Boarding school
Overview
A boarding school is a school
School
A school is an institution designed for the teaching of students under the direction of teachers. Most countries have systems of formal education, which is commonly compulsory. In these systems, students progress through a series of schools...

 where some or all pupils study and live during the school year with their fellow students and possibly teachers and/or administrators. The word 'boarding' is used in the sense of "bed and board," i.e., lodging and meals. Some boarding schools also have day students who attend the institution by day and return off-campus to their families in the evenings.

Many independent (private) schools in the Commonwealth of Nations
Commonwealth of Nations
The Commonwealth of Nations, normally referred to as the Commonwealth and formerly known as the British Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organisation of fifty-four independent member states...

 are boarding schools.
Encyclopedia
A boarding school is a school
School
A school is an institution designed for the teaching of students under the direction of teachers. Most countries have systems of formal education, which is commonly compulsory. In these systems, students progress through a series of schools...

 where some or all pupils study and live during the school year with their fellow students and possibly teachers and/or administrators. The word 'boarding' is used in the sense of "bed and board," i.e., lodging and meals. Some boarding schools also have day students who attend the institution by day and return off-campus to their families in the evenings.

Many independent (private) schools in the Commonwealth of Nations
Commonwealth of Nations
The Commonwealth of Nations, normally referred to as the Commonwealth and formerly known as the British Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organisation of fifty-four independent member states...

 are boarding schools. Boarding school pupils (a.k.a. "boarders") normally return home during the school holidays and, often, weekends, but in some cultures may spend the majority of their childhood
Childhood
Childhood is the age span ranging from birth to adolescence. In developmental psychology, childhood is divided up into the developmental stages of toddlerhood , early childhood , middle childhood , and adolescence .- Age ranges of childhood :The term childhood is non-specific and can imply a...

 and adolescent life away from their families. In the United States, boarding schools comprise various grades, most commonly grades seven or nine through grade twelve - the high school
High school
High school is a term used in parts of the English speaking world to describe institutions which provide all or part of secondary education. The term is often incorporated into the name of such institutions....

 years. Some also feature military training, though this is generally offered only at specialized military schools. Some American boarding schools offer a post-graduate year of study in order to help students prepare for college entrance, most commonly to assimilate foreign students to American culture and academics before college.

In the Soviet Union similar schools were introduced; these were known as Internat-schools (Russian: Школа-интернат) (from Latin: internus). They varied in their organization, however, because education in the Soviet Union was free they often were associated with orphanages (known as Children Homes) after which all children enrolled in Internat-school automatically. Such Internat-schools were not only designed for the orphaned pupils, but were often a type of specialized school with a specific focus in a particular certain field such as mathematics, language, science, sports, etc. Some such Soviet schools offered "extended stay" programs (Russian: Продленка) featuring a shared meal time providing an opportunity for social interaction between classmates. This program was discontinued in the 1980s.

Typical boarding school characteristics

The term boarding school often refers to classic British boarding schools and many boarding schools around the world are modeled on these.
A typical modern fee-charging boarding school has several separate residential houses, either within the school grounds or in the surrounding area. Pupils generally need permission to go outside defined school bounds; they may be allowed to travel off-campus at certain times.

A number of senior teaching staff are appointed as housemasters, housemistresses, dorm parents, or residential advisors, each of whom takes quasi-parental responsibility for perhaps 50 students resident in their house at all times but particularly outside school hours. Each may be assisted in the domestic management of the house by a housekeeper often known as matron, and by a house tutor for academic matters, often providing staff of each sex. In the US, boarding schools typically have a resident family that lives in the dorm, known as dorm parents. They also have janitorial staff for maintenance and housekeeping, but typically do not have tutors associated with an individual dorm. Nevertheless, older pupils are often unsupervised by staff, and a system of monitors or prefects gives limited authority to senior pupils. Houses readily develop distinctive characters, and a healthy rivalry between houses is often encouraged in sport. See also House system
House system
The house system is a traditional feature of British schools, and schools in the Commonwealth. Historically, it was associated with established public schools, where a 'house' refers to a boarding house or dormitory of a boarding school...

.

Houses or dorms usually include study-bedrooms or dormitories, a dining room or refectory
Refectory
A refectory is a dining room, especially in monasteries, boarding schools and academic institutions. One of the places the term is most often used today is in graduate seminaries...

 where pupils take meals at fixed times, and a library, hall or cubicles where pupils can do their homework. Houses may also have common rooms for television and relaxation and kitchens for snacks, and, occasionally, storage facilities for bicycles or other sports equipment. Some facilities may be shared between several houses or dorms.

In some schools, each house has pupils of all ages, in which case there is usually a prefect system, which gives older pupils some privileges and some responsibility for the welfare of the younger ones. In others, separate houses accommodate needs of different years or classes. In some schools, day pupils are assigned to a dorm or house for social activities and sports purposes.

Each student has an individual timetable, which in the early years allows little discretion. Boarders and day students are taught together in school hours and in most cases continue beyond the school day to include sports, clubs and societies, or excursions. As well as the usual academic facilities such as classrooms, halls, libraries and laboratories, boarding schools often provide a wide variety of facilities for extracurricular activities such as music rooms, gymnasiums, sports fields and school grounds, boats, squash courts, swimming pools, cinemas and theatres. A school chapel is often found on site. Day students often stay on after school to use these facilities.
British boarding schools have three terms a year, approximately twelve weeks each, with a few days' half-term holiday during which pupils are expected to go home or at least away from school. There may be several exeat
Exeat
The Latin word exeat is most commonly used to describe a period of absence from a centre of learning. Exeat is used in Britain to describe weekend leave from a boarding school...

s or weekends in each half of the term when pupils may go home or away. Boarding pupils nowadays often go to school within easy traveling distance of their homes, and so may see their families frequently; families are encouraged to come and support school sports teams playing at home against other schools.

Most school dormitories have a "lights out" time when the pupils are required to be in bed, depending on their age, and perhaps a later time after which no talking is permitted; such rules may be difficult to enforce, and pupils may often try to break them, for example by reading surreptitiously by flashlight or escaping on nocturnal excursions. Students sharing study rooms are less likely to disturb others and may be given more latitude.

Some boarding schools have only boarding students, while others have both boarding students and day students who go home at the end of the school day. Day students are sometimes known as day boys or day girls. Some schools welcome day students to attend breakfast and dinner, while others charge a nominal fee. For schools that have designated study hours or quiet hours in the evenings, students on campus (including day students) are usually required to observe the same "quiet" rules (such as no television, students must stay in their rooms, library or study hall, etc.). Schools that have both boarding and day students sometimes describe themselves as semi boarding schools or day boarding schools. Some schools also have students who board during the week but go home on weekends: these are known as weekly boarders, quasi-boarders, or five-day boarders.

Day students and weekly boarders may have a different and perhaps unfavourable view of the day school system, as compared to children who attend day schools without any boarding facilities. These students relate to a boarding school life, even though they do not totally reside in school; however, they may not completely become part of the boarding school experience. In some cases, day students feel they are treated as second-class students by the boarding students. On the other hand, these students have a different view of boarding schools as compared to full-term boarders who go home less frequently, perhaps only at the end of a term or even the end of an academic year.

Other forms of residential schools

Boarding schools are a form of residential school; however, not all residential school
Residential school
Residential school may refer to:* Canadian Indian residential school system* a term used to describe boarding schools*A residential treatment center for people with addictions or severe mental illnesses...

s are "classic" boarding schools. Other forms of residential schools include:
  • Therapeutic schools
    Therapeutic boarding school
    A therapeutic boarding school , alternatively known as an emotional growth boarding school, is a boarding school based on the therapeutic community model that offers an educational program together with specialized structure and supervision for students with emotional and behavioral problems,...

    , which provide clinical inpatient services for students with disabilities, such as severe anxiety disorder
    Anxiety disorder
    Anxiety disorder is a blanket term covering several different forms of abnormal and pathological fear and anxiety. Conditions now considered anxiety disorders only came under the aegis of psychiatry at the end of the 19th century. Gelder, Mayou & Geddes explains that anxiety disorders are...

    , obsessive compulsive disorder, Aspergers syndrome, and/or for students with substance abuse and socialisation problems
  • Residential education
    Residential education
    Residential Education, broadly defined, is a pre-college education provided in an environment where students both live and learn outside of their family homes. Varied forms of residential education have been in existence in the United States since before the nation's founding...

     programs, which provide a stable and supportive environment for at-risk children to live and learn together.
  • Residential schools for students with special educational needs
    Special education
    Special education is the education of students with special needs in a way that addresses the students' individual differences and needs. Ideally, this process involves the individually planned and systematically monitored arrangement of teaching procedures, adapted equipment and materials,...

