal Council
-History:On 7 September 1859, Brisbane was proclaimed a municipality. Thus after the passing of the Municipal Institutions Act 1864 the area could establish a municipal council to administer the district - with powers relating to by-laws, to rating, to borrowings, to the control or regulation of...

.

The City is the largest local government body (in terms of population and budget) in Australia. It was formed by the merger of twenty smaller LGAs in 1925, and covers an area of 1367 km² (528 sq mi). The Council's annual budget is approximately AUD 1.6 billion, and it has an asset base of AUD 13 billion.

The remainder of the metropolitan area falls into the LGAs of Logan City to the south, Moreton Bay Region in the northern suburbs, the City of Ipswich
City of Ipswich
The City of Ipswich is a Local Government Area in South East Queensland, covering an area of along the coast about southwest of Brisbane, the capital of Queensland. The City of Ipswich has a population of 162,380 .-History:...

 to the south west, Redland City to the south east on the bayside, with a small strip to the far west of the Scenic Rim Region.

Economy

Brisbane has the largest economy of any city between Sydney and Singapore, which includes cities like Jakarta
Jakarta
Jakarta is the capital and largest city of Indonesia. Officially known as the Special Capital Territory of Jakarta, it is located on the northwest coast of Java, has an area of , and a population of 9,580,000. Jakarta is the country's economic, cultural and political centre...

, Darwin
Darwin, Northern Territory
Darwin is the capital city of the Northern Territory, Australia. Situated on the Timor Sea, Darwin has a population of 127,500, making it by far the largest and most populated city in the sparsely populated Northern Territory, but the least populous of all Australia's capital cities...

, Townsville and Cairns, and has seen consistent economic growth in recent years as a result of the resources boom. White-collar industries include information technology, financial services
Financial services
Financial services refer to services provided by the finance industry. The finance industry encompasses a broad range of organizations that deal with the management of money. Among these organizations are credit unions, banks, credit card companies, insurance companies, consumer finance companies,...

, higher and public sector
Public sector
The public sector, sometimes referred to as the state sector, is a part of the state that deals with either the production, delivery and allocation of goods and services by and for the government or its citizens, whether national, regional or local/municipal.Examples of public sector activity range...

 administration generally concentrated in and around the central business district and recently established office areas in the inner suburbs. Blue-collar industries, including petroleum refining, stevedoring, paper milling, metalworking
Metalworking
Metalworking is the process of working with metals to create individual parts, assemblies, or large scale structures. The term covers a wide range of work from large ships and bridges to precise engine parts and delicate jewelry. It therefore includes a correspondingly wide range of skills,...

 and QR
Queensland Rail
Queensland Rail, also known as QR, is a government-owned railway operator in the state of Queensland. Under the control of the Queensland Government, Queensland Rail operates the inner-city and long-distance passenger services, as well as some freight operations and gives railway access to other...

 railway workshops, tend to be located on the lower reaches of the Brisbane River and in new industrial zones on the urban fringe. Tourism is an important part of the Brisbane economy, both in its own right and as a gateway to other areas of Queensland.
Since the late 1990s and early 2000s, the Queensland State Government has been developing technology and science industries in Queensland as a whole, and Brisbane in particular, as part of its "Smart State" initiative. The government has invested in several biotechnology and research facilities at several universities in Brisbane. The Institute for Molecular Bioscience at the University of Queensland
University of Queensland
The University of Queensland, also known as UQ, is a public university located in state of Queensland, Australia. Founded in 1909, it is the oldest and largest university in Queensland and the fifth oldest in the nation...

 (UQ) Saint Lucia Campus is a large CSIRO and Queensland state government initiative for research and innovation that is currently being emulated at the Queensland University of Technology
Queensland University of Technology
Queensland University of Technology is an Australian university with an applied emphasis in courses and research. Based in Brisbane, it has 40,000 students, including 6,000 international students, over 4,000 staff members, and an annual budget of more than A$750 million.QUT is marketed as "A...

 (QUT) Campus at Kelvin Grove with the establishment of the Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation
Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation
The Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation is a collaborative research centre based at the Queensland University of Technology in Brisbane, Australia...

 (IHBI).

Brisbane is one of the major business hubs in Australia. Most major Australian companies, as well as numerous international companies, have contact offices in Brisbane, while numerous electronics
Electronics
Electronics is the branch of science, engineering and technology that deals with electrical circuits involving active electrical components such as vacuum tubes, transistors, diodes and integrated circuits, and associated passive interconnection technologies...

 businesses have distribution hubs in and around the city. DHL Global
DHL
DHL Express is a division of the German logistics company Deutsche Post providing international express mail services. DHL is a world market leader in sea and air mail....

's Oceanic distribution warehouse is located in Brisbane, as is Asia Pacific Aerospace's headquarters. Home grown major companies include Suncorp-Metway Limited, Flight Centre
Flight Centre
Flight Centre Limited is Australia's largest travel agent. It is listed on the Australian Stock Exchange with a market capitalisation of $1.145 billion as at March 2006. It has over 1500 stores in nine different countries with over 8000 staff.-History:...

, Sunsuper
Sunsuper
Sunsuper is a public offer super fund company based in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. It was set up in 1987 as a multi-industry superannuation fund to cater for virtually all workers. With over one million members, Sunsuper is the largest superannuation fund in Queensland, and is one of the top...

, Orrcon
Orrcon
Orrcon is the third largest Australian manufacturer and distributor of Steel Tubing. The company specialises in Steel Tubing and manufactures Precision, Structural and Oil and Gas Linepipe...

, Credit Union Australia
Credit Union Australia
CUA is a credit union in Australia. CUA is Australia’s largest customer-owned financial institution, providing an extensive range of banking products and services to over 400,000 customers...

, Boeing Australia
Boeing Australia
Boeing Australia Holdings Pty Ltd, or simply Boeing Australia, is Boeing's largest footprint outside the United States. Established in 2002, the company oversees its seven wholly owned subsidiaries, consolidating and co-ordinating Boeing’s businesses and operations in Australia.Boeing has played an...

, Donut King
Donut King
Donut King is Australia's biggest doughnut franchise, based in Southport, Queensland.-History:The Donut King chain was founded in 1981 in Sydney, and is currently managed, under license, by the Southport-based Retail Food Group Limited...

, Wotif.com
Wotif.com
Wotif.com is a website that provides a reservation service for hotels in Australia, as well as some international hotels. It was created in March 2000 by Graeme Wood, and is based in Brisbane, Australia. It has since established offices in Canada, Malaysia, New Zealand, Singapore and the United...

, WebCentral, PIPE Networks
PIPE Networks
PIPE Networks is an Australian company, based in Brisbane, Queensland, primarily involved in setting up peering exchanges. PIPE itself stands for "Public Internet Peering Exchange"...

, Krome Studios
Krome Studios
Krome Studios is an Australian video game company. Its headquarters are in Brisbane and it previously had offices in Adelaide and Melbourne. Krome Studios is best known for their Ty the Tasmanian Tiger games and for revitalising the Spyro the Dragon series...

, NetBox Blue
NetBox Blue
NetBox Blue Pty Ltd is an Australian-owned provider of internet and email security, filtering and management appliances. The company currently has a staff of 20 and has over 54,000 clients in 18 countries around the world. NetBox Blue was founded in Brisbane by Trent Davis and John Oxnam in 1999...

, Mincom Limited
Mincom Limited
Mincom Pty Ltd is a software and services company providing business software to industries such as mining, public infrastructure, defense, oil and gas in more than 40 countries across North America, South America, Australia, South East Asia, Africa, and Europe.Mincom Inc. operates in North America...

, TechnologyOne and Virgin Australia. Brisbane has the fourth highest median household income
Median household income in Australia and New Zealand
Median household income is commonly used to measure the relative prosperity of populations in different geographical locations. It divides households into two equal segments with the first half of households earning less than the median household income and the other half earning more.Since 2000...

 of the Australian capital cities at AUD 57,772.

Port of Brisbane

The Port of Brisbane
Port of Brisbane
Port of Brisbane is the shipping port of Brisbane, on the east coast of Australia. It is located in the lower reaches of the Brisbane River on reclaimed land that was once called Fisherman Islands at the mouth of the river. It currently is the third busiest port in Australia and the nation's...

 is on the lower reaches of the Brisbane River and on Fisherman's Island at the rivers mouth, and is the 3rd most important port in Australia for value of goods. Container freight
Containerization
Containerization is a system of freight transport based on a range of steel intermodal containers...

, sugar, grain, coal and bulk liquids are the major exports. Most of the port facilities are less than three decades old and some are built on reclaimed mangrove
Mangrove
Mangroves are various kinds of trees up to medium height and shrubs that grow in saline coastal sediment habitats in the tropics and subtropics – mainly between latitudes N and S...

s and wetlands.

The Port is a part of the Australia TradeCoast
Australia TradeCoast
Australia TradeCoast is an economic development area of Brisbane, the state capital of Queensland, Australia.The concept of branding and promoting the empty space around Brisbane's port and airport, following many years of Government reports and soul-searching on what might be done with the...

, the country's fastest-growing economic development area. Geographically, Australia TradeCoast occupies a large swathe of land around the airport and port. Commercially, the area has attracted a mix of companies from throughout the Asia Pacific region.

Retail

Brisbane has a range of retail precincts, both in the Central Business District and in surrounding suburbs. The Queen Street Mall
Queen Street Mall, Brisbane
The Queen Street Mall is a pedestrian mall on Queen Street in the centre of Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.It is Brisbane's predominant retail district, featuring shopping centres, hotels, restaurant and coffee shops, cinemas, clothing, music, jewellery and book stores, newsagencies, and banks...

 has a vast array of cafes, restaurants, cinemas, gift shops and shopping centres including: Wintergarden
Wintergarden, Brisbane
Wintergarden is the name of a popular shopping centre located in the city of Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. It was opened by the Premier of Queensland the Honourable Joh Bjelke-Petersen in 1982. The shopping centre can be accessed directly from the Queen Street Mall, Edward Street and Elizabeth...

, Broadway on the Mall
Broadway on the Mall, Brisbane
Broadway on the Mall is a large shopping centre in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia, located between the Queen Street Mall and Adelaide Street in the Central Business District....

, QueensPlaza, Brisbane Arcade
Brisbane Arcade
Brisbane Arcade is the name of an Art Deco shopping arcade located in the city of Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.-Street access:The arcade can be accessed directly from the Queen Street Mall, and Adelaide Street.-Overview:...

, Queen Adelaide Building, Tattersalls Arcade and The Myer Centre
The Myer Centre, Brisbane
The Myer Centre is located between the Queen Street Mall and Elizabeth Street in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. It is an nine-floor shopping complex which includes Queensland's largest Myer department store, and is open to the public seven days a week. The Myer Centre has the added benefit of...

. Edward St, in the city, is home to many luxury international retailers, such as MaxMara, Gucci
Gucci
The House of Gucci, better known simply as Gucci , is an Italian fashion and leather goods label, part of the Gucci Group, which is owned by French company PPR...