    , who may or may not be disabled
  • Semester school
    Semester school
    Semester school is a term used to describe a school that complements a student’s secondary education by providing them with the opportunity to step out of their regular school for half an academic year and step into a uniquely different educational setting while continuing their required academic...

    s, which complement a student's secondary education
    Secondary education
    Secondary education is the stage of education following primary education. Secondary education includes the final stage of compulsory education and in many countries it is entirely compulsory. The next stage of education is usually college or university...

     by providing a one semester residential experience with a central focusing curricular theme—which may appeal to students and families uninterested in a longer residential education experience
  • Specialist schools focused on a particular academic discipline, such as the public North Carolina School of Science and Mathematics
    North Carolina School of Science and Mathematics
    The North Carolina School of Science and Mathematics is a two-year, public residential high school located in Durham, North Carolina, that focuses on the intensive study of science, mathematics and technology. The school accepts rising juniors from across North Carolina and enrolls them through...

     or the private Interlochen Arts Academy.
  • The Israel
    Israel
    The State of Israel is a parliamentary republic located in the Middle East, along the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea...

    i kibbutzim, where children stay and get educated in a commune, but also have everyday contact with their parents at specified hours.
  • In rural areas of the United States
    United States
    The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

    , general attendance public boarding schools were once numerous; only one remains today: Crane Union High School
    Crane Union High School
    Crane Union High School is a public high school in Crane, Oregon, United States. Because it is in a sparsely populated area, it is a boarding school that serves students from a large geographic area.-Background:...

     in Crane, Oregon
    Crane, Oregon
    Crane is an unincorporated community in Harney County, Oregon, United States, northeast of Malheur Lake on Oregon Route 78.Crane was named for the prominent local features Crane Creek and Crane Creek Gap. Crane Creek Gap is the pass between the Harney Basin and the drainage basin of the South Fork...

    . Around two-thirds of its more than 80 students, mostly children from remote ranch
    Ranch
    A ranch is an area of landscape, including various structures, given primarily to the practice of ranching, the practice of raising grazing livestock such as cattle or sheep for meat or wool. The word most often applies to livestock-raising operations in the western United States and Canada, though...

    es, board during the school week in order to save a one-way commute of up to 150 miles (240 km) across Harney County
    Harney County, Oregon
    -National protected areas:*Malheur National Forest *Malheur National Wildlife Refuge*Ochoco National Forest -Demographics:As of the census of 2000, there were 7,609 people, 3,036 households, and 2,094 families residing in the county. The population density was 1 people per square mile...

    .

Applicable regulations

In the UK, almost all boarding schools are independent schools, which are not subject to the national curriculum or other educational regulations applicable to state schools. Nevertheless there are some regulations, primarily for health and safety purposes, as well as the general law. The Department for Children, Schools and Families
Department for Children, Schools and Families
The Department for Children, Schools and Families was a department of the UK government, between 2007 and 2010, responsible for issues affecting people in England up to the age of 19, including child protection and education...

, in conjunction with the Department of Health
Department of Health (United Kingdom)
The Department of Health is a department of the United Kingdom government with responsibility for government policy for health and social care matters and for the National Health Service in England along with a few elements of the same matters which are not otherwise devolved to the Scottish,...

 of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

, has prescribed guidelines for boarding schools, called the National Boarding Standards.

One example of regulations covered within the National Boarding Standards are those for the minimum floor area or living space required for each student and other aspects of basic facilities. The minimum floor area of a dormitory accommodating two or more students is defined as the number of students sleeping in the dormitory multiplied by 4.2 m², plus 1.2 m². A minimum distance of 0.9 m should also be maintained between any two beds in a dormitory, bedroom or cubicle. In case students are provided with a cubicle, then each student must be provided with a window and a floor area of 5.0 m² at the least. A bedroom for a single student should be at least of floor area of 6.0 m². Boarding schools must provide a total floor area of at least 2.3 m² living accommodation for every boarder. This should also be incorporated with at least one bathtub
Bathtub
A bath , bathtub , or tub is a large container for holding water in which a person may bathe . Most modern bathtubs are made of acrylic or fiberglass, but alternatives are available in enamel over steel or cast iron, and occasionally waterproof finished wood...

 or shower for every ten students.

These are some of the few guidelines set by the department amongst many others. It could probably be observed that not all boarding schools around the world meet these minimum basic standards, despite their apparent appeal.

History

The practice of sending children to other families or to schools so that they could learn together is of very long standing, recorded in classical literature and in UK records going back over a thousand years. In Europe, a practice developed by early mediaeval times of sending boys to be taught by literate clergymen, either in monasteries or as pages in great households. The school often considered the world's oldest boarding school, The King’s School, Canterbury, counts the development of the monastery school in around 597 AD to be the date of the school's founding. The author of the Croyland Chronicle
Croyland Chronicle
The Croyland Chronicle is an important, if not always reliable, primary source for English medieval history, in particular the late fifteenth century. It was written at the Benedictine Abbey of Croyland, in Lincolnshire, England, off and on from 655 to 1486, and its first author claimed to be...

 recalls being tested on his grammar by Edward the Confessor
Edward the Confessor
Edward the Confessor also known as St. Edward the Confessor , son of Æthelred the Unready and Emma of Normandy, was one of the last Anglo-Saxon kings of England and is usually regarded as the last king of the House of Wessex, ruling from 1042 to 1066....

's Queen Editha in the abbey cloisters as a Westminster schoolboy, in around the 1050s. Monastic school
Monastic school
Monastic schools were, along with cathedral schools, the most important institutions of higher learning in the Latin West from the early Middle Ages until the 12th century. Since Cassiodorus's educational program, the standard curriculum incorporated religious studies, the Trivium, and the...

s as such were generally dissolved with the monasteries themselves under Henry VIII, although for example Westminster School
Westminster School
The Royal College of St. Peter in Westminster, almost always known as Westminster School, is one of Britain's leading independent schools, with the highest Oxford and Cambridge acceptance rate of any secondary school or college in Britain...

 was specifically preserved by the King's letters patent and it seems likely that most schools were immediately replaced. Winchester College
Winchester College
Winchester College is an independent school for boys in the British public school tradition, situated in Winchester, Hampshire, the former capital of England. It has existed in its present location for over 600 years and claims the longest unbroken history of any school in England...

 founded by Bishop William of Wykeham
William of Wykeham
William of Wykeham was Bishop of Winchester, Chancellor of England, founder of Winchester College, New College, Oxford, New College School, Oxford, and builder of a large part of Windsor Castle.-Life:...

 in 1382 claims to be the oldest boarding school in continual operation.

Boarding schools across societies

Boarding Schools manifest themselves in different ways in different societies. For example, in some societies children start boarding school at an earlier age than in others. In some societies, a tradition has developed in which families send their children to the same boarding school for generations.

One observation that appears to apply globally is that a significantly larger number of boys than girls attend boarding school and for a longer span of time.

Boarding schools in England started before mediaeval times, when boys were sent to be educated at a monastery or noble household, where a lone literate cleric could be found. In the 12th century, the Pope ordered all Benedictine
Benedictine
Benedictine refers to the spirituality and consecrated life in accordance with the Rule of St Benedict, written by Benedict of Nursia in the sixth century for the cenobitic communities he founded in central Italy. The most notable of these is Monte Cassino, the first monastery founded by Benedict...

 monasteries such as Westminster
Westminster Abbey
The Collegiate Church of St Peter at Westminster, popularly known as Westminster Abbey, is a large, mainly Gothic church, in the City of Westminster, London, United Kingdom, located just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. It is the traditional place of coronation and burial site for English,...

 to provide charity schools, and many public schools
Independent school (UK)
An independent school is a school that is not financed through the taxation system by local or national government and is instead funded by private sources, predominantly in the form of tuition charges, gifts and long-term charitable endowments, and so is not subject to the conditions imposed by...

 started when such schools attracted paying pupils. These public schools reflected the collegiate universities of Oxford and Cambridge
Oxbridge
Oxbridge is a portmanteau of the University of Oxford and the University of Cambridge in England, and the term is now used to refer to them collectively, often with implications of perceived superior social status...

, as in many ways they still do, and were accordingly staffed almost entirely by clergymen until the 19th century. Private tuition
Tuition
Tuition payments, known primarily as tuition in American English and as tuition fees in British English, Canadian English, Australian English, New Zealand English and Indian English, refers to a fee charged for educational instruction during higher education.Tuition payments are charged by...

 at home remained the norm for aristocratic families, and for girls in particular, but after the 16th century it was increasingly accepted that adolescents of any rank might best be educated collectively. The institution has thus adapted itself to changing social circumstances over 1,000 years.

Boarding preparatory schools tend to reflect the public schools they feed. They often have a more or less official tie to particular schools.

The classic British boarding school became highly popular during the colonial expansion of the British Empire. British colonial administrators abroad could ensure that their children were brought up in British culture at public schools at home in the UK, and local rulers were offered the same education for their sons. More junior expatriates would send their children to local British-run schools, which would also admit selected local children who might travel from considerable distances. The boarding schools, which inculcated their own values, became an effective way to encourage local people to share British ideals, and so help the British achieve their imperial goals.

One of the reasons sometimes stated for sending children to boarding schools is to develop wider horizons than their family can provide. A boarding school a family has attended for generations may define the culture parents aspire to for their children. Equally, by choosing a fashionable boarding school, parents may aspire to better their children by enabling them to mix on equal terms with children of the upper classes. However, such stated reasons may conceal other reasons for sending a child away from home. These might apply to children who are considered too disobedient or underachieving, children from families with divorced spouses, and children to whom the parents do not much relate. These reasons are rarely explicitly stated, though the child might be aware of them.