, Bally
Bally Shoe
The Bally Shoe company was founded as "Bally & Co" high fashion in 1851 by Carl Franz Bally and his brother Fritz in the basement of their family home in Schönenwerd in the Canton of Solothurn, Switzerland.-Business:...

, Chanel
Chanel
Chanel S.A. is a French fashion house founded by the couturier Gabrielle "Coco" Chanel, well established in haute couture, specializing in luxury goods . She gained the name "Coco" while maintaining a career as a singer at a café in France...

, Prada
Prada
Prada S.p.A. is an Italian fashion label specializing in luxury goods for men and women , founded by Mario Prada.-Foundations:...

, Canali
Canali
Canali is a clothing company based in Italy specialising in men's clothing.-History:In 1934, the brothers Giovanni and Giacomo Canali founded a tailoring workshop dedicated to the manufacture of high quality clothing. In the 1950s, with the contributions of the family's second generation, sales...

, Mont Blanc
Mont Blanc
Mont Blanc or Monte Bianco , meaning "White Mountain", is the highest mountain in the Alps, Western Europe and the European Union. It rises above sea level and is ranked 11th in the world in topographic prominence...

, Louis Vuitton
Louis Vuitton
Louis Vuitton Malletier – commonly referred to as Louis Vuitton , or shortened to LV – is a French fashion house founded in 1854 by Louis Vuitton. The label is well known for its LV monogram, which is featured on most products, ranging from luxury trunks and leather goods to ready-to-wear, shoes,...

, Tiffany and Co., Oroton
Oroton
Oroton is an Australian luxury fashion accessories company known for its leather handbags. Oroton is owned by the OrotonGroup which is listed on the Australian Stock Exchange and has held the license for the Polo Ralph Lauren in Australia and New Zealand for 2 decades. .-History:Oroton was...

, Polo Ralph Lauren
Polo Ralph Lauren
Ralph Lauren Corporation is a luxury clothing and goods company of the American fashion designer Ralph Lauren. Ralph Lauren specializes in high-end casual/semi-formal wear for men and women, as well as accessories, fragrances, home and housewares...

, Bvlgari, Hugo Boss
Hugo Boss
Hugo Ferdinand Boss was the founder of clothing company Hugo Boss.-Early life:Boss was born in Metzingen, Germany. After completing his apprenticeship and one year of employment, he founded his own company in Metzingen in 1923.-Support of Nazism:Boss joined the Nazi Party in 1931, two years before...

, Hermes
Hermes
Hermes is the great messenger of the gods in Greek mythology and a guide to the Underworld. Hermes was born on Mount Kyllini in Arcadia. An Olympian god, he is also the patron of boundaries and of the travelers who cross them, of shepherds and cowherds, of the cunning of thieves, of orators and...

, and more. The majority of retail business is done within the suburbs of Brisbane in shopping centres which include major department store chains. There are 3 major Westfield shopping centres in Brisbane located in the suburbs of Chermside
Chermside, Queensland
Chermside is a suburb on the north side of Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.Chermside is a key destination along Queensland Transport's future Northern Busway...

 (Westfield Chermside
Westfield Chermside
Westfield Chermside is the largest shopping centre in Queensland, located in Brisbane's inner northern suburbs, the second-largest in Australia, behind Chadstone Shopping Centre in Melbourne, and is operated by the Westfield Group. Entertainment facilities include an Event Cinemas 16-screen cinema...

), Mount Gravatt
Mount Gravatt, Queensland
Mount Gravatt is the name of both a major suburb of Brisbane, Queensland, Australia and a prominent hill in this suburb. The suburb is situated in the south-east of the city and was one of Brisbane's largest...

 (Westfield Garden City
Westfield Garden City
Westfield Garden City, better known as Garden City, is one of Brisbane's major shopping centres, located in the suburb of Upper Mount Gravatt. The centre is operated by Westfield, and previously operated by AMP Limited before the takeover in 2003...

) and Carindale
Carindale, Queensland
Carindale is a suburb of the city of Brisbane, which has a population of approximately 15,135 people and contains around 4,976 dwellings. The greater area was formerly known as Belmont....

 (Westfield Carindale
Westfield Carindale
Located in the suburb of Carindale, east of BrisbaneFirst and opened in 1979, the Westfield Carindale was Brisbane's largest shopping centre until late 2006, when the renovated and extended Westfield Chermside on the north side overtook the title of largest shopping centre in Brisbane...

).

Other large shopping centres exist at Indooroopilly
Indooroopilly, Queensland
Indooroopilly is a suburb of Brisbane, Australia which is located 7 km west of the Brisbane central business district.- Name derivation and history :...

 (Indooroopilly Shopping Centre
Indooroopilly Shopping Centre
Indooroopilly Shopping Centre is a major regional shopping centre in the western suburb of Indooroopilly, which is located in the city of Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. It is the largest shopping centre in the western suburbs of Brisbane, by gross lettable area, and contains the only Myer store...

), Toombul (Centro Toombul
Centro Toombul
Centro Toombul is a regional shopping centre located in the locality of Toombul which is part of Nundah, a suburb of the city of Brisbane in the state of Queensland, Australia. The centre is currently anchored by a Kmart discount department store, Coles supermarket, BI-LO supermarket and Aldi Food...

) and Mitchelton
Mitchelton, Queensland
Michelton is a suburb of Brisbane, in Queensland, Australia. The suburb is located 8 kilometres from the Brisbane central business district some areas of Mitchelton can be 6 km to the Brisbane central business district....

 (Brookside Shopping Centre
Brookside Shopping Centre
Brookside Shopping Centre is the largest shopping centre in Brisbane's north-west, situated in Mitchelton, a suburb of Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.-History:...

). Other major shopping centres through-out the metropolitan area include North Lakes
North Lakes, Queensland
For North Lakes estate in New South Wales, see Cameron Park, New South Wales.North Lakes is a suburb north of Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. Its Local Government Area is the Moreton Bay Region. North Lakes is located approximately 25 km north of the Brisbane central business district...

 (Westfield North Lakes
Westfield North Lakes
Westfield North Lakes is a shopping centre in North Lakes on the northern outskirts of Brisbane. The centre first opened in on 7 August 2003 and initially included around 80 stores including Target and Coles. In early 2007, construction began on a major extension that was set to bring the total...

), Strathpine
Strathpine, Queensland
Strathpine is a suburb north of Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. Its Local Government Area is the Moreton Bay Region. It is home to the Pine Rivers District offices of the Moreton Bay Region as well as many businesses. The area contains a medium-sized Westfield shopping centre...

 (Westfield Strathpine
Westfield Strathpine
Westfield Strathpine is a regional shopping centre located in Strathpine, a suburb in Moreton Bay, north of Brisbane.The centre was built and opened in 1983 by The Westfield Group. It is anchored by Big W and Target discount department stores, Woolworths supermarket, Coles supermarket and ALDI Food...

) and Loganholme
Loganholme, Queensland
Loganholme is a suburb of Logan City, Queensland, Australia. A major landmark in the area is the Logan Hyperdome shopping centre. A bus interchange is located adjacent to the Logan Hyperdome. The area is also home to the Loganholme State School....

 (Logan Hyperdome
Logan Hyperdome
Logan Hyperdome Shopping Centre in Shailer Park, Queensland is the largest shopping centre in Logan City and one of the largest single story shopping centres in Australia....

).

Demographics

Significant overseas born populations
Country of birth Population (2006)
  United Kingdom
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

 
95,315
  New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand is an island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses and numerous smaller islands. The country is situated some east of Australia across the Tasman Sea, and roughly south of the Pacific island nations of New Caledonia, Fiji, and Tonga...

 
73,128
  South Africa
South Africa
The Republic of South Africa is a country in southern Africa. Located at the southern tip of Africa, it is divided into nine provinces, with of coastline on the Atlantic and Indian oceans...

 
12,824
  Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam – sometimes spelled Viet Nam , officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam – is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia. It is bordered by China to the north, Laos to the northwest, Cambodia to the southwest, and the South China Sea –...

 
11,857
  China
China
Chinese civilization may refer to:* China for more general discussion of the country.* Chinese culture* Greater China, the transnational community of ethnic Chinese.* History of China* Sinosphere, the area historically affected by Chinese culture...

 
11,418
  Spain
Spain
Spain , officially the Kingdom of Spain languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Spain's official name is as follows:;;;;;;), is a country and member state of the European Union located in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula...

 
10,880
  Philippines
Philippines
The Philippines , officially known as the Republic of the Philippines , is a country in Southeast Asia in the western Pacific Ocean. To its north across the Luzon Strait lies Taiwan. West across the South China Sea sits Vietnam...

 
9,871
  Germany
Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

 
8,645
  India
India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

 
7,549
  Netherlands
Netherlands
The Netherlands is a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, located mainly in North-West Europe and with several islands in the Caribbean. Mainland Netherlands borders the North Sea to the north and west, Belgium to the south, and Germany to the east, and shares maritime borders...

 
7,014
  Fiji
Fiji
Fiji , officially the Republic of Fiji , is an island nation in Melanesia in the South Pacific Ocean about northeast of New Zealand's North Island...

 
6,791
  Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea , officially the Independent State of Papua New Guinea, is a country in Oceania, occupying the eastern half of the island of New Guinea and numerous offshore islands...

 
6,706
  Italy
Italy
Italy , officially the Italian Republic languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Italy's official name is as follows:;;;;;;;;), is a unitary parliamentary republic in South-Central Europe. To the north it borders France, Switzerland, Austria and...

 
6,704
  Malaysia  6,686
  United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 
6,057
  Hong Kong
Hong Kong
Hong Kong is one of two Special Administrative Regions of the People's Republic of China , the other being Macau. A city-state situated on China's south coast and enclosed by the Pearl River Delta and South China Sea, it is renowned for its expansive skyline and deep natural harbour...

 
6,036
  South Korea
South Korea
The Republic of Korea , , is a sovereign state in East Asia, located on the southern portion of the Korean Peninsula. It is neighbored by the People's Republic of China to the west, Japan to the east, North Korea to the north, and the East China Sea and Republic of China to the south...

 
4,841
  Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka, officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka is a country off the southern coast of the Indian subcontinent. Known until 1972 as Ceylon , Sri Lanka is an island surrounded by the Indian Ocean, the Gulf of Mannar and the Palk Strait, and lies in the vicinity of India and the...

 
4,806

Brisbane
population by year
1859 6,000
1942 750,000
2010 2,043,185 Estimate
2026 2,681,100 Projected
2056 3,979,300 Projected


The statistical division of Brisbane includes much of Brisbane's Local Government Area as well as the cities of Ipswich
Ipswich, Queensland
Ipswich is a city in South-East Queensland, Australia. Situated along the Bremer River Valley approximately 40 kilometres away from the state's capital Brisbane. The suburb by the same name forms the city's Central Business District and administrative centre...