In 1998, there were 772 private-sector boarding schools in England and 100,000 children attending boarding schools all over the United Kingdom. In England, they are an important factor in the class system.
Most other societies decline to make boarding schools the preferred option for the upbringing of their children, except in former British colonies; in India, Pakistan, Nigeria, and other former African colonies
Colony
In politics and history, a colony is a territory under the immediate political control of a state. For colonies in antiquity, city-states would often found their own colonies. Some colonies were historically countries, while others were territories without definite statehood from their inception....

 of Great Britain, for example, boarding schools are one of the preferred modes of education; in Ghana
Ghana
Ghana , officially the Republic of Ghana, is a country located in West Africa. It is bordered by Côte d'Ivoire to the west, Burkina Faso to the north, Togo to the east, and the Gulf of Guinea to the south...

 the majority of the secondary schools are boarding.
In some countries, such as New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand is an island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses and numerous smaller islands. The country is situated some east of Australia across the Tasman Sea, and roughly south of the Pacific island nations of New Caledonia, Fiji, and Tonga...

 and Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka, officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka is a country off the southern coast of the Indian subcontinent. Known until 1972 as Ceylon , Sri Lanka is an island surrounded by the Indian Ocean, the Gulf of Mannar and the Palk Strait, and lies in the vicinity of India and the...

, a number of state schools have boarding facilities. However, these state boarding schools are frequently the traditional single-sex state schools, whose ethos is much like that of their independent counterparts. Furthermore, the proportion of boarders at these schools is often much lower than at independent boarding schools, typically around 10%.

The Swiss
Switzerland
Switzerland name of one of the Swiss cantons. ; ; ; or ), in its full name the Swiss Confederation , is a federal republic consisting of 26 cantons, with Bern as the seat of the federal authorities. The country is situated in Western Europe,Or Central Europe depending on the definition....

 government developed a strategy of fostering private boarding schools for foreign students as a business integral to the country's economy. Their boarding schools offer instruction in several major languages and have a large number of quality facilities organized through the Swiss Federation of Private Schools.

In the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

, boarding schools for students below the age of 13 are called junior boarding schools, and are not as common and not as encouraged as in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

, India
India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

 and Pakistan
Pakistan
Pakistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is a sovereign state in South Asia. It has a coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by Afghanistan and Iran in the west, India in the east and China in the far northeast. In the north, Tajikistan...

. The oldest junior boarding school in the United States is the Fay School
Fay School
Fay School is an independent, coeducational day and boarding school, located on a campus some from Boston in Southborough, Massachusetts. It has 465 students enrolled from Pre-Kindergarten through grade 9; the boarding program enrolls 100 students from throughout the United States and more than...

 in Southborough, Massachusetts
Southborough, Massachusetts
Southborough is an affluent town in Worcester County, Massachusetts, United States. It incorporates the smaller villages of Cordaville, Fayville, and Southville. Its name is often informally shortened to Southboro, a usage seen on many area signs and maps. Its population was 9,767 at the 2010...

. Other boarding schools are intended for high school age students, generally of ages 14–18. Boarding schools for this age group are often referred to as prep schools. Some notable examples are Phillips Exeter Academy
Phillips Exeter Academy
Phillips Exeter Academy is a private secondary school located in Exeter, New Hampshire, in the United States.Exeter is noted for its application of Harkness education, a system based on a conference format of teacher and student interaction, similar to the Socratic method of learning through asking...

  Phillips Academy Andover
Phillips Academy
Phillips Academy is a selective, co-educational independent boarding high school for boarding and day students in grades 9–12, along with a post-graduate year...

, Portsmouth Abbey School
Portsmouth Abbey School
Portsmouth Abbey School is a private, coeducational boarding and day school for grades 9 through 12, located in Portsmouth, Rhode Island. Founded by the Benedictine monks of Portsmouth Abbey in 1926 as Portsmouth Priory School, the school offered a classical education to boys...

 in Portsmouth RI, St. George's School in Newport RI, Milton Academy
Milton Academy
Milton Academy is a coeducational, independent preparatory, boarding and day school in Milton, Massachusetts consisting of a grade 9–12 Upper School and a grade K–8 Lower School. Boarding is offered starting in 9th grade...

, Deerfield Academy
Deerfield Academy
Deerfield Academy is an independent, coeducational boarding school in Deerfield, Massachusetts, United States. It is a four-year college-preparatory school with approximately 600 students and about 100 faculty, all of whom live on or near campus....

, Asheville School
Asheville School
Asheville School is a private, coeducational, college-preparatory boarding school in Asheville, North Carolina. Founded in 1900, the Asheville School campus sits on in the Blue Ridge Mountains and currently enrolls 270 students in grades nine through twelve...

, Cranbrook Kingswood, Western Reserve Academy
Western Reserve Academy
Western Reserve Academy is a private, mid-sized, coeducational boarding and day college preparatory school located in Hudson, Ohio.-History:...

, Shenandoah Valley Academy
Shenandoah Valley Academy
Shenandoah Valley Academy is a private, co-educational, boarding, high school in New Market, Virginia, United States. It has both boarding and day school programs. It is accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools and the Accrediting Association of Seventh-day Adventist...

, Choate Rosemary Hall
Choate Rosemary Hall
Choate Rosemary Hall is a private, college-preparatory, coeducational boarding school located in Wallingford, Connecticut...

, Woodberry Forest School
Woodberry Forest School
Woodberry Forest School is a private, all-male boarding school located in Woodberry Forest, Madison County, Virginia, in the United States. Woodberry's current enrollment is 402. Students come from 28 U.S...

, The Hotchkiss School, Millbrook School
Millbrook School
Millbrook School is a private, coeducational preparatory school located in Duchess County, New York, USA. It is governed by a self-perpetuating Board of Trustees, and is accredited by the New York State Association of Independent Schools and the Board of Regents of the State University of New York...

, Kent School
Kent School
Kent School is a private, co-educational college preparatory school in Kent, Connecticut, USA. The Reverend Frederick Herbert Sill, Order of the Holy Cross, established the school in 1906 and it retains its affiliation with the Episcopal Church of the United States.Students at Kent come from more...

, Westtown School
Westtown School
Westtown School is a coeducational, college preparatory day and boarding school for students in pre-kindergarten through twelfth grade.-About Westtown School:...

, Miss Porter's School
Miss Porter's School
Miss Porter's School, sometimes simply referred to as Porter's or Farmington, is a private college preparatory school for girls located in Farmington, Connecticut.- History :...

, West Ridge Academy
West Ridge Academy
West Ridge Academy , is a youth residential treatment center based in West Jordan, Utah, USA. It seeks to provide clinical services, education, and other programs for teens, both girls and boys, that are identified as at risk. Until 2005, the Utah Boys Ranch was male-only...

, Blair Academy
Blair Academy
Blair Academy is a private, coeducational, secondary boarding high school with an enrollment of about 448 students for grades nine through twelve. The school has 78 faculty members...

, The Hill School
The Hill School
The Hill School is a preparatory boarding school for boys and girls located in Pottstown, Pennsylvania, about 35 miles northwest of Philadelphia....

, Northfield Mount Hermon School, The Lawrenceville School, The Emma Willard School and Canterbury School, the state's first Catholic Boarding School. St. Grottlesex is the colloquial name of an additional group of five geographically grouped schools: St. Paul's School
St. Paul's School (Concord, New Hampshire)
St. Paul's School is a highly selective college-preparatory, coeducational boarding school in Concord, New Hampshire affiliated with the Episcopal Church. The school is one of only six remaining 100% residential boarding schools in the U.S. The New Hampshire campus currently serves 533 students,...

, St. Mark's School
St. Mark's School (Massachusetts)
St. Mark’s School is a coeducational, Episcopal, preparatory school, situated on in Southborough, Massachusetts, from Boston. It was founded in 1865 as an all-boys' school by Joseph Burnett, a wealthy native of Southborough who developed and marketed the world-famous Burnett Vanilla Extract . ...

 in Southborough, MA, The Groton School
Groton School
Groton School is a private, Episcopal, college preparatory boarding school located in Groton, Massachusetts, U.S. It enrolls approximately 375 boys and girls, from the eighth through twelfth grades...

 in Groton, MA, The Middlesex School
Middlesex School
Middlesex School is an independent secondary school for grades 9 - 12 located in Concord, Massachusetts. It was founded in 1901 by a Roxbury Latin School alumnus, Frederick Winsor, who headed the school until 1937. Winsor set up a National Scholarship Program for the school, the first of its kind...

 in Concord, MA, and Chapel Hill - Chauncy Hall School
Chapel Hill - Chauncy Hall School
Chapel Hill – Chauncy Hall School is an independent college preparatory school for grades 9 through 12 located in Waltham, Massachusetts and founded in 1828.-History:...

 in Waltham.

In Canada, the largest independent boarding school is Columbia International College
Columbia International College
Columbia International College is the largest private boarding preparatory school in Canada, with an enrollment of more than 1,700 students from over 70 countries in the world. The school is located in Hamilton, Ontario, in the residential neighborhood of Westdale, near McMaster University and...

, with an enrollment of 1,700 students from all over the world. Robert Land Academy in Wellandport, Ontario is Canada's only private military style boarding school for boys in Grades six through 12.

Native American boarding schools


In the late nineteenth century, the United States government undertook a policy of educating Native American
Native Americans in the United States
Native Americans in the United States are the indigenous peoples in North America within the boundaries of the present-day continental United States, parts of Alaska, and the island state of Hawaii. They are composed of numerous, distinct tribes, states, and ethnic groups, many of which survive as...

 youth in the ways of the dominant Western culture so that Native Americans might then be able to assimilate into Western society. At these boarding schools, managed and regulated by the government, Native American students were subjected to a number of tactics to prepare them for life outside their reservation homes.

In accordance with the assimilation methods used at the boarding schools, the education that the Native American children received at these institutions centered on the dominant society's construction of gender norms and ideals. Thus boys and girls were separated in almost every activity and their interactions were strictly regulated along the lines of Victorian
Victorian era
The Victorian era of British history was the period of Queen Victoria's reign from 20 June 1837 until her death on 22 January 1901. It was a long period of peace, prosperity, refined sensibilities and national self-confidence...

 ideals. In addition, the instruction that the children received reflected the roles and duties that they were to assume once outside the reservation. Thus girls were taught skills that could be used in the home, such as "sewing, cooking, canning, ironing, child care, and cleaning" (Adams 150). Native American boys in the boarding schools were taught the importance of an agricultural lifestyle, with an emphasis on raising livestock and agricultural skills like "plowing and planting, field irrigation, the care of stock, and the maintenance of fruit orchards" (Adams 149). These ideas of domesticity were in stark contrast to those existing in native communities and on reservations: many indigenous societies were based on a matrilineal system where the women's lineage was honored and the women's place in society respected. For example, women in indigenous communities held powerful roles in their own communities, undertaking tasks that Western society deemed only appropriate for men: indigenous women could be leaders, healers, and farmers.

While the Native American children were exposed to and were likely to adopt some of the ideals set out by the whites operating these boarding schools, many resisted and rejected the gender norms that were being imposed upon them. See also: Carlisle Indian Industrial School
Carlisle Indian Industrial School
Carlisle Indian Industrial School was an Indian boarding school in Carlisle, Pennsylvania. Founded in 1879 at Carlisle, Pennsylvania by Captain Richard Henry Pratt, the school was the first off-reservation boarding school, and it became a model for Indian boarding schools in other locations...

 in Carlisle, Pennsylvania
Carlisle, Pennsylvania
Carlisle is a borough in and the county seat of Cumberland County, Pennsylvania, United States. The name is traditionally pronounced with emphasis on the second syllable. Carlisle is located within the Cumberland Valley, a highly productive agricultural region. As of the 2010 census, the borough...

.

Emerging perspectives

It is claimed that children may be sent to boarding schools to give more opportunities than their family can provide. However, that involves spending significant parts of one's early life in what may be seen as a total institution
Total institution
A total institution is place of work and residence where a great number of similarly situated people, cut off from the wider community for a considerable time, together lead an enclosed, formally administered round of life...

 and possibly experiencing social detachment, as suggested by social-psychologist Erving Goffman
Erving Goffman
Erving Goffman was a Canadian-born sociologist and writer.The 73rd president of American Sociological Association, Goffman's greatest contribution to social theory is his study of symbolic interaction in the form of dramaturgical perspective that began with his 1959 book The Presentation of Self...

. This may involve long-term separation from one's parents and culture, leading to the experience of homesickness
Homesickness
Homesickness is the distress or impairment caused by an actual or anticipated separation from the specific home environment or attachment objects....

 and may give rise to a phenomenon known as the 'TCK' or third culture kid
Third culture kid
Third culture kid is a term coined in the early 1950s by American sociologist and anthropologist Ruth Hill Useem "to refer to the children who accompany their parents into another society". Other terms, such as trans-culture kid, are also used by some. More recently, American sociologist David C...

.

Some modern philosophies of education, such as constructivism and new methods of music training for children including Orff Schulwerk
Orff Schulwerk
The Orff Schulwerk, or simply the Orff Approach, is one of several developmental approaches including the Kodaly Method, Simply Music and Suzuki Method used to teach music education to students. It combines music, movement, drama, and speech into lessons that are similar to child's world of play...

 and the Suzuki method
Suzuki method
The Suzuki method is a method of teaching music that emerged in the mid-20th century.-Background:The Suzuki Method was conceived in the mid-20th century by Shin'ichi Suzuki, a Japanese violinist who desired to bring beauty to the lives of children in his country after the devastation of World War II...

, make the everyday interaction of the child and parent an integral part of training and education. The European Union
European Union
The European Union is an economic and political union of 27 independent member states which are located primarily in Europe. The EU traces its origins from the European Coal and Steel Community and the European Economic Community , formed by six countries in 1958...

-Canada
Canada
Canada is a North American country consisting of ten provinces and three territories. Located in the northern part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west, and northward into the Arctic Ocean...

 project "Child Welfare Across Borders" (2003), an important international venture on child development, considers boarding schools as one form of permanent displacement of the child. This view reflects a new outlook towards education and child growth in the wake of more scientific understanding of the human brain
Human brain
The human brain has the same general structure as the brains of other mammals, but is over three times larger than the brain of a typical mammal with an equivalent body size. Estimates for the number of neurons in the human brain range from 80 to 120 billion...

 and cognitive development
Cognitive development
Cognitive development is a field of study in neuroscience and psychology focusing on a child's development in terms of information processing, conceptual resources, perceptual skill, language learning, and other aspects of brain development and cognitive psychology compared to an adult's point of...

.

Data have not yet been tabulated regarding the statistical
Statistics
Statistics is the study of the collection, organization, analysis, and interpretation of data. It deals with all aspects of this, including the planning of data collection in terms of the design of surveys and experiments....

 ratio of boys to girls that matriculate boarding schools, the total number of children in a given population in boarding schools by country
Country
A country is a region legally identified as a distinct entity in political geography. A country may be an independent sovereign state or one that is occupied by another state, as a non-sovereign or formerly sovereign political division, or a geographic region associated with a previously...

, the average age across populations when children are sent to boarding schools, and the average length of education (in years) for boarding school students.

Books

Boarding schools and their surrounding settings and situations have become a genre in British literature
British literature
British Literature refers to literature associated with the United Kingdom, Isle of Man and Channel Islands. By far the largest part of British literature is written in the English language, but there are bodies of written works in Latin, Welsh, Scottish Gaelic, Scots, Cornish, Manx, Jèrriais,...

 with its own identifiable conventions. (Typically, protagonists find themselves occasionally having to break school rules for honourable reasons the reader can identify with, and might get severely punished when caught - but usually they do not embark on a total rebellion against the school as a system.)

Notable examples of the school story
School story
The school story is a fiction genre centering on older pre-adolescent and adolescent school life, at its most popular in the first half of the twentieth century. While examples do exist in other countries, it is most commonly set in English boarding schools and mostly written in girls and boys sub...

 include:
  • Charles Dickens
    Charles Dickens
    Charles John Huffam Dickens was an English novelist, generally considered the greatest of the Victorian period. Dickens enjoyed a wider popularity and fame than had any previous author during his lifetime, and he remains popular, having been responsible for some of English literature's most iconic...

    's serialised novel Nicholas Nickleby (1838)
  • Charlotte Brontë
    Charlotte Brontë
    Charlotte Brontë was an English novelist and poet, the eldest of the three Brontë sisters who survived into adulthood, whose novels are English literature standards...

    's novels Jane Eyre
    Jane Eyre
    Jane Eyre is a novel by English writer Charlotte Brontë. It was published in London, England, in 1847 by Smith, Elder & Co. with the title Jane Eyre. An Autobiography under the pen name "Currer Bell." The first American edition was released the following year by Harper & Brothers of New York...

     (1847) and Villette
    Villette (novel)
    Villette is a novel by Charlotte Brontë, published in 1853. After an unspecified family disaster, protagonist Lucy Snowe travels to the fictional city of Villette to teach at an all-girls school where she is unwillingly pulled into both adventure and romance...

     (1853)
  • Thomas Hughes
    Thomas Hughes
    Thomas Hughes was an English lawyer and author. He is most famous for his novel Tom Brown's Schooldays , a semi-autobiographical work set at Rugby School, which Hughes had attended. It had a lesser-known sequel, Tom Brown at Oxford .- Biography :Hughes was the second son of John Hughes, editor of...

    's novel Tom Brown's Schooldays
    Tom Brown's Schooldays
    Tom Brown's Schooldays is a novel by Thomas Hughes. The story is set at Rugby School, a public school for boys, in the 1830s; Hughes attended Rugby School from 1834 to 1842...

     (1857)
  • Frederic W. Farrar's Eric, or, Little by Little
    Eric, or, little by little
    Eric, or, Little by Little is the title of a book by Frederic W. Farrar, first edition 1858. It was published by Adam & Charles Black, Edinburgh and London.The book deals with the descent into moral turpitude of a boy at a boarding school.The reads:...

     (1858), a particularly religious and moralistic treatment of the theme
  • P.G. Wodehouse's novel Mike and Psmith
    Psmith
    Rupert Psmith is a recurring fictional character in several novels by British comic writer P. G...

     (1909)
  • Talbot Baines Reed
    Talbot Baines Reed
    Talbot Baines Reed was an English writer of boys' fiction who established a genre of school stories that endured into the second half of the 20th century. Among his best-known work is The Fifth Form at St. Dominic's. He was a regular and prolific contributor to The Boy's Own Paper , in which most...

    's The Fifth Form at St. Dominic's (1887), written for the "Boy's Own Paper
    Boy's Own Paper
    The Boy's Own Paper was a British story paper aimed at young and teenage boys, published from 1879 to 1967.-Publishing history:The idea for the publication was first raised in 1878 by the Religious Tract Society as a means to encourage younger children to read and also instil Christian morals...