, Moreton Bay
Moreton Bay Regional Council
The Moreton Bay Region is a Local Government Area located in South East Queensland, Australia, immediately to the north of Brisbane, the state capital...

, Logan City and Redland City which demographically are part of a single conurbation
Conurbation
A conurbation is a region comprising a number of cities, large towns, and other urban areas that, through population growth and physical expansion, have merged to form one continuous urban and industrially developed area...

.
The 2006 census reported 1,763,131 residents within the Brisbane Statistical Division, making it the third largest city in Australia. Brisbane recorded the largest growth rate of all capital cities in the last Census, with an annual growth rate of 2.2%. The median age across the city was 35 years.

The 2006 census showed that 1.7% of Brisbane's population were of indigenous origin and 21.7% were born overseas
Immigration to Australia
Immigration to Australia is estimated to have begun around 51,000 years ago when the ancestors of Australian Aborigines arrived on the continent via the islands of the Malay Archipelago and New Guinea. Europeans first landed in the 17th and 18th Centuries, but colonisation only started in 1788. The...

. Of those born outside of Australia, the three main countries of birth were New Zealand, South Africa, and the United Kingdom.

Approximately 16.1% of households spoke a language other than English, with the most common languages being Mandarin 1.1%, Vietnamese 0.9%, Cantonese 0.9%, Italian 0.6% and Samoan 0.5%. Areas of significant overseas populations include the southern suburbs of Brisbane. Moorooka is home to many residents of African descent. Most of the Vietnamese population reside in the suburbs of Darra
Darra, Queensland
Darra is a Brisbane suburb known for its high migrant population. It is one of the older suburbs and lies about 14 kilometres southwest of Brisbane. The houses are mainly of the Queenslander style built in the 1940s and 1950s. The majority of blocks in Darra are large enough to be subdivided, which...

 and Inala
Inala, Queensland
Inala is a suburb of Brisbane, Australia, situated in the south-west of the metropolitan area.-History:Following World War II there was a shortage of 250,000 houses across Australia. State and Commonwealth Governments responded by making housing a priority. In Queensland alone over 4000 families...

. Sunnybank
Sunnybank, Queensland
Sunnybank is now a suburb in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia much reduced in size from the previous suburb of Sunnybank. The separate Town of Sunnybank was absorbed into the City of Brisbane. This older Sunnybank area is still known locally as Sunnybank...

 is where the majority of Brisbane's Chinese population reside, consisting mainly of people from Republic of China (Taiwan)
Republic of China
The Republic of China , commonly known as Taiwan , is a unitary sovereign state located in East Asia. Originally based in mainland China, the Republic of China currently governs the island of Taiwan , which forms over 99% of its current territory, as well as Penghu, Kinmen, Matsu and other minor...

 and Hong Kong, while those from China
People's Republic of China
China , officially the People's Republic of China , is the most populous country in the world, with over 1.3 billion citizens. Located in East Asia, the country covers approximately 9.6 million square kilometres...

, Malaysia and other Southeast Asian countries are often found not in one particular area but all around Brisbane, especially in the southern suburbs. Brisbane has the highest population of Taiwanese Australian
Taiwanese Australian
A Taiwanese Australian is an Australian of Taiwanese ancestry. This term also sometimes fluidly applies to those whose parents or relatives are associated with the post-1949 Republic of China as well as pre-1949 Chinese people in Australia who recognize themselves as ROC citizens before the...

 citizens. It has been estimated that the population has grown to an estimated 35 000+, making them the highest Asian population in Brisbane. Consequently, Sunnybank and its surrounding suburbs have often been dubbed as the "Real Chinatown" and "Taiwan Town".

The inner southern suburbs were considered the most densely populated areas of people with Southern European heritage, primarily Greece
Greece
Greece , officially the Hellenic Republic , and historically Hellas or the Republic of Greece in English, is a country in southeastern Europe....

 and Italy
Italy
Italy , officially the Italian Republic languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Italy's official name is as follows:;;;;;;;;), is a unitary parliamentary republic in South-Central Europe. To the north it borders France, Switzerland, Austria and...

, as well as Cyprus
Cyprus
Cyprus , officially the Republic of Cyprus , is a Eurasian island country, member of the European Union, in the Eastern Mediterranean, east of Greece, south of Turkey, west of Syria and north of Egypt. It is the third largest island in the Mediterranean Sea.The earliest known human activity on the...

 and other nations in Southeastern Europe
Balkans
The Balkans is a geopolitical and cultural region of southeastern Europe...

. New Farm
New Farm, Queensland
New Farm is an inner suburb of Brisbane, Australia, located 2 km east of the Brisbane CBD on a large bend of the Brisbane River. New Farm is partly surrounded by the Brisbane River, with land access from the north west through Fortitude Valley and from the north through...

 was historically home to many of Brisbane's early Italian community. There are also a major number of Indians
Non-resident Indian and Person of Indian Origin
A Non-Resident Indian is an Indian citizen who has migrated to another country, a person of Indian origin who is born outside India, or a person of Indian origin who resides permanently outside India. Other terms with the same meaning are overseas Indian and expatriate Indian...

, Filipino
Filipino people
The Filipino people or Filipinos are an Austronesian ethnic group native to the islands of the Philippines. There are about 92 million Filipinos in the Philippines, and about 11 million living outside the Philippines ....

s, Dutch
Dutch people
The Dutch people are an ethnic group native to the Netherlands. They share a common culture and speak the Dutch language. Dutch people and their descendants are found in migrant communities worldwide, notably in Suriname, Chile, Brazil, Canada, Australia, South Africa, New Zealand, and the United...

, Hispanics, German
Germans
The Germans are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe. The English term Germans has referred to the German-speaking population of the Holy Roman Empire since the Late Middle Ages....

s, Koreans, Papua New Guineans, Fijians
Fijian people
Fijian people are the major indigenous people of the Fiji Islands, and live in an area informally called Melanesia. The Fijian people are believed to have arrived in Fiji from western Melanesia approximately 3,500 years ago, though the exact origins of the Fijian people are unknown...

 and other Pacific Islander
Pacific Islander
Pacific Islander , is a geographic term to describe the indigenous inhabitants of any of the three major sub-regions of Oceania: Polynesia, Melanesia and Micronesia.According to the Encyclopædia Britannica, these three regions, together with their islands consist of:Polynesia:...

 communities in the city.

Education

Brisbane has multi-campus universities and colleges including Griffith University
Griffith University
Griffith University is a public, coeducational, research university located in the southeastern region of the Australian state of Queensland. The university has five satellite campuses located in the Gold Coast, Logan City and in the Brisbane suburbs of Mount Gravatt, Nathan and South Bank. Current...

, Queensland University of Technology
Queensland University of Technology
Queensland University of Technology is an Australian university with an applied emphasis in courses and research. Based in Brisbane, it has 40,000 students, including 6,000 international students, over 4,000 staff members, and an annual budget of more than A$750 million.QUT is marketed as "A...

 and the University of Queensland
University of Queensland
The University of Queensland, also known as UQ, is a public university located in state of Queensland, Australia. Founded in 1909, it is the oldest and largest university in Queensland and the fifth oldest in the nation...

. Other universities which have campuses in Brisbane include the Australian Catholic University
Australian Catholic University
Australian Catholic University is a national public university. It has six campuses and offers programs in five faculties throughout Australia.-History:...

, Central Queensland University
Central Queensland University
CQUniversity is an Australian public university based in Queensland. Its main campus is in North Rockhampton Queensland. However, it also has campuses in Bundaberg, Emerald, Gladstone and Mackay, as well as operations throughout Asia-Pacific. For instance, Melior Business School is one of its...

, James Cook University
James Cook University
James Cook University is a public university based in Townsville, Queensland, Australia. The university has two Australian campuses, located in Townsville and Cairns respectively, and an international campus in Singapore. JCU is the second oldest university in Queensland—proclaimed in 1970—and the...

, JMC Academy
JMC Academy
JMC Academy is an Australian private college that provides private education and training for the Creative Industries with campuses in central Sydney, Brisbane and Melbourne...

, University of Southern Queensland
University of Southern Queensland
The University of Southern Queensland is based in Toowoomba, Queensland, Australia. The institution was established in 1967 as the Queensland Institute of Technology...

 and the University of the Sunshine Coast
University of the Sunshine Coast
The University of the Sunshine Coast is a public university based on the Sunshine Coast in Queensland, Australia. Having opened in 1996 as the Sunshine Coast University College with 524 students, the institution was renamed the University of the Sunshine Coast in 1999. In 2011, the student body was...

.

There are three major TAFE colleges in Brisbane; the Brisbane North Institute of TAFE
Brisbane North Institute of TAFE
Brisbane North Institute of TAFE is a TAFE provider in Queensland, Australia..BNIT has campuses located at Bracken Ridge, Caboolture, Grovely, Ithaca , Redcliffe, and South Brisbane....

, the Metropolitan South Institute of TAFE
Metropolitan South Institute of TAFE
Metropolitan South Institute of TAFE is an amalgamation of regional and local TAFE campuses, partially subsidised and funded by the Queensland Government...

, and the Southbank Institute of TAFE
Southbank Institute
Southbank Institute of Technology is a TAFE college located in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. It has campuses in the suburbs of South Brisbane, Morningside and Kangaroo Point. The institute has a total enrolment of about 30,000 students ....

. Brisbane is also home to numerous other independent
Independent school
An independent school is a school that is independent in its finances and governance; it is not dependent upon national or local government for financing its operations, nor reliant on taxpayer contributions, and is instead funded by a combination of tuition charges, gifts, and in some cases the...

 tertiary providers, including the Australian College of Natural Medicine
Australian College of Natural Medicine
The Australian College of Natural Medicine located in Australia.- History :The Endeavour College of Natural Health is a private educational institution located in Australia...

, the Brisbane College of Theology
Brisbane College of Theology
Brisbane College of Theology, in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia, was an ecumenical theological education consortium, comprising St Francis' Theological College , St Paul's Theological College and Trinity Theological College . It was based at Raymont Lodge in Auchenflower and offered both...

, QANTM
QANTM
QANTM College is a creative digital media college headquartered in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. It has campuses across Australia in Melbourne, Sydney, Perth and Brisbane, along with international campuses in Europe and Asia.-History:...

, as well as Jschool: Journalism Education & Training
Jschool: Journalism Education & Training
Jschool is an independent journalism college based in Brisbane, Australia.The college, founded in 2001, admitted its first students in 2002.-Diploma of Journalism:...

.

The majority of Brisbane's preschool, primary, and secondary schools are run under the jurisdiction of Education Queensland, a branch of the Queensland Government. There are also a large number of independent and Roman Catholic run schools.



Arts and entertainment

Brisbane has a growing live music scene, both popular and classical. The Queensland Performing Arts Centre
Queensland Performing Arts Centre
The Queensland Performing Arts Centre is part of the Queensland Cultural Centre and is located on the corner of Melbourne Street and Grey Street in Brisbane's South Bank precinct....