    " (which also published many other boarding school stories) and distributed by the Religious Tract Society
    Religious Tract Society
    The Religious Tract Society, founded 1799, 56 Paternoster Row and 65 St. Paul's Chuchyard, was the original name of a major British publisher of Christian literature intended initially for evangelism, and including literature aimed at children, women, and the poor.The RTS is also notable for being...

  • Most of the oeuvre of Angela Brazil
    Angela Brazil
    Angela Brazil was one of the first British writers of "modern schoolgirls' stories", written from the characters' point of view and intended primarily as entertainment rather than moral instruction. In the first half of the twentieth century she published nearly 50 books of girls' fiction, the...

     (early twentieth century)
  • Rudyard Kipling
    Rudyard Kipling
    Joseph Rudyard Kipling was an English poet, short-story writer, and novelist chiefly remembered for his celebration of British imperialism, tales and poems of British soldiers in India, and his tales for children. Kipling received the 1907 Nobel Prize for Literature...

    's novel Stalky & Co (1899)
  • Frances Hodgson Burnett
    Frances Hodgson Burnett
    Frances Eliza Hodgson Burnett was an English playwright and author. She is best known for her children's stories, in particular The Secret Garden , A Little Princess, and Little Lord Fauntleroy.Born Frances Eliza Hodgson, she lived in Cheetham Hill, Manchester...

    's novel A Little Princess
    A Little Princess
    A Little Princess is a 1905 children's novel by Frances Hodgson Burnett. It is a revised and expanded version of Burnett's 1888 serialized novel entitled Sara Crewe: or, What Happened at Miss Minchin's Boarding School, which was published in St. Nicholas Magazine.According to Burnett, she...

     (1905)
  • Horace Annesley Vachell
    Horace Annesley Vachell
    Horace Annesley Vachell was a prolific English writer of novels, plays, short stories, essays and autobiographical works.Born in Sydenham, Kent on 30 October 1861, he was educated at Harrow and Sandhurst. After a short period in the Rifle Brigade, he went to California where he became partner in...

    's novel The Hill (1905), set at Harrow School
    Harrow School
    Harrow School, commonly known simply as "Harrow", is an English independent school for boys situated in the town of Harrow, in north-west London.. The school is of worldwide renown. There is some evidence that there has been a school on the site since 1243 but the Harrow School we know today was...

  • Frank Richards
    Charles Hamilton (writer)
    Charles Harold St. John Hamilton , was an English writer, specializing in writing long-running series of stories for weekly magazines about recurrent casts of characters, his most frequent and famous genre being boys' public school stories, though he also dealt with other genres...

    's long-running series Billy Bunter
    Billy Bunter
    William George Bunter , is a fictional character created by Charles Hamilton using the pen name Frank Richards...

     (from 1908)
  • Australian novelist Henry Handel Richardson
    Henry Handel Richardson
    Henry Handel Richardson, the pseudonym used by Ethel Florence Lindesay Richardson, was an Australian author. She took the name "Henry Handel" because at that time, many people did not take women's writing seriously, so she used a male name...

    's coming of age novel, The Getting of Wisdom
    The Getting of Wisdom
    The Getting of Wisdom is a novel by Australian novelist Henry Handel Richardson. It was first published in 1910, and has almost always been in print ever since.-Plot introduction:...

     (1910)
  • Jean Webster
    Jean Webster
    Jean Webster was an American writer and author of many books including Daddy-Long-Legs and Dear Enemy...

    's Daddy Long Legs (1912) is set in a women's residential college with dormitory life, but the chaperonage standards of that era do give the school something of a pre-college feeling.
  • Hugh Walpole
    Hugh Walpole
    Sir Hugh Seymour Walpole, CBE was an English novelist. A prolific writer, he published thirty-six novels, five volumes of short stories, two plays and three volumes of memoirs. His skill at scene-setting, his vivid plots, his high profile as a lecturer and his driving ambition brought him a large...

    's novel Jeremy at Crale (1927)
  • Antonia White
    Antonia White
    Antonia White was a British writer.-Early life:White was born as Eirine Botting to parents Cecil and Christine Botting. She later took her mother's maiden name, White. Her father taught Greek and Latin at St. Paul’s School...

    's Frost in May (1933), a Catholic "convent school"
  • Erich Kästner
    Erich Kästner
    Emil Erich Kästner was a German author, poet, screenwriter and satirist, known for his humorous, socially astute poetry and children's literature.-Dresden 1899–1919:...

    's The Flying Classroom
    The Flying Classroom
    The Flying Classroom is a 1933 novel for children written by the German writer Erich Kästner.In the book Kästner took up the predominantly British genre of the school story, taking place in a boarding school, and transferred it to an unmistakable German background...

     (Das Fliegende Klassenzimmer) (1933) is a conspicuous non-British example.
  • James Hilton
    James Hilton
    James Hilton was an English novelist who wrote several best-sellers, including Lost Horizon and Goodbye, Mr. Chips.-Biography:...

    's novel Goodbye, Mr. Chips
    Goodbye, Mr. Chips
    Goodbye, Mr. Chips is a novel by James Hilton, published in the United States in June 1934 by Little, Brown and Company and in the United Kingdom in October of that same year by Hodder & Stoughton...

     (1934) centers on a teacher, rather than on the pupils
  • George Orwell
    George Orwell
    Eric Arthur Blair , better known by his pen name George Orwell, was an English author and journalist...

    's "Such, Such Were the Joys
    Such, Such Were the Joys
    "Such, Such Were the Joys" is a long autobiographical essay by the English writer George Orwell. It was probably composed in the early 1940s, but it was first published by the Partisan Review in 1952, two years after Orwell's death...

    " (1946 or 1947) is an exceptionally bitter recollection of boarding school life. Not fiction.
  • Enid Blyton
    Enid Blyton
    Enid Blyton was an English children's writer also known as Mary Pollock.Noted for numerous series of books based on recurring characters and designed for different age groups,her books have enjoyed huge success in many parts of the world, and have sold over 600 million copies.One of Blyton's most...

    's Malory Towers
    Malory Towers
    Malory Towers is a series of six novels by British children's author Enid Blyton, featuring the fictional Cornish seaside boarding school of the same name...

    , St. Clare's
    St. Clare's series
    St. Clare's is a series of six books written by English children's author Enid Blyton about a boarding school of that name. The series follows the heroines Patricia "Pat" and Isabel O'Sullivan from their first year at St. Clare's on...

     and the Naughtiest Girl series of children's novels
  • Elinor Brent-Dyer
    Elinor Brent-Dyer
    Elinor M. Brent-Dyer was a children’s author who wrote over 100 books during her lifetime, the most famous being the Chalet School series.-Short Biography :...

    's Chalet School
    Chalet School
    The Chalet School is a series of approximately sixty school story novels by Elinor Brent-Dyer, initially published between 1925 and 1970. The school was initially located in Austria, moved to Guernsey in 1939, following the rise to power of the Nazi Party, then to "Plas Howell", a house on the...

     series of children's novels
  • Antonia Forest
    Antonia Forest
    Antonia Forest was the pseudonym of a British children's author who was christened Patricia Giulia Caulfield Kate Rubinstein...

    's Marlow family stories, four of which are set at the fictional Kingscote School for Girls
  • Anthony Buckeridge
    Anthony Buckeridge
    Anthony Malcolm Buckeridge OBE was an English author, best known for his Jennings and Rex Milligan series of children's books...

    's Jennings
    Jennings (novels)
    The Jennings series is a collection of humorous novels of children's literature concerning the escapades of J C T Jennings, a schoolboy at Linbury Court preparatory school in England. There are 25 in total, all written by Anthony Buckeridge...

     series of children's stories (from 1950)
  • Muriel Spark
    Muriel Spark
    Dame Muriel Spark, DBE was an award-winning Scottish novelist. In 2008 The Times newspaper named Spark in its list of "the 50 greatest British writers since 1945".-Early life:...

    's novel The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie (1961) has much of a "feel" of a boarding-school novel, although Marcia Blaine School for Girls is actually a day school.
  • Geoffrey Willans
    Geoffrey Willans
    Herbert Geoffrey Willans , an English author and journalist, is best known as the co-creator, with the illustrator Ronald Searle, of Nigel Molesworth, the "goriller of 3b and curse of St. Custard's"....

    ' Nigel Molesworth
    Nigel Molesworth
    Nigel Molesworth is the supposed author of a series of books , with cartoon illustrations by Ronald Searle....

     series (illustrated by Ronald Searle
    Ronald Searle
    Ronald William Fordham Searle, CBE, RDI, is a British artist and cartoonist, best known as the creator of St Trinian's School. He is also the co-author of the Molesworth series....

    )
  • Ronald Searle
    Ronald Searle
    Ronald William Fordham Searle, CBE, RDI, is a British artist and cartoonist, best known as the creator of St Trinian's School. He is also the co-author of the Molesworth series....

    's St Trinian's series of books (1948 onwards)
  • R. F. Delderfield
    R. F. Delderfield
    Ronald Frederick Delderfield was a popular English novelist and dramatist, many of whose works have been adapted for television and are still widely read.-Childhood in London and Surrey:...

    's novel To Serve Them All My Days
    To Serve Them All My Days
    To Serve Them All My Days is a novel by British author R. F. Delderfield.First published in 1972, the book was adapted for television in 1980...

     (1972)
  • The popular 1972 Hebrew novel "The Renownwed Teacher Shmilkiyahu" (המורה הדגול שמילקיהו) by Yisrael "Puchu" Weiseler (ישראל ויסלר פוצ'ו) (see :he:פוצ'וhttp://www.ynet.co.il/yaan/0,7340,L-483233-PreYaan,00.html), and its various sequels and prequels, take place in the peculiarly Israel
    Israel
    The State of Israel is a parliamentary republic located in the Middle East, along the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea...

    i istitution of an agricultural boarding school, where pupils are supposed to take up the traditions of Pioneer Zionism
    Zionism
    Zionism is a Jewish political movement that, in its broadest sense, has supported the self-determination of the Jewish people in a sovereign Jewish national homeland. Since the establishment of the State of Israel, the Zionist movement continues primarily to advocate on behalf of the Jewish state...

     - through the reality, as depicted with considerable humor, often falls short of such ideals.
  • Roald Dahl
    Roald Dahl
    Roald Dahl was a British novelist, short story writer, fighter pilot and screenwriter.Born in Wales to Norwegian parents, he served in the Royal Air Force during the Second World War, in which he became a flying ace and intelligence agent, rising to the rank of Wing Commander...

    's Boy
    Boy (book)
    Boy: Tales of Childhood is the first autobiographical book by British writer Roald Dahl. It describes his life from birth until leaving school, focusing on living conditions in Britain in the 1920s and 1930s, the public school system at the time, and how his childhood experiences led him to...

     (1988), an autobiography, nonfiction
  • Bryce Courtenay
    Bryce Courtenay
    Arthur Bryce Courtenay AM is a South-African-born naturalized Australian novelist and one of Australia's most commercially successful authors.-Background and early years:...

    's The Power of One
    The Power of One
    The Power of One is a novel by Bryce Courtenay, first published in 1989. Set in South Africa during the 1930s and 1940s, it tells the story of an Anglo-African boy who, through the course of the story, acquires the nickname of Peekay. The Power of One is a novel by Bryce Courtenay, first published...

     (1989)
  • Elizabeth George
    Elizabeth George
    Susan Elizabeth George is an American author of mystery novels set in Great Britain.Eleven of her novels featuring her lead character Inspector Lynley have been adapted for television by the BBC as The Inspector Lynley Mysteries.-Biography:George was born in Warren, Ohio to Robert Edwin and Anne ...

    's Well-Schooled in Murder
    Well-Schooled in Murder
    Well-Schooled in Murder is a crime novel by Elizabeth George first published in 1990. Set in the late 1980s at an elite public school in the South of England founded in 1489, the book, which is a mystery novel in the tradition of the whodunnit, revolves around the strict yet unwritten code of...

     (1990)
  • Ursula LeGuin in A Wizard of Earthsea
    A Wizard of Earthsea
    A Wizard of Earthsea, first published in 1968, is the first of a series of books written by Ursula K. Le Guin and set in the fantasy world archipelago of Earthsea depicting the adventures of a budding young wizard named Ged...

     (1968) and Trudi Canavan
    Trudi Canavan
    Trudi Canavan is an Australian writer of fantasy novels, best known for her best-selling fantasy trilogies The Black Magician trilogy and Age of the Five. While establishing her writing career she worked as a graphic designer...

     in The Novice
    The Novice
    The Novice is the second book in The Black Magician series by Trudi Canavan. It was published in 2002 and is the sequel to The Magicians' Guild and is followed by The High Lord...

     (2002) adapted the traditional boarding school themes to fantasy settings of schools teaching magic.
  • Gillian Rubinstein
    Gillian Rubinstein
    Gillian Rubinstein is an English-born children's author and playwright. Born in Potten End, Berkhamsted, Hertfordshire, England, Rubinstein split her childhood between England and Nigeria, moving to Australia in 1973. As well as eight plays, numerous short stories and articles, she has written...

    's Under the Cats Eye: A Tale of Morph and Mystery (2000)
  • Jill Murphy
    Jill Murphy
    Jill Murphy is a London-born English children's author, best known for The Worst Witch series and the Large Family picture books...

    's The Worst Witch
    The Worst Witch
    The Worst Witch is a series of children's novels written and illustrated by Jill Murphy and published by Puffin Books. The first book was published in 1974. They have become some of the most outstandingly successful titles on the Young Puffin paperback list and have sold more than 4 million copies....

     stories.
  • Libba Bray
    Libba Bray
    Libba Bray is an author of young adult novels, including the books A Great and Terrible Beauty, Rebel Angels, The Sweet Far Thing and Going Bovine....

    's A Great and Terrible Beauty
    A Great and Terrible Beauty
    A Great and Terrible Beauty is the first novel in the Gemma Doyle Trilogy by Libba Bray. It is told from the perspective of Gemma Doyle, a girl in the year 1895.Gemma leaves her home in India to go to a boarding school in England after her mother dies...

     and Rebel Angels
  • Tyne O'Connell
    Tyne O'Connell
    Tyne O'Connell is a British author. She has written for publications such as Ms., Elle UK and Journal. Her short stories appear in Girls' Night Out and Kid's Night In...

    's Calypso Chronicles, a four-book series starting with Pulling Princes (2004)
  • Tom Siddell's Gunnerkrigg Court
    Gunnerkrigg Court
    Gunnerkrigg Court is a science-fantasy webcomic created by Tom Siddell and launched in April 2005. It is updated online three days a week, and the first volume of the comic was published in print format by Archaia Studios Press and Titan Books...

     (2005–present)
  • Michelle Magorian
    Michelle Magorian
    Michelle Magorian is an English author of children's books, including Goodnight Mister Tom, Back Home and A Little Love Song.- Biography :...

    's Back Home
  • Ludwig Bemelmans
    Ludwig Bemelmans
    Ludwig Bemelmans was an Austrian author, an internationally known gourmet, and a writer and illustrator of children's books. He is most noted today for his Madeline books, six of which were published from 1939-1961...

    ' Madeline
    Madeline
    Madeline is a children's book series written by Ludwig Bemelmans, an Austrian author. The books have been adapted into numerous formats, spawning telefilms, television series and a live action feature film...

     series of children's picture books (1939–present)
  • J. K. Rowling
    J. K. Rowling
    Joanne "Jo" Rowling, OBE , better known as J. K. Rowling, is the British author of the Harry Potter fantasy series...

    's Harry Potter
    Harry Potter
    Harry Potter is a series of seven fantasy novels written by the British author J. K. Rowling. The books chronicle the adventures of the adolescent wizard Harry Potter and his best friends Ron Weasley and Hermione Granger, all of whom are students at Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry...

     series (1997–2007)
  • Melina Marchetta
    Melina Marchetta
    Melina Marchetta is an Australian writer and teacher. She is the middle child of three daughters. Melina is best known as the author of Looking For Alibrandi. She has twice been awarded the CBCA Book of the Year for Older Readers, in 1993 and 2004.- Biography :Melina Marchettaborn in Sydney on 25...

    's Jellicoe Road
    Jellicoe Road
    On the Jellicoe Road is a young adult novel by Australian novelist Melina Marchetta. It was first published in Australia in 2006 by Penguin Australia under the title On the Jellicoe Road, where it was awarded the 2008 West Australia Young Readers Book Award for Older Readers...

     (2006)
  • Kate Brian
    Kate Brian
    Kieran Scott , also known by her pen name Kate Brian, is an American author, best known for her work in the chick lit, young-adult genre...

    's Private
    Private (novel series)
    Private is a series of young-adult novels by American author Kate Brian, beginning with 2006's inaugural entry of the same name. The books chronicle the rise of ambitious teenager Reed Brennan, the series' narrator, as she becomes a member of her new school's elite dorm—composed of a glamorous yet...

     series
  • John van de Ruit
    John van de Ruit
    John Howard van de Ruit is a South African novelist, actor, playwright and producer. He has been a professional actor, playwright and producer since 1998. He was born in Durban and educated at Michaelhouse, where he stayed in Founders House and from where he matriculated in 1993...

    's Spud series
  • Cecily Von Ziegesar
    Cecily von Ziegesar
    Cecily von Ziegesar is an American author best known for the young adult Gossip Girl books.-Early life and education:...

    's The It Girl
    The It Girl
    The It Girl is the first book in The It Girl series. It was written in 2005 by a ghostwriter with suggestions from Cecily von Ziegesar. Aimed toward young adults, it is a spin-off from the bestselling Gossip Girl series....

     series


The setting has also been featured in notable North American fiction:
  • J.D. Salinger's novel The Catcher in the Rye
    The Catcher in the Rye
    The Catcher in the Rye is a 1951 novel by J. D. Salinger. Originally published for adults, it has since become popular with adolescent readers for its themes of teenage confusion, angst, alienation, language, and rebellion. It has been translated into almost all of the world's major...

     (1951)
  • John Knowles
    John Knowles
    John Knowles was an American novelist best known for his novel A Separate Peace. He died in 2001 at the age of seventy-five.-Early life:...

    's novels A Separate Peace
    A Separate Peace
    A Separate Peace is a novel by John Knowles. Based on his earlier short story "Phineas", it was Knowles' first published novel and became his best-known work.-Plot summary:...