 (QPAC), which is located at South Bank
South Bank, Queensland
South Bank is a cultural, educational and recreational precinct in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. The precinct is located in the suburb of South Brisbane, on the southern bank of the Brisbane River.-South Bank Parklands:...

, consists of the Lyric Theatre, a Concert Hall, Cremorne Theatre and the Playhouse Theatre. The Queensland Ballet
Queensland Ballet
The Queensland Ballet, founded in 1960 by Charles Lisner OBE, is the premier ballet company of Queensland, Australia, and is based in Brisbane.- About Queensland Ballet :...

, Opera Queensland
Opera Queensland
Opera Queensland is an opera company based in Brisbane, Queensland. The company was founded with funding from the Queensland State Government in 1981, then under the name Lyric Opera of Queensland, after the Queensland Opera Company was closed in December 1980.It is after Opera Australia the second...

, Queensland Theatre Company
Queensland Theatre Company
The Queensland Theatre Company was established in 1970 as the Royal Queensland Theatre Company. The Company is the state's flagship professional theatre company, headed up by multi-award winning playwright and director Wesley Enoch...

 and other performance art groups stage performances in the different venues. It is also the major performing venue for The Queensland Symphony Orchestra, Brisbane's only professional symphony orchestra and Queensland's largest performing arts company. The Queensland Conservatorium, in which professional companies and Conservatorium students also stage performances, is located within the South Bank Parklands
South Bank Parklands, Brisbane
The South Bank Parklands are located at South Bank in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. The parkland, on the transformed site of Brisbane's World Expo 88, was officially opened to the public on 20 June 1992.-Overview:...

.

Numerous choirs present performances across the city annually. These choirs include the Brisbane Chorale, Queensland Choir, Brisbane Chamber Choir, Canticum Chamber Choir, Brisbane Concert Choir, Imogen Children's Chorale and Brisbane Birralee Voices
Brisbane Birralee Voices
Voices of Birralee is a children’s community choir organization that has performed at many venues around the world. Voices of Birralee is one of the only community based choirs in Brisbane and Gold Coast, Australia and it gives young people from the age of 5-26+ the opportunity to participate in an...

. Due to the lack of a suitable purpose built performance venue for choral music, these choirs typically perform in the city's many churches. The Queensland Gallery of Modern Art
Queensland Gallery of Modern Art
The Queensland Gallery of Modern Art is part of the Queensland Cultural Centre at the South Bank area of South Brisbane. It holds most of Queensland Art Gallery's contemporary works, while also being the joint host to the current Asia-Pacific Triennial of Contemporary Art...

 (GOMA), opened in December 2006, is one of the latest additions to the South Bank
South Bank, Queensland
South Bank is a cultural, educational and recreational precinct in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. The precinct is located in the suburb of South Brisbane, on the southern bank of the Brisbane River.-South Bank Parklands:...

 precinct and houses some of the most well-known pieces of modern art from within and outside Australia. GOMA is the largest modern art gallery in Australia. GOMA holds the Asia Pacific Triennial (APT) which focuses on contemporary art from the Asia and Pacific in a variety of media from painting to video work. In Addition, its size enables the gallery to exhibit particularly large shows — the Andy Warhol
Andy Warhol
Andrew Warhola , known as Andy Warhol, was an American painter, printmaker, and filmmaker who was a leading figure in the visual art movement known as pop art...

 exhibition being the largest survey of his work in Australia. GOMA also boasts Australia's largest purpose-built Cinémathèque. The Gallery of Modern Art is located next to the State Library of Queensland
State Library of Queensland
The State Library of Queensland is a large public library provided to the people of the State of Queensland, Australia, by the state government. Its legislative basis is provided by the Queensland Libraries Act 1988...

 and the Queensland Art Gallery
Queensland Art Gallery
The Queensland Art Gallery is part of the Queensland Cultural Centre, and is located nearest to Brisbane River at South Bank...

. Along with Beijing, Berlin, Birmingham
Birmingham
Birmingham is a city and metropolitan borough in the West Midlands of England. It is the most populous British city outside the capital London, with a population of 1,036,900 , and lies at the heart of the West Midlands conurbation, the second most populous urban area in the United Kingdom with a...

 and Marseille
Marseille
Marseille , known in antiquity as Massalia , is the second largest city in France, after Paris, with a population of 852,395 within its administrative limits on a land area of . The urban area of Marseille extends beyond the city limits with a population of over 1,420,000 on an area of...

, Brisbane was nominated as one of the Top 5 International Music Hotspots by Billboard in 2007. There are also popular entertainment pubs and clubs within both the City and Fortitude Valley.

The Brisbane Powerhouse in New Farm and the Judith Wright Centre of Contemporary Arts
Judith Wright Centre of Contemporary Arts
The Judith Wright Centre of Contemporary Arts in Fortitude Valley in Brisbane, Queensland provides a 300-seat performance space, art gallery, artist studios, screening room and workshops with theatre rehearsal spaces for music, dance and circus. Opened in 2001 it is named after Judith Wright, who...

 on Brunswick Street in Fortitude Valley also feature diverse programs featuring exhibitions and festivals of visual art, music and dance. The La Boite Theatre Company performs at the Roundhouse Theatre at Kelvin Grove. Twelfth Night Theatre
Twelfth Night Theatre
thumb|250px|Twelfth Night TheatreThe Twelfth Night Theatre is an established Australian entertainment venue located in Bowen Hills, in Brisbane, Queensland. Australian actors such as Rowena Wallace, Sigrid Thornton, Judith McGrath, Jon English, June Salter, Penny Downie, Carol Burns, Kate Wilson,...

 at Bowen Hills is also a professional theatre. The Powerhouse complex stages a range of productions. There are numerous amateur theatre groups in Brisbane. The oldest is the Brisbane Arts Theatre
Brisbane Arts Theatre
The Brisbane Arts Theatre is the oldest surviving community theatre in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. It has existed for nearly seventy-five years. It once received funding from the Queensland state government. This ceased under the Goss Labor government. Since then it has operated without any...

 which was founded in 1936. It has a regular adult and children's theatre and is located in Petrie Terrace.

Annual events

Major cultural events in Brisbane include the Ekka
Ekka
The Ekka is the annual agricultural show of Queensland, Australia. Its formal title is the Royal Queensland Show. It was originally called the Brisbane Exhibition, however it is usually shortened to Ekka.-History:...

 (the Royal Queensland Show), held each August, and the Riverfestival
Riverfestival
Riverfestival, which began in 1998, is a week-long festival held in September each year at South Bank Parklands and surrounding areas , to celebrate the Brisbane River. In 2009, the festival merged with Brisbane Festival....

, held each September at South Bank Parklands
South Bank Parklands, Brisbane
The South Bank Parklands are located at South Bank in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. The parkland, on the transformed site of Brisbane's World Expo 88, was officially opened to the public on 20 June 1992.-Overview:...

 and surrounding areas. Warana, (meaning Blue Skies), was a former spring festival which began in 1961 and was held in September each year. Run as a celebration of Brisbane, Warana was similar to Melbourne's Moomba
Moomba
Moomba is Australia's largest free community festival and one of the longest running festivals in Australia. Held annually in the city of Melbourne, Australia, Moomba is celebrated during the Labour Day long weekend , and has been celebrated since 1955...

 festival. In 1996 the annual festival was changed to a biennial Brisbane Festival.

The Brisbane International Film Festival
Brisbane International Film Festival
Brisbane International Film Festival held in Brisbane provides a focus for film culture in Queensland, Australia. The festival has taken place since 1992 and focuses on films from the Asia-Pacific region. The event offers films including features, documentaries, shorts, experimental, silent films...

 (BIFF) is held in July/August in a variety of venues around Brisbane including the Regent Cinema in Queen Street Mall. Brisbane's historic Regent Cinema, on the Queen Street Mall, closed on Monday 14 June 2010. BIFF features new films and retrospectives by domestic and international filmmakers along with seminars and awards.

The Paniyiri festival at Musgrave Park
Musgrave Park, Brisbane
Musgrave Park is a park located in South Brisbane, a suburb in the city of Brisbane, the capital city of the Australian state of Queensland. Musgrave Park is nestled between Edmonstone, Russell and Cordelia Streets and is approximately 3000m2...

 (corner of Russell and Edmondstone Streets, South Brisbane
South Brisbane, Queensland
South Brisbane is an inner city suburb of Brisbane, Australia located on the southern bank of the Brisbane River, directly connected to the central business district by the Kurilpa, Victoria and Goodwill bridges....

) is an annual Greek cultural festival held on the first weekend in May. The Brisbane Medieval Fayre and Tournament is held each June in Musgrave Park
Musgrave Park, Brisbane
Musgrave Park is a park located in South Brisbane, a suburb in the city of Brisbane, the capital city of the Australian state of Queensland. Musgrave Park is nestled between Edmonstone, Russell and Cordelia Streets and is approximately 3000m2...

.

The Valley Fiesta is an annual three-day event organised by the Valley Chamber of Commerce. It was launched by Brisbane Marketing in 2002 to promote Fortitude Valley as a hub for arts and youth culture. It features free live music, market stalls, food and drink from many local restaurants and cafés, and other entertainment.

The Bridge to Brisbane
Bridge to Brisbane
Bridge to Brisbane is an annual 10 kilometer fun run held in Brisbane, Australia in August.The race distance is currently 10 km, although this has not been consistent over the life of the race. The first race occurred in 1997 with less than 5000 entrants and each year the event raises funds...

 fun run has become a major annual charity event for Brisbane.

Tourism and recreation

Tourism plays a major role in Brisbane's economy, being the third-most popular destination for international tourist after Sydney and Melbourne. Popular tourist and recreation areas in Brisbane include the South Bank Parklands
South Bank Parklands, Brisbane
The South Bank Parklands are located at South Bank in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. The parkland, on the transformed site of Brisbane's World Expo 88, was officially opened to the public on 20 June 1992.-Overview:...

, Roma Street Parkland
Roma Street Parkland
Roma Street Parkland covers 16 hectares in the centre of Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. The Roma Street Parkland is adjacent to Brisbane Transit Centre and the Roma Street Station...

, the City Botanic Gardens
Brisbane City Botanic Gardens
The City Botanic Gardens is located on a point known as Gardens Point on the Brisbane River adjacent to the central business district of the city of Brisbane...

, Brisbane Forest Park and Portside Wharf
Portside Wharf
Portside Wharf is the residential and retail development at Hamilton, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. The Brisbane Cruise Terminal which is also part of the development was opened on 29 August 2006....

. The Lone Pine Koala Sanctuary
Lone Pine Koala Sanctuary
Lone Pine Koala Sanctuary is located in the Brisbane suburb of Fig Tree Pocket in Queensland, Australia.Founded in 1927, it is the world's oldest and largest Koala Sanctuary.-History:...

 opened in 1927 and was the world's first koala sanctuary.