     (1959) and Peace Breaks Out
    Peace Breaks Out
    Peace Breaks Out is a novel by American author John Knowles, better known for A Separate Peace . The books share the setting of the Devon preparatory school, probably a reference to Phillips Exeter Academy in Exeter, New Hampshire, which Knowles attended in his youth.-Plot introduction:This book...

     (1981)
  • John Irving
    John Irving
    John Winslow Irving is an American novelist and Academy Award-winning screenwriter.Irving achieved critical and popular acclaim after the international success of The World According to Garp in 1978...

    's novels The World According to Garp
    The World According to Garp
    The World According to Garp is John Irving's fourth novel. Published in 1978, the book was a bestseller for several years.A movie adaptation of the novel starring Robin Williams was released in 1982, with a screenplay written by Steve Tesich....

     (1978) and A Prayer for Owen Meany
    A Prayer for Owen Meany
    A Prayer for Owen Meany was the seventh published novel by American writer John Irving when it appeared in 1989. It tells the story of John Wheelwright and his best friend Owen Meany growing up together in a small New England town during the 1950-60s...

     (1990)
  • Lemony Snicket
    Lemony Snicket
    Lemony Snicket is the pen name of American novelist Daniel Handler . Snicket is the author of several children's books, serving as the narrator of A Series of Unfortunate Events and appearing as a character within the series. Because of this, the name Lemony Snicket may refer to both a fictional...

    's The Austere Academy
    The Austere Academy
    The Austere Academy is the fifth novel in the book series A Series of Unfortunate Events by Lemony Snicket. It was released in paperback under the name The Austere Academy: or, Kidnapping! The Baudelaire orphans are sent to a boarding school, overseen by monstrous employees...

    , the fifth book in the A Series of Unfortunate Events
    A Series of Unfortunate Events
    A Series of Unfortunate Events is a series of children's novels by Lemony Snicket which follows the turbulent lives of Violet, Klaus, and Sunny Baudelaire after their parents' death in an arsonous house fire...

     series (2000)
  • Josiah Bunting III
    Josiah Bunting III
    Josiah Bunting III is an American educator. He has been a military officer, college president, and an author and speaker on education and Western culture.-Biography:...

    's novel All Loves Excelling, (2002)
  • Tobias Wolff
    Tobias Wolff
    Tobias Jonathan Ansell Wolff is an American author. He is known for his memoirs, particularly This Boy's Life , and his short stories. He has also written two novels.-Biography:Wolff was born in 1945 in Birmingham, Alabama...

    's novel Old School
    Old School (novel)
    Old School is a novel by Tobias Wolff. It was first published on November 4, 2003, after three portions of the novel had appeared in The New Yorker as short stories....

     (2004)
  • John Green's Looking for Alaska
    Looking for Alaska
    Looking for Alaska is the first young adult novel by John Green, published in March 2005 by Dutton Juvenile. It won the 2006 Michael L. Printz Award from the American Library Association...

     (2005)
  • Curtis Sittenfeld
    Curtis Sittenfeld
    Elizabeth Curtis Sittenfeld is an American writer. She is author of three novels: Prep, the tale of a Massachusetts prep school, The Man of My Dreams, a coming-of-age novel and an examination of romantic love, and American Wife, a fictional story loosely based on the life of First Lady Laura...

    's novel Prep (2005)
  • E. Lockhart
    E. Lockhart
    Emily Jenkins, who also writes under the name E. Lockhart, is a writer of children's picture books, young adult novels, and adult fiction.Her first novel as E...

    's novel The Disreputable History of Frankie Landau-Banks (2009)
  • R.L. Stine's Rotten School
    Rotten School
    Rotten School is a children's book series by R. L. Stine. It concerns the adventures of a group of kids at a boarding school. Each book is written from the perspective of Bernie Bridges. Unlike R. L...

     series (2005–2008)
  • Rick Riordan
    Rick Riordan
    Richard Russell "Rick" Riordan, Jr. is an American author best known for writing the Percy Jackson & the Olympians series. He also wrote the Tres Navarre mystery series for adults and helped to edit Demigods and Monsters, a collection of essays on the topic of his Percy Jackson series...

    's Percy Jackson & the Olympians
    Percy Jackson & the Olympians
    Percy Jackson & the Olympians is a pentalogy of adventure and fantasy fiction books authored by Rick Riordan. The series consists of five books, as well as spin-off titles such as The Demigod Files and Demigods and Monsters. Set in the United States, the books are predominantly based on Greek...

     series (2005–2009)
  • Rick Riordan
    Rick Riordan
    Richard Russell "Rick" Riordan, Jr. is an American author best known for writing the Percy Jackson & the Olympians series. He also wrote the Tres Navarre mystery series for adults and helped to edit Demigods and Monsters, a collection of essays on the topic of his Percy Jackson series...

    's The Heroes of Olympus
    The Heroes of Olympus
    The Heroes of Olympus is a fantasy book series written by Rick Riordan and based on Greek and Roman mythology. It is the sequel series to the Percy Jackson & the Olympians pentalogy....

     series (2010-present)
  • Libba Bray
    Libba Bray
    Libba Bray is an author of young adult novels, including the books A Great and Terrible Beauty, Rebel Angels, The Sweet Far Thing and Going Bovine....

    's The Gemma Doyle Trilogy

There is also a huge boarding-school genre literature, mostly uncollected, in British comics
Comics
Comics denotes a hybrid medium having verbal side of its vocabulary tightly tied to its visual side in order to convey narrative or information only, the latter in case of non-fiction comics, seeking synergy by using both visual and verbal side in...

 and serials from the 1900s to the 1980s.

The sub-genre of books and films set in a military or naval academy has many similarities with the above.

Films

  • Mädchen in Uniform (1931)
  • Goodbye, Mr. Chips
    Goodbye, Mr. Chips (1939 film)
    Goodbye, Mr. Chips is a 1939 British film based on the novel of the same name by James Hilton. It was directed by Sam Wood, and starred Robert Donat, Greer Garson, Terry Kilburn, John Mills, and Paul Henreid. The screenplay was adapted from the novel by R. C. Sherriff, Claudine West and Eric...

     (1939)
  • The Browning Version
    The Browning Version (1951 film)
    The Browning Version is a 1951 British film based on the 1948 play of the same name by Terence Rattigan. It was directed by Anthony Asquith and starred Michael Redgrave.-Plot:...

     (1951)
  • Tom Brown's Schooldays
    Tom Brown's Schooldays (1951 film)
    Tom Brown's Schooldays is a 1951 British drama film directed by Gordon Parry and starring John Howard Davies, Robert Newton and James Hayter. It is based on the novel of the same name by Thomas Hughes. The screenplay was written by Noel Langley....

     (1951)
  • St Trinians quartet (1954–66)
  • Almost Angels
    Almost Angels
    Almost Angels is a 1962 Disney film about a group of boys in the Vienna Boys' Choir....

     (1962)
  • The Trouble with Angels (1966)
  • Young Torless
    Young Törless
    Young Törless is a 1966 German film directed by Volker Schlöndorff, adapted from the autobiographical novel The Confusions of Young Törless by Robert Musil. It deals with the sadistic and homoerotic tendencies of a group of boys at an Austrian military academy at the beginning of the 20th...

     (1966)
  • If.... (1968)
  • A Separate Peace
    A Separate Peace
    A Separate Peace is a novel by John Knowles. Based on his earlier short story "Phineas", it was Knowles' first published novel and became his best-known work.-Plot summary:...

     (1972)
  • Picnic at Hanging Rock
    Picnic at Hanging Rock (film)
    Picnic at Hanging Rock is a 1975 Australian feature film directed by Peter Weir and starring Anne-Louise Lambert, Helen Morse, Rachel Roberts and Vivean Gray. The film is adapted from the novel of the same name, by author Joan Lindsay....

     (1975)
  • Taps
    Taps (film)
    Taps is a 1981 drama film starring George C. Scott, Timothy Hutton, Ronny Cox, as well as then up-and-comers Tom Cruise and Sean Penn. Hutton was nominated for a Golden Globe award in 1982 for his role in the film. The film was directed by Harold Becker. The screenplay by Robert Mark Kamen, James...

     (1981)
  • Pink Floyd The Wall
    Pink Floyd The Wall (film)
    Pink Floyd—The Wall is a 1982 British live-action/animated musical film directed by Alan Parker based on the 1979 Pink Floyd album The Wall. The screenplay was written by Pink Floyd vocalist and bassist Roger Waters. The film is highly metaphorical and is rich in symbolic imagery and sound...

     (1982)
  • The World According to Garp
    The World According to Garp (film)
    The World According to Garp is 1982 American comedy drama film directed by George Roy Hill, based on the novel of the same title by John Irving, who also wrote the script together with Steve Tesich...

     (1982)
  • Class
    Class (film)
    Class is a 1983 American movie that was directed by Lewis John Carlino, the writer/director of the 1979 film The Great Santini. It features the film debuts of actors Andrew McCarthy, John Cusack, Virginia Madsen, Lolita Davidovich, and Alan Ruck....

     (1983)
  • Koodevide
    Koodevide
    Koodevide? is a 1983 Malayalam drama film written and directed by P. Padmarajan, starring Suhasini, Mammootty and Rahman who makes his debut. The plot of the film is loosely based on a Tamil novel by Vasanthi.-Plot:...