The suburb of Mount Coot-tha is home to a popular state forest, and the Brisbane Botanic Gardens
Brisbane Botanic Gardens, Mount Coot-tha
The Brisbane Botanic Gardens are located 7 km from the city of Brisbane in Toowong, Queensland, Australia, at the foot of Brisbane's tallest mountain, Mount Coot-tha.-History:...

 which houses the Sir Thomas Brisbane Planetarium
Sir Thomas Brisbane Planetarium
The Sir Thomas Brisbane Planetarium is a planetarium located on the grounds of Brisbane Botanic Gardens in the suburb of Toowong, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia...

 and the "Tsuki-yama-chisen" Japanese Garden (formerly of the Japanese Government Pavilion of Brisbane's World Expo '88
Expo '88
World Expo 88, also known as Expo '88, was a World's Fair held in Brisbane, the state capital of Queensland, Australia, during a six-month period between Saturday, 30 April 1988 and Sunday, 30 October 1988...

).

Brisbane has over 27 km (16.8 mi) of bicycle pathways, mostly surrounding the Brisbane river
Brisbane River
The Brisbane River is the longest river in south east Queensland, Australia, and flows through the city of Brisbane, before emptying into Moreton Bay. John Oxley was the first European to explore the river who named it after the Governor of New South Wales, Thomas Brisbane in 1823...

 and city centre, extending to the west of the city. The river itself was popular with bathers, and it permitted boating excursions to Moreton Bay when the main port was in the city reaches. Today fishing and boating are more common. Other popular recreation activities include the Story Bridge adventure climb
Story Bridge, Brisbane
The Story Bridge is a cantilever bridge spanning the Brisbane River. Part of Bradfield Highway , it connects Fortitude Valley to Kangaroo Point. Before the opening of the Sydney Harbour Bridge in 1932 the Government of Queensland asked John Bradfield to design a new bridge in Brisbane...

 and rock climbing at the Kangaroo Point cliffs
Kangaroo Point Cliffs
The Kangaroo Point Cliffs are located at Kangaroo Point just across the Brisbane River from the Brisbane CBD in Queensland, Australia. A popular recreation spot, they are conveniently close to the city and the South Bank Parklands...

.



Sport

Brisbane has hosted several major sporting events including the 1982 Commonwealth Games
1982 Commonwealth Games
The 1982 Commonwealth Games were held in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia from 30 September–9 October 1982. The Opening Ceremony was held at the QEII Stadium , in the Brisbane suburb of Nathan. The QEII Stadium was also the venue which was used for the athletics and archery competitions during the...

 and the 2001 Goodwill Games
Goodwill Games
The Goodwill Games was an international sports competition, created by Ted Turner in reaction to the political troubles surrounding the Olympic Games of the 1980s...

. The city also hosted events during the 1987 Rugby World Cup
1987 Rugby World Cup
The 1987 Rugby World Cup was the first Rugby World Cup. New Zealand and Australia agreed to co-host the first ever tournament with New Zealand hosting seventeen pool stage matches, two quarter-finals and the final with Australia being the junior partner hosting seven pool matches, two...

, 1992 Cricket World Cup
1992 Cricket World Cup
-New Zealand:-Round Robin Stage:Co-hosts New Zealand proved the surprise packet of the tournament, winning their first seven games to finish on top of the table after the round robin. The other hosts, Australia, were one of the pre-tournament favourites but lost their first two matches. They...

, 2000 Sydney Olympics
2000 Summer Olympics
The Sydney 2000 Summer Olympic Games or the Millennium Games/Games of the New Millennium, officially known as the Games of the XXVII Olympiad, were an international multi-sport event which was celebrated between 15 September and 1 October 2000 in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia...

, the 2003 Rugby World Cup
2003 Rugby World Cup
The 2003 Rugby World Cup was the fifth Rugby World Cup and was won by England. Originally planned to be co-hosted by Australia and New Zealand, all games were shifted to Australia following a contractual dispute over ground signage rights between the New Zealand Rugby Football Union and Rugby World...

 and hosted the Final of the 2008 Rugby League World Cup
2008 Rugby League World Cup
The 2008 Rugby League World Cup was the thirteenth staging of the Rugby League World Cup since the inauguration of the tournament in 1954, and the first since the 2000 event...

 and will host along with the Gold Coast
Gold Coast
-Colonization:*The Gold Coast in west Africa, which was made up of the following colonies:**Gold Coast , British colony on the Gulf of Guinea in west Africa**Brandenburger Gold Coast, former German colony...

, some events for the 2018 Commonwealth Games
2018 Commonwealth Games
The 2018 Commonwealth Games is an international multi-sport event that will be held on the Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia between 4 to 15 April 2018...

. In 2005, then Premier
Premier
Premier is a title for the head of government in some countries and states.-Examples by country:In many nations, "premier" is used interchangeably with "prime minister"...

 Peter Beattie
Peter Beattie
Peter Douglas Beattie , Australian politician, was the 36th Premier of the Australian state of Queensland for nine years and leader of the Australian Labor Party in that state for eleven and a half years...

 announced plans for Brisbane to bid to host the 2024 Olympic Games, which in August 2008 received in principle Australian Olympic Committee
Australian Olympic Committee
The Australian Olympic Committee is the National Olympic Committee in Australia for the Olympic Games movement. It is a non-profit organisation that selects teams, and raises funds to send Australian competitors to Olympic events organised by the International Olympic Committee .-Background:The...

 support, including that of the Queensland Premier Anna Bligh
Anna Bligh
Anna Maria Bligh is an Australian politician and the Premier of Queensland since 2007. The 2009 Queensland state election was the first time a female-led political party won or retained state or federal government in Australia...

 and Brisbane Lord Mayor Campbell Newman
Campbell Newman
Campbell Kevin Thomas Newman is the leader of the Liberal National Party of Queensland. He was the 15th Lord Mayor of Brisbane from 2004 to 2011....

. Brisbane is also home to a professional football (soccer) team named Brisbane Roar Football Club. They are in the Hyundai A-League.

The city's major sporting venues include Brisbane Cricket Ground, Sleeman Centre at Chandler
Chandler, Queensland
Chandler is an outer suburb of Brisbane, Australia south-east of the CBD.Chandler was named after Sir John Beals Chandler and is a semi-rural suburb and not yet heavily developed or subdivided.-External links:** *...

, Suncorp Stadium, Ballymore Stadium
Ballymore Stadium
Ballymore is the name of a rugby union stadium situated in Herston, a suburb of Brisbane, Australia. It was the home of Queensland Rugby Union, and used to be the home ground for the Queensland Reds and the Brisbane Strikers Football Club. The Queensland Reds have since moved to Suncorp Stadium...

 and the stadium facilities of the Queensland Sport and Athletics Centre
Queensland Sport and Athletics Centre
The Queensland Sport and Athletics Centre , more commonly known by its former names ANZ Stadium or QE II, is a major sporting facility on the south side of Brisbane, Queensland, Australia...

 in Nathan
Nathan, Queensland
Nathan is a southern suburb of Brisbane, Australia. It was named in 1967 after Sir Matthew Nathan, Governor of Queensland from 1920 to 1926.Nathan is home to Toohey Forest Conservation Park, Griffith University's Nathan campus and the Queensland Sport and Athletics Centre which hosted the opening...

. With the closure of the Milton Tennis grounds in 1994, Brisbane lacked a major tennis facility. In 2005, the State Government approved the State Tennis Centre
Tennyson Tennis Centre
Queensland Tennis Centre, known during its development as the Tennyson Tennis Centre, is a tennis venue in Tennyson, Brisbane, Australia.It is a A$82 million state-of-the-art tennis facility opened on 2 January 2009....

 a new A$65 million tennis stadium. The construction was completed in 2008. The Brisbane International
Brisbane International
The Brisbane International is a professional tennis tournament played on outdoor hard courts. It is currently part of the ATP World Tour 250 series of the Association of Tennis Professionals World Tour and of the WTA Premier tournaments of the Women's Tennis Association Tour...

 is held here from January 2009.

Brisbane has teams in all major interstate competitions, excluding the National Basketball League
National Basketball League (Australia)
The National Basketball League, also known as the iiNet NBL Championship for sponsorship reasons, is the pre-eminent men's professional basketball league in Australasia....

.
Sport Team Name League Stadium Reference
Rugby League
Rugby league
Rugby league football, usually called rugby league, is a full contact sport played by two teams of thirteen players on a rectangular grass field. One of the two codes of rugby football, it originated in England in 1895 by a split from Rugby Football Union over paying players...

Queensland State of Origin
Rugby League State of Origin
State of Origin is an annual best of three series of rugby league football matches contested by the Maroons and the Blues, who represent the Australian states of Queensland and New South Wales respectively...

Suncorp Stadium
Suncorp Stadium
Lang Park is the original name of the site located in the Brisbane suburb of Milton, Queensland, Australia, now occupied by the major sports facility known by its sponsorship name, Suncorp Stadium...

Brisbane Broncos
Brisbane Broncos
The Brisbane Broncos are an Australian professional rugby league football club based in the city of Brisbane, the capital of the state of Queensland. Founded in 1988, the Broncos play in Australasia's elite competition, the National Rugby League premiership. They have won six premierships and two...

National Rugby League
National Rugby League
The National Rugby League is the top league of professional rugby league football clubs in Australasia. The NRL's main competition, called the Telstra Premiership , is contested by sixteen teams, fifteen of which are based in Australia with one based in New Zealand...

Rugby Union
Rugby union
Rugby union, often simply referred to as rugby, is a full contact team sport which originated in England in the early 19th century. One of the two codes of rugby football, it is based on running with the ball in hand...

Queensland Reds
Queensland Reds
The Queensland Reds represent Queensland in the sport of rugby union in the Southern Hemisphere Super Rugby competition. Prior to 1996 they were a representative team selected on merit from the rugby union club competitions in Queensland...

Super Rugby
Football Brisbane Roar A-League
A-League
The A-League is the top Australasian professional football league. Run by Australian governing body Football Federation Australia , it was founded in 2004 following the folding of the National Soccer League and staged its inaugural season in 2005–06. It is sponsored by Hyundai Motor Company...

Cricket
Cricket
Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of 11 players on an oval-shaped field, at the centre of which is a rectangular 22-yard long pitch. One team bats, trying to score as many runs as possible while the other team bowls and fields, trying to dismiss the batsmen and thus limit the...

Queensland Bulls
Queensland Bulls
The Queensland cricket team, nicknamed the Bulls, are the Brisbane-based Queensland representative cricket team in Australia's domestic cricket tournaments:*Sheffield Shield, 4-day matches with first-class status, since the 1926/27 season...

Sheffield Shield
Ryobi One Day Cup
KFC Twenty20 Big Bash
KFC Twenty20 Big Bash
The KFC Twenty20 Big Bash was the domestic Twenty20 cricket competition in Australia. The competition was organised by Cricket Australia, and sponsored by fast food chicken outlet KFC. The competition was replaced by the Big Bash League as Australia's domestic Twenty20 competition after the 2010–11...

The Gabba
Brisbane Cricket Ground
The Brisbane Cricket Ground, commonly known as The Gabba, is a major sports stadium in Brisbane, the capital of Queensland. It is named after the suburb of Woolloongabba, in which it is located....

Australian rules football
Australian rules football
Australian rules football, officially known as Australian football, also called football, Aussie rules or footy is a sport played between two teams of 22 players on either...

Brisbane Lions
Brisbane Lions
The Brisbane Lions is an Australian rules football club which plays in the Australian Football League . The club is based in Brisbane, Queensland. The club was formed from the merger of the Brisbane Bears and the Fitzroy Lions in 1996...

Australian Football League
Australian Football League
The Australian Football League is both the governing body and the major professional competition in the sport of Australian rules football...

Netball
Netball
Netball is a ball sport played between two teams of seven players. Its development, derived from early versions of basketball, began in England in the 1890s. By 1960 international playing rules had been standardised for the game, and the International Federation of Netball and Women's Basketball ...

Queensland Firebirds
Queensland Firebirds
The Queensland Firebirds are an Australian netball team based in Brisbane that currently compete in the trans-Tasman ANZ Championship. The Firebirds were formed as one of the foundation teams of the Commonwealth Bank Trophy , previously the premier netball league in Australia, which was contested...

ANZ Championship
ANZ Championship
The ANZ Championship is the pre-eminent netball league in the world. The competition is held annually between April and July, comprising 69 matches played over 17 weeks. It is contested by ten teams, five from Australia and five from New Zealand...

Brisbane Convention and Exhibition Centre
Baseball Brisbane Bandits
Brisbane Bandits
The Brisbane Bandits were a foundation team in the Australian Baseball League which was bought by a private owner and shut down in 1999. The Bandits have now been resurrected as a team in the new Australian Baseball League which is due to start in November 2010...

Australian Baseball League
Australian Baseball League
The Australian Baseball League was a baseball league, established in 1987 and disbanded in 1999.-Formation:Before the formation of the Australian Baseball League, the Claxton Shield, established in , was Australia's premier baseball tournament...

Brisbane Exhibition Ground
Brisbane Exhibition Ground
The Brisbane Exhibition Ground , is a showground established in Brisbane during 1875 especially for Ekka . The Exhibition ground is owned and operated by the Royal National Agricultural and Industrial Association of Queensland...


Media

The main newspapers of Brisbane are The Courier-Mail
The Courier-Mail
The Courier-Mail is a daily newspaper published in Brisbane, Australia. Owned by News Limited, it is published daily from Monday to Saturday in tabloid format. Its editorial offices are located at Bowen Hills, in Brisbane's inner northern suburbs, and it is printed at Murarrie, in Brisbane's...

and The Sunday Mail
The Sunday Mail (Brisbane)
The Sunday Mail is Brisbane's only Sunday newspaper. The Sunday Mail is published in tabloid format, comprising several sections that can be extracted and read separately.-Publishing:...

, both owned by News Corporation
News Corporation
News Corporation or News Corp. is an American multinational media conglomerate. It is the world's second-largest media conglomerate as of 2011 in terms of revenue, and the world's third largest in entertainment as of 2009, although the BBC remains the world's largest broadcaster...

. Brisbane receives the national daily, The Australian
The Australian
The Australian is a broadsheet newspaper published in Australia from Monday to Saturday each week since 14 July 1964. The editor in chief is Chris Mitchell, the editor is Clive Mathieson and the 'editor-at-large' is Paul Kelly....

, and the Weekend Australian, together with Fairfax
Fairfax Media
Fairfax Media Limited is one of Australia's largest diversified media companies. The group's operations include newspapers, magazines, radios and digital media operating in Australia and New Zealand. Fairfax Media was founded by the Fairfax family as John Fairfax and Sons, later to become John...

 papers Australian Financial Review, the Sydney Morning Herald and The Age
The Age
The Age is a daily broadsheet newspaper, which has been published in Melbourne, Australia since 1854. Owned and published by Fairfax Media, The Age primarily serves Victoria, but is also available for purchase in Tasmania, the Australian Capital Territory and border regions of South Australia and...

, and Fairfax website Brisbane Times
Brisbane Times
Brisbane Times is an Internet-based news site for Brisbane and Queensland, Australia. It was launched on 7 March 2007 by then-Queensland Premier Peter Beattie....

. There are community and suburban newspapers throughout the metropolitan and regional areas, including Brisbane News and City News
City News
City News might refer to one of the following:*CityNews, a news network in Toronto, Canada*City News Los Angeles, an LGBT newspaper*City News Bureau of Chicago...

, many of which are produced by Quest Community Newspapers
Quest Community Newspapers
Quest Community Newspapers is a newspaper company in Stafford, Queensland, Australia. It is owned and operated by Rupert Murdoch's News Corporation....

. mX
MX (newspaper)
mX is an Australian free afternoon daily newspaper in the cities of Melbourne, Sydney and Brisbane, owned and produced by News Limited. Targeted at commuters, its main channels of distribution are inner-city railway stations, tram and bus stops, and major CBD intersections.-Beginnings:The first mX...

, a free daily commuter newspaper, was launched in 2007, following the newspaper's success in Melbourne and Sydney.

Brisbane is served by all five major television networks in Australia, which broadcast from the summit of Mount Coot-tha. The three commercial stations, Seven
Seven Network
The Seven Network is an Australian television network owned by Seven West Media Limited. It dates back to 4 November 1956, when the first stations on the VHF7 frequency were established in Melbourne and Sydney.It is currently the second largest network in the country in terms of population reach...

, Nine
Nine Network
The Nine Network , is an Australian television network with headquarters based in Willoughby, a suburb located on the North Shore of Sydney. For 50 years since television's inception in Australia, between 1956 and 2006, it was the most watched television network in Australia...

, and Ten
Network Ten
Network Ten , is one of Australia's three major commercial television networks. Owned-and-operated stations can be found in Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Adelaide and Perth, while affiliates extend the network to cover most of the country...

, are accompanied by two government networks, ABC
Australian Broadcasting Corporation
The Australian Broadcasting Corporation, commonly referred to as "the ABC" , is Australia's national public broadcaster...

 and SBS
Special Broadcasting Service
The Special Broadcasting Service is a hybrid-funded Australian public broadcasting radio and television network. The stated purpose of SBS is "to provide multilingual and multicultural radio and television services that inform, educate and entertain all Australians and, in doing so, reflect...

, with all five providing digital television
Digital television
Digital television is the transmission of audio and video by digital signals, in contrast to the analog signals used by analog TV...

. New digital-only channels available in addition to ABC1, Seven, Nine, Ten and SBS One include One HD, Eleven
Eleven (TV channel)
Eleven is an Australian free-to-air standard definition digital television channel, which was launched by ElevenCo, on 11 January 2011.-Joint venture:...

, ABC2
ABC2
ABC2 is a national public television channel in Australia. Launched on 7 March 2005, it is the responsibility of the Australian Broadcasting Corporation's television division, and is available nationally to digital television viewers in Australia...

, ABC3
ABC3
-Future shows:Programming confirmed for future broadcast will include:* After School Care * Bindi's Boot Camp * Bushwacked! * Dance Academy * Dancing Down Under...

, ABC News 24
ABC News 24
ABC News 24 is an Australian 24-hour news channel launched and owned by the Australian Broadcasting Corporation. The channel replaced the former ABC High Definition simulcast of ABC1 and commenced broadcasting at 7:30pm 5:30 on Thursday, 22 July 2010.-Pre-launch:The ABC announced in January 2010...

, SBS Two, 7Two
7Two
7TWO is an Australian free-to-air standard definition digital television channel which was launched by the Seven Network on Sunday 1 November 2009 at 12pm....

, 7mate
7mate
7mate is an Australian free-to-air high definition digital television channel, which was launched by the Seven Network on 25 September 2010.The network stated that 7mate would contain sport and regular programs aimed primarily at a male audience, with programming drawn from a combination of new...

, GEM HD and GO!
Go! (Australian TV channel)
GO! is an Australian free-to-air standard definition digital television channel launched by the Nine Network on Sunday 9 August 2009.-Origins:...

. 31, a community station, also broadcasts in Brisbane. Optus
Optus
SingTel Optus Pty Limited is the second largest telecommunications company in Australia, and is a wholly owned subsidiary of Singapore Telecommunications...

, Foxtel
Foxtel
Foxtel is an Australian pay television company, operating cable, direct broadcast satellite television and IPTV services. It was formed in 1995 through a joint venture established between Telstra and News Corporation....

 and Austar
Austar
Austar is an Australian telecommunications company. Its main business activity is Subscription Television but it is also involved with internet access and mobile phones...

 all operate PayTV services in Brisbane, via cable
Cable
A cable is two or more wires running side by side and bonded, twisted or braided together to form a single assembly. In mechanics cables, otherwise known as wire ropes, are used for lifting, hauling and towing or conveying force through tension. In electrical engineering cables are used to carry...

 and satellite
Satellite
In the context of spaceflight, a satellite is an object which has been placed into orbit by human endeavour. Such objects are sometimes called artificial satellites to distinguish them from natural satellites such as the Moon....

 means.

The ABC
Australian Broadcasting Corporation
The Australian Broadcasting Corporation, commonly referred to as "the ABC" , is Australia's national public broadcaster...

 transmits all five of its radio networks to Brisbane; 612 ABC Brisbane
612 ABC Brisbane
612 ABC Brisbane is an ABC Local Radio station in Brisbane, Queensland. It is one of the largest stations in the network, serving as a base for Queensland programming - many programs are broadcast across the ABC Local Radio network in regional and rural areas of Queensland when those stations are...

, ABC Classic FM
ABC Classic FM
ABC Classic FM is a classical music radio station available in Australia, and internationally online. It is operated by the Australian Broadcasting Corporation . It was established in 1976 as "ABC-FM", and later for a short time was known as "ABC Fine Music" , before adopting its current name...

, ABC NewsRadio
ABC NewsRadio
ABC NewsRadio is an Australian Broadcasting Corporation radio service devoted to delivering live and 24-hour news updates and information. The service is available on a number of broadcasts right around Australia, including AM/FM radio, some pay-TV platforms and online via the Internet.Originally...

, Radio National
Radio National
ABC Radio National is an Australia-wide non-commercial radio network run by the Australian Broadcasting Corporation.Radio National broadcasts national programming in areas that include news and current affairs, the arts, social issues, science, drama and comedy...

, and Triple J
Triple J
triple j is a nationally networked Australian radio station intended to appeal to listeners between the ages of 18 and 30. The government-funded station is a division of the Australian Broadcasting Corporation...

. SBS
Special Broadcasting Service
The Special Broadcasting Service is a hybrid-funded Australian public broadcasting radio and television network. The stated purpose of SBS is "to provide multilingual and multicultural radio and television services that inform, educate and entertain all Australians and, in doing so, reflect...

 broadcasts its national radio network. Brisbane is serviced by major commercial radio stations, including 4KQ
4KQ
4KQ is a commercial radio station in Brisbane, Australia owned by the Australian Radio Network. 4KQ began broadcasting on the 7th of May 1947 on 690 kHz AM moving to 693 kHz in 1978. 4KQ broadcasts from its studios in the Brisbane suburb of Stones Corner, along with its sister station 97.3 FM...

, 4BC, 4BH
4BH
4BH is a radio station in Brisbane, the state capital of Queensland, Australia. Its analogue broadcast frequency is 882 KHz AM and markets itself for the baby boomer market. 4BH also broadcasts in digital using the dab+ format on the Brisbane 2 DAB ensemble channel 9B 204.640 MHz...

, 97.3 FM, B105 FM
B105 FM
B105 is a commercial FM radio station broadcasting on 105.3 MHz in Brisbane, Australia. It is part of the Austereo Radio Network. B105's primary audience is 10 to 24 age group.-History:...

, Nova 106.9
Nova 106.9
Nova 106.9 is a commercial radio station operating in Brisbane, Australia, owned by the DMG Radio Network. DMG Radio purchased the Brisbane FM licence for $80 million in April 2004 to complete their national network of Nova stations...

, and Triple M
Triple M
The Triple M Network is an active rock radio network in Australia owned by media company Austereo, who also own the Today Network.- History :...

. Brisbane is also serviced by major community radio stations such as 96five Family FM
96five Family FM
96five is a community broadcast radio station operated by Family Radio Ltd in Brisbane, Australia. The radio stations continued operation is supported by sponsorship, fundraising and pledges.-Programming:...

, 4MBS Classic FM 103.7, 4EB FM and 4ZZZ
4ZZZ
4ZZZ is an independent community radio station operating in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia, at the frequency 102.1 FM. As a community radio station, 4ZZZ is a member of the Community Broadcasting Association of Australia...

 102.1.

Health

Brisbane is covered by Queensland Health
Queensland Health
Queensland Health is the department of the Government of Queensland responsible for operating and administering the public health system of the Australian State of Queensland. It is responsible to the State's Health Minister Geoff Wilson and its Director-General is Tony O'Connell.Queensland Health...

's "Northside" and "Southside" health service areas. Within the greater Brisbane area there are 8 major public hospital
Public hospital
A public hospital or government hospital is a hospital which is owned by a government and receives government funding. This type of hospital provides medical care free of charge, the cost of which is covered by the funding the hospital receives....

s, 4 major private hospital
Private hospital
A private hospital is a hospital owned by a profit company or a non-profit organisation and privately funded through payment for medical services by patients themselves, by insurers, or by foreign embassies. This practice is very common in the United States and Australia...

s, and smaller public and private facilities. Specialist and general
General practitioner
A general practitioner is a medical practitioner who treats acute and chronic illnesses and provides preventive care and health education for all ages and both sexes. They have particular skills in treating people with multiple health issues and comorbidities...

 medical practices are located in the CBD, and most suburbs and localities.

Transport

Brisbane has an extensive transportation network within the city, as well as connections to regional centres, interstate and to overseas destinations. The use of urban public transport is still only a small component of total passenger transport, the largest component being travel by private car.

Public transport is provided by bus, rail and ferry services. Bus services are operated by public and private operators whereas trains and ferries are operated by public agencies. The Brisbane central business district
Brisbane central business district
The Brisbane central business district , sometimes referred to as the city, is a suburb of Brisbane, Queensland, Australia and is located on a point on the northern bank of the Brisbane River. The triangular shaped area is bounded by the Brisbane River to the east, south and west...

 (CBD) is the central hub for all public transport services with services focusing on Queen Street Bus Station
Queen Street Bus Station, Brisbane
Queen Street Bus Station is the Brisbane CBD's primary bus terminus. It is underneath The Myer Centre and Queen Street Mall. It is in Zone 1 of the TransLink integrated public transport system....

, Roma Street
Roma Street railway station, Brisbane
Roma Street railway station is a major railway station in the Brisbane central business district, the state capital of Queensland, Australia. It was Brisbane's first railway station, opening in 1876...

 and Central
Central railway station, Brisbane
Central railway station is, as the name suggests, the central railway station for the Queensland Rail City network in the Brisbane central business district, the state capital of Queensland, Australia...

 railway stations, and various city ferries wharves. Brisbane's CityCat high speed ferry service, popular with tourists and commuters, operates services along the Brisbane River
Brisbane River
The Brisbane River is the longest river in south east Queensland, Australia, and flows through the city of Brisbane, before emptying into Moreton Bay. John Oxley was the first European to explore the river who named it after the Governor of New South Wales, Thomas Brisbane in 1823...

 between the University of Queensland
University of Queensland
The University of Queensland, also known as UQ, is a public university located in state of Queensland, Australia. Founded in 1909, it is the oldest and largest university in Queensland and the fifth oldest in the nation...

 and Apollo Road.

The Citytrain
CityTrain
Citytrain is the brand name of urban, suburban and inter-urban electric passenger railway services in South East Queensland, Australia. Its network, centering in Brisbane, the state capital of Queensland, is approximately in route length...

 urban rail network consists of 10 suburban lines and covers mostly the west, north and east sides of the city. It also provides the route for an Airtrain service under joint public/private control between the City and Brisbane Airport
Brisbane Airport
Brisbane Airport is the sole passenger airport serving Brisbane and the third busiest in Australia, after Melbourne and Sydney Airports. Brisbane Airport has won many awards. Located in the suburb with the same name, the airport serves the city of Brisbane and the surrounding metropolitan area...

. Since 2000, Brisbane has been developing a network of busways, including the South East Busway and the Inner Northern Busway, to provide faster bus services. TransLink
TransLink (South East Queensland)
The TransLink Transit Authority is the authority introduced by the Queensland Government in June 2003 as a section of Queensland Transport to coordinate and integrate rail, bus and ferry services. TransLink works with Airtrain, Brisbane Transport, Brisbane Ferries, QR Citytrain and 17 other...

 operates an integrated ticketing
Integrated ticketing
Integrated ticketing allows a person to make a journey that involves transfers within or between different transport modes with a single ticket that is valid for the complete journey, modes being buses, trains, subways, ferries, etc...

 system across the public transport network.

The Brisbane River has created a barrier to some road transport routes. In total there are ten road bridges
Bridges of Brisbane
The Brisbane River, running through Brisbane, Queensland, Australia, is crossed by sixteen major bridges, from the Sir Leo Hielscher Bridges downsteam to the Centenary upsteam...

, mostly concentrated in the inner city area. This has intensified the need for transport routes to focus on the inner city. There are also three railway bridges and two pedestrian bridges. The Eleanor Schonell Bridge
Eleanor Schonell Bridge
The Eleanor Schonell Bridge, better known as the Green Bridge, is a 390-metre -long cable-stayed bridge which crosses the Brisbane River between Dutton Park and the University of Queensland's St Lucia campus. Its deck is 185 metres long, 20 metres wide and about 18 metres above the river's surface...

 (originally named, and still generally known as, The Green Bridge) between the University of Queensland and Dutton Park
Dutton Park, Queensland
Dutton Park is a suburb of Brisbane, Australia located 5 km south of the Brisbane CBD. The suburb is predominantly residential, with some light industrial and commercial areas....

 is for use by buses, pedestrians and cyclists. There are currently multiple tunnel and bridge projects underway as part of the TransApex
TransApex
TransApex is a transport plan devised by the former Brisbane Lord Mayor Campbell Newman to connect existing motorways and major arterial roads with new transport links and divert cross-city traffic out of the Brisbane CBD. The plan is currently being delivered by Brisbane City Council at an...

 plan.

An extensive network of pedestrian and cyclist pathways have been created along the banks of the Brisbane River
Brisbane River
The Brisbane River is the longest river in south east Queensland, Australia, and flows through the city of Brisbane, before emptying into Moreton Bay. John Oxley was the first European to explore the river who named it after the Governor of New South Wales, Thomas Brisbane in 1823...

 to form a Riverwalk network.

Brisbane is served by several urban and inter-urban motorways. The Pacific Motorway
Pacific Motorway
The Pacific Motorway is a 100 km long motorway in Australia between Brisbane, Queensland, and the New South Wales-Queensland border at Tweed Heads. The motorway starts at Coronation Drive at Milton in Brisbane, and from 2008 links the Tweed Heads bypass in New South Wales...

 connects the central city with the Gold Coast
Gold Coast, Queensland
Gold Coast is a coastal city of Australia located in South East Queensland, 94km south of the state capital Brisbane. With a population approximately 540,000 in 2010, it is the second most populous city in the state, the sixth most populous city in the country, and also the most populous...

 to the south. The Ipswich Motorway
Ipswich Motorway
The M7 runs from the junction of Ipswich Road and Granard Road to the M2 Logan Motorway interchange. It is then signed M2 until the junction of the Warrego Highway and the Cunningham Highway between Brisbane and Ipswich in South East Queensland, Australia.It initially passes through the suburbs of...

 connects the city with Ipswich to the west via the southern suburbs, while the Western Freeway
Western Freeway, Brisbane
The M5 is a 5 km long freeway in western Brisbane that runs from Milton Road in Toowong to the western side of Indooroopilly where the freeway becomes the M5 Centenary Motorway. The freeway bears the symbol and forms part of Metroad 5. There is one interchange, at Indooroopilly onto Moggill Road...

 and the Centenary Motorway provide a connection between Brisbane's inner-west and the outer south-west, connecting with the Ipswich Motorway south of the Brisbane River. The Bruce Highway
Bruce Highway
The Bruce Highway is a major highway in Queensland, Australia. Commencing in the state capital, Brisbane, it passes through areas close to the eastern coast to Cairns in Far North Queensland. The route is a part of the Australian National Highway and also part of Highway 1...

 is Brisbane's main route north of the city to the rest of the State. The Bruce Highway terminates 1700 km (1,056 mi) away in Cairns and passes through most major cities along the Queensland coast. The Gateway Motorway
Gateway Motorway
The Gateway Motorway is a major motorway in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. The Gateway Bridge is owned and operated by Queensland Motorways....

 is a private toll road
Toll road
A toll road is a privately or publicly built road for which a driver pays a toll for use. Structures for which tolls are charged include toll bridges and toll tunnels. Non-toll roads are financed using other sources of revenue, most typically fuel tax or general tax funds...

 which connects the Gold Coast and Sunshine Coasts by providing an alternate route via the Gateway Bridge avoiding Brisbane's inner city area. The Port of Brisbane Motorway links the Gateway to the Port of Brisbane, while Inner City Bypass and the Riverside Expressway act as the inner ring freeway system to prevent motorists from travelling through the city's congested centre.

Brisbane's population growth placed strains on South East Queensland's transport system. The State Government and Brisbane City Council have responded with infrastructure plans and increased funding for transportation projects, such as the South East Queensland Infrastructure Plan and Program
South East Queensland Infrastructure Plan and Program
The South East Queensland Infrastructure Plan and Program 2010–2031 is produced by the Queensland Department of Infrastructure and Planning and outlines estimated infrastructure investment across South East Queensland Australia to 2031. It represents a long-term commitment to infrastructure...

. Most of the focus has been placed on expanding current road infrastructure, particularly tunnels and bypasses, as well as improving the public transport system.

Brisbane Airport
Brisbane Airport
Brisbane Airport is the sole passenger airport serving Brisbane and the third busiest in Australia, after Melbourne and Sydney Airports. Brisbane Airport has won many awards. Located in the suburb with the same name, the airport serves the city of Brisbane and the surrounding metropolitan area...

 (IATA code: BNE) is the city's main airport, the third busiest in Australia after Sydney Airport
Sydney Airport
Sydney Airport may refer to:* Sydney Airport, also known as Kingsford Smith International Airport, in Sydney, Australia* Sydney/J.A. Douglas McCurdy Airport, in Nova Scotia, Canada...

 and Melbourne Airport
Melbourne Airport
Melbourne Airport , also known as Tullamarine Airport, is the primary airport serving the city of Melbourne and the second busiest in Australia. It was opened in 1970 to replace the nearby Essendon Airport. Melbourne Airport is the sole international airport of the four airports serving the...

. It is located north-east of the city centre and provides domestic and international passenger services. In the 2008–2009 year, Brisbane Airport handled over 18.5 million passengers. The airport is serviced by the Brisbane Airtrain which provides a rail service from Brisbane's city centre to and from the airport. Archerfield Airport
Archerfield Airport
Archerfield Airport is a small airport located 7 1/2 miles at Archerfield in the south west of Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. For some time it was the primary airport in Brisbane. During World War II it was used as a Royal Australian Air Force station. Airport traffic peaked in the 1980s...

 (in Brisbane's southern suburbs) acts as a general aviation
General aviation
General aviation is one of the two categories of civil aviation. It refers to all flights other than military and scheduled airline and regular cargo flights, both private and commercial. General aviation flights range from gliders and powered parachutes to large, non-scheduled cargo jet flights...

 airport.

Utilities

Water storage, treatment and delivery for Brisbane is handled by SEQ Water
SEQ Water
Seqwater provides bulk water storage and treatment services to the SEQ Water Grid. In addition, Seqwater also supplies water to smaller communities in the region not connected to the Grid....

, which sells on to Queensland Urban Utilities
Queensland Urban Utilities
Queensland Urban Utilities is responsible for the delivery of water and wastewater services across five key council areas in South East Queensland, including the Brisbane metropolitan area. In 2010 QUU was formed by the merging of water assets from the local councils of Brisbane, Ipswich, Scenic...

 (previously Brisbane Water) for distribution to the greater Brisbane area. Water for the area is stored in one of three dams; Wivenhoe
Wivenhoe Dam
Wivenhoe Dam is a dam across the Brisbane River a little way upstream from Locker Creek. The dam creates the artificial Lake Wivenhoe. The dam wall is located about by road from the centre of Brisbane, Queensland, Australia....

, Somerset
Lake Somerset
Lake Somerset is an artificial lake created by the Somerset Dam on the Stanley River in South East Queensland. The dam was completed in 1953 providing flood mitigation and water storage for the cities of Brisbane and Ipswich and is the site of a small 4 MW hydroelectric power station.At full...

 and North Pine
North Pine Dam
North Pine Dam is built across the North Pine River, north-west of Brisbane, within Moreton Bay in Queensland, Australia.The damming of North Pine River created an artificial lake called Lake Samsonvale to secure a supply of drinking water for the Moreton Bay region and Brisbane's northern...

. Since 13 May 2005, Brisbane has enforced water restrictions
Water restrictions in Australia
Water restrictions have been enacted in many cities and regions in Australia, which is the Earth's driest inhabited continent, in response to chronic water shortages resulting from the drought. Depending upon the location, these can include restrictions on watering lawns, using sprinkler systems,...

 due to drought. This has also led to the State Government announcing that purified recycled water would be pumped into the dams once the pipeline was complete in 2009. More recently, restrictions were lifted and water conservation is no longer a major concern of council, although residents are asked to follow permanent conservation measures.

Electricity and gas grids in Brisbane are handled by Energex
Energex
Energex is an Australian energy company owned by the Queensland Government. It is based in Brisbane and was founded in 1922 as the City Electric Light Co....

 (electricity), and Origin Energy
Origin Energy
-History:Origin Energy was formed in February 2000, as a result of a demerger from the Australian conglomerate Boral Limited, in which the energy business was removed from the building and construction materials business to form the new company....

 (gas), with each company previously holding a monopoly on domestic retail supply. Since 1 July 2007 Queensland regulation changes have opened up the retail energy market, allowing multiple companies to resell both gas and electricity.

Metropolitan Brisbane is serviced by all major and most minor telecommunications companies and their networks. Brisbane has the largest number of enabled DSL telephone exchanges in Queensland. An increasing number are also enabled with special hardware (DSLAMs) which enable high speed ADSL2+ internet access. The Brisbane CBD also features a complete underground fibre optics network, with numerous connections to the inner suburbs provided by various service providers.

Telstra
Telstra
Telstra Corporation Limited is an Australian telecommunications and media company, building and operating telecommunications networks and marketing voice, mobile, internet access and pay television products and services....

 and Optus
Optus
SingTel Optus Pty Limited is the second largest telecommunications company in Australia, and is a wholly owned subsidiary of Singapore Telecommunications...

 provide both high speed internet as well as Pay TV
Pay TV
Pay television, premium television, or premium channels refers to subscription-based television services, usually provided by both analog and digital cable and satellite, but also increasingly via digital terrestrial and internet television...

 through their cable services for the bulk of the city's metropolitan area. Both of these providers also host wireless networks with hotspots
Hotspot (Wi-Fi)
A hotspot is a site that offers Internet access over a wireless local area network through the use of a router connected to a link to an Internet service provider...

 within both the inner and suburban areas. In addition, 3 Mobile
Hutchison Whampoa
Hutchison Whampoa Limited or HWL of Hong Kong is a Fortune 500 company and one of the largest companies listed on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange. HWL is an international corporation with a diverse array of holdings which includes the world's biggest port and telecommunication operations in 14...

, Telstra
Telstra
Telstra Corporation Limited is an Australian telecommunications and media company, building and operating telecommunications networks and marketing voice, mobile, internet access and pay television products and services....

, Optus
Optus
SingTel Optus Pty Limited is the second largest telecommunications company in Australia, and is a wholly owned subsidiary of Singapore Telecommunications...

 and Vodafone
Vodafone
Vodafone Group Plc is a global telecommunications company headquartered in London, United Kingdom. It is the world's largest mobile telecommunications company measured by revenues and the world's second-largest measured by subscribers , with around 341 million proportionate subscribers as of...

 all operate both 2.5G, 3G
3G
3G or 3rd generation mobile telecommunications is a generation of standards for mobile phones and mobile telecommunication services fulfilling the International Mobile Telecommunications-2000 specifications by the International Telecommunication Union...

 and 3.5G mobile phone networks citywide.

Australian Navy references

Three ships and a naval base of the Royal Australian Navy
Royal Australian Navy
The Royal Australian Navy is the naval branch of the Australian Defence Force. Following the Federation of Australia in 1901, the ships and resources of the separate colonial navies were integrated into a national force: the Commonwealth Naval Forces...

 named HMAS Brisbane
HMAS Brisbane
Three ships and a naval base of the Royal Australian Navy have been named HMAS Brisbane after Brisbane, the capital city of Queensland., a Town class light cruiser launched in 1915 and decommissioned in 1935., a naval base operated in Brisbane between 1940 and 1942., a Perth class guided missile...

 are named after the city.

Music references

Brisbane is featured in music including The Saints
The Saints (band)
The Saints are an Australian rock band, which formed in Brisbane in 1974 as punk rockers. Founders were Chris Bailey , Ivor Hay , and Ed Kuepper . Alongside mainstay Bailey, the group has had numerous line-ups...

 "Brisbane (Security City)" (1978); "Love You Brisbane" theme single from the 1980s; "Footpaths Of Brunswick Street" – The Natives Of Bedlam (1993); Powderfinger
Powderfinger
Powderfinger was an Australian rock band that formed in Brisbane in 1989. From 1992 until their breakup the band lineup consisted of vocalist Bernard Fanning, guitarists Darren Middleton and Ian Haug, bassist John Collins, and drummer Jon Coghill....

's album "Vulture Street" (2003); R.E.M.'s "Parakeet" (from "Up") (1999); The Stranglers
The Stranglers
The Stranglers are an English punk/rock music group.Scoring some 23 UK top 40 singles and 17 UK top 40 albums to date in a career spanning five decades, the Stranglers are the longest-surviving and most "continuously successful" band to have originated in the UK punk scene of the mid to late 1970s...

 "Nuclear Device" (1979); The Go-Betweens' first single "Lee Remick" (1978); Evil Eddie's "Queensland" (2010); and John Kennedy
John Kennedy (Australian Musician)
John Kennedy is an Australian musician, a singer-songwriter with a penchant for strong melodies and "heart on your sleeve" pop songs often with country and western influences.-Early life:...

’s "Brisvegas" (2007).

Bris Vegas

"Bris Vegas" is a nickname given to the city. This has been attributed to an Elvis Presley
Elvis Presley
Elvis Aaron Presley was one of the most popular American singers of the 20th century. A cultural icon, he is widely known by the single name Elvis. He is often referred to as the "King of Rock and Roll" or simply "the King"....

 tribute CD and the city's growing live music scene. It is believed to have been first used in print in a 1996 edition of The Courier-Mail
The Courier-Mail
The Courier-Mail is a daily newspaper published in Brisbane, Australia. Owned by News Limited, it is published daily from Monday to Saturday in tabloid format. Its editorial offices are located at Bowen Hills, in Brisbane's inner northern suburbs, and it is printed at Murarrie, in Brisbane's...

, also approximately the time of the opening of the Treasury Casino
Conrad Treasury Casino
The Treasury Casino, also known as The Treasury is a casino in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. It also houses a hotel, five restaurants, seven bars, and a nightclub. The casino is operated by ECHO Entertainment Group....

 in Brisbane and the popularisation of poker machines in Brisbane bars and clubs, a play on the popular gaming ground of Las Vegas. The name has also been attributed to the city's nightlife, compact size of the central business district and previous lack of sophistication when compared with more populated Australian cities and also to Las Vegas
Las Vegas, Nevada
Las Vegas is the most populous city in the U.S. state of Nevada and is also the county seat of Clark County, Nevada. Las Vegas is an internationally renowned major resort city for gambling, shopping, and fine dining. The city bills itself as The Entertainment Capital of the World, and is famous...

.

External links

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