     (1983)
  • Another Country (1984)
  • Young Sherlock Holmes
    Young Sherlock Holmes
    Young Sherlock Holmes is a 1985 mystery/adventure film directed by Barry Levinson, produced by Steven Spielberg and written by Chris Columbus, based on characters by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle...

     (1985)
  • Sreedharante Onnam Thirumurivu
    Sreedharante Onnam Thirumurivu
    Sreedharante Onnam Thirumurivu is 1987 Malayalam film directed by Sathyan Anthikad and starring Mammootty.-Plot:...

     (1987)
  • Daisy
    Daisy (1988 film)
    Daisy is a 1988 Malayalam musical - romance film depicting separation and longing set in a boarding school, written and directed by Prathap K. Pothan. It stars Harish and Sonia in the lead roles, Lakshmi in another pivotal role, and Kamal Hassan in a guest appearance. The screenplay was written by...

     (1988)
  • Dead Poets Society
    Dead Poets Society
    Dead Poets Society is a 1989 American drama film directed by Peter Weir and starring Robin Williams. Set at the conservative and aristocratic Welton Academy in Vermont in 1959, it tells the story of an English teacher who inspires his students through his teaching of poetry.The script was written...

     (1989)
  • Flirting
    Flirting (film)
    Flirting is a 1991 Australian coming of age film about a romance between two teenagers, written and directed by John Duigan. It stars Noah Taylor, who appears again as Danny Embling, a character from Duigan's 1987 film The Year My Voice Broke. It also stars Thandie Newton and Nicole Kidman....

     (1991)
  • Toy Soldiers (1991)
  • Scent of a Woman
    Scent of a Woman
    This article is about the American film. For the Korean drama, see Scent of a Woman .Scent of a Woman is a 1992 drama film directed by Martin Brest that tells the story of a preparatory school student who takes a job as an assistant to an irascible, blind, medically retired Army officer...

     (1992)
  • The Power of One
    The Power of One (film)
    The Power of One is a 1992 dramatic film based on the 1989 novel of the same name by Bryce Courtenay. Set in South Africa during the '30s and '40s, the film centers on the life of Peter Philip 'P.K.' Kenneth-Keith , a young English boy raised during the apartheid era, and his relationship with a...

     (1992)
  • School Ties
    School Ties
    School Ties is a 1992 film directed by Robert Mandel starring Brendan Fraser, Matt Damon, Ben Affleck, Chris O'Donnell, Cole Hauser, Randall Batinkoff, and Anthony Rapp....

     (1992)
  • The Browning Version
    The Browning Version (1994 film)
    The Browning Version is a 1994 film directed by Mike Figgis and starring Albert Finney. The film is based on the 1948 play by Terence Rattigan, which was previously adapted for film under the same name in 1951.-Plot:...

     (1994)
  • A Little Princess
    A Little Princess (1995 film)
    A Little Princess is a 1995 American children's film directed by Alfonso Cuarón, starring Liesel Matthews, Eleanor Bron, Liam Cunningham, and Vanessa Lee Chester. Set during World War I, it focuses on a young girl who is relegated to a life of servitude in a New York City boarding school by the...

     (1995)
  • Boys
    Boys (1996 film)
    Boys is a 1996 American film starring Winona Ryder and Lukas Haas. The film was originally titled The Girl You Want. The film earned $516,350 in the United States box office. It is based on a short story called "Twenty Minutes" by James Salter....

     (1996)
  • Strike!
    The Hairy Bird
    The Hairy Bird , also released under the titles Strike! and All I Wanna Do , is a 1998 comedy film written and directed by Sarah Kernochan...

     (1998)
  • Madeline
    Madeline
    Madeline is a children's book series written by Ludwig Bemelmans, an Austrian author. The books have been adapted into numerous formats, spawning telefilms, television series and a live action feature film...

     (1998)
  • Outside Providence
    Outside Providence (film)
    Outside Providence is a 1999 American film adaptation of Peter Farrelly's 1988 novel of the same name. Like the book, the film is a fictionalized account of Farrelly's own experiences at Kent School, a prep school in Kent, Connecticut.-Plot:...

     (1999)
  • Rockford (1999)
  • Lost and Delirious
    Lost and Delirious
    Lost and Delirious is a 2001 Canadian drama film directed by Léa Pool and loosely based on the novel The Wives of Bath by Susan Swan. Lost and Delirious is filmed from the perspective of Mary , who observes the changing love between her two teenage friends, Pauline and Victoria...

     (2001)
  • The Fraternity
    The Fraternity
    The Fraternity is a Canadian thriller film about a circle of friends that create an elite club while at the Runcie High School and cheat on an exam. The subsequent pressure on the administration for someone in the circle to be a "rat", and finding one of the students dead, prompts one of their...

     (2001)
  • Harry Potter
    Harry Potter (film series)
    The Harry Potter film series is a British-American film series based on the Harry Potter novels by the British author J. K. Rowling...

     series, Hogwarts
    Hogwarts
    Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry or simply Hogwarts is the primary setting for the first six books of the Harry Potter series by J. K. Rowling, with each book lasting the equivalent of one school year. It is a fictional boarding school of magic for witches and wizards between the ages of...

     (2001–2011)
  • The Emperor's Club
    The Emperor's Club
    The Emperor's Club is a 2002 drama film that tells the story of a prep school teacher and his students. Based on Ethan Canin's short story "The Palace Thief," the film is directed by Michael Hoffman and stars Kevin Kline. The film is set at a fictional boys' prep school, St. Benedict's Academy,...

      (2002)
  • Agent Cody Banks 2: Destination London
    Agent Cody Banks 2: Destination London
    Agent Cody Banks 2: Destination London is an English-American action comedy film and the sequel to the 2003 film Agent Cody Banks, and was released in the United States on March 12, 2004. Frankie Muniz was the only major returning star, with Hannah Spearritt now playing the love interest and...

     (2004)
  • Les Choristes
    The Chorus (2004 film)
    The Chorus is a 2004 French drama film directed by Christophe Barratier. Co-written by Barratier and Philippe Lopes-Curval, it is an adaptation of the 1945 film A Cage of Nightingales , which in turn was adapted by Noël-Noël and René Wheeler from a story by Wheeler and Georges Chaperot.Widely...

     (2004)
  • X-Men
    X-Men (film)
    X-Men is a 2000 superhero film based on the fictional Marvel Comics characters of the same name. Directed by Bryan Singer, the film stars Patrick Stewart, Hugh Jackman, Ian McKellen, Anna Paquin, Famke Janssen, Bruce Davison, James Marsden, Halle Berry, Rebecca Romijn, Ray Park and Tyler Mane...

     (2000)
  • The Wild Thornberrys Movie
    The Wild Thornberrys Movie
    The Wild Thornberrys Movie is a 2002 American animated feature film based on the television series of the same name. It was distributed by Paramount Pictures and produced by Klasky Csupo and Nickelodeon Movies, and was released on December 20, 2002.-Plot:...

     (2002)
  • X2
    X2 (film)
    X2 is a 2003 superhero film based on the fictional characters the X-Men. Directed by Bryan Singer, it is the second film in the X-Men film series...

     (2003)
  • Evil (2003)
  • Cry Wolf (2005)
  • Notebook
    Notebook (film)
    Notebook is a 2006 Malayalam musical film directed by Rosshan Andrrews and written by Bobby Sanjay. It is about three students at a boarding school and how they face up to challenges in their lives. The film dealt with the subject of teenage pregnancy...

     (2006)
  • X-Men: The Last Stand
    X-Men: The Last Stand
    X-Men: The Last Stand is a 2006 superhero film and the third in the X-Men series. It was directed by Brett Ratner and stars an ensemble cast including Hugh Jackman, Halle Berry, Patrick Stewart, Ian McKellen, Famke Janssen, Kelsey Grammer, Anna Paquin, Shawn Ashmore, Aaron Stanford, Vinnie Jones,...

     (2006)
  • She's the Man
    She's the Man
    She's the Man is a 2006 American romantic comedy film directed by Andy Fickman, based on Twelfth Night, a play by William Shakespeare. The film stars Amanda Bynes, Channing Tatum, Laura Ramsey and Vinnie Jones....

     (2006)
  • The Covenant
    The Covenant (film)
    The Covenant is a 2006 American action supernatural thriller written by J. S. Cardone, directed by Renny Harlin, and starring Steven Strait, Taylor Kitsch, Toby Hemingway, Chace Crawford, Sebastian Stan, Laura Ramsey, and Jessica Lucas...

     (2006)
  • Taare Zameen Par
    Taare Zameen Par
    Taare Zameen Par is a 2007 Bollywood drama film directed by Aamir Khan, written by Amole Gupte, and produced by Aamir Khan Productions. Gupte initially developed the idea with his wife Deepa Bhatia, who served as the film's editor...

     (2007)
  • St. Trinian's (2007)
  • Wild Child (2008)
  • Prom Wars
    Prom Wars
    Prom Wars is a comedy featuring Ricky Ullman, Alia Shawkat, Rachelle Lefèvre, and Nicolas Wright.- Cast :*Ricky Ullman as Percy Collins*Alia Shawkat as Diana Riggs*Rachelle Lefèvre as Sabina*Nicolas Wright as Joseph*Kevin Coughlin as Geoffrey...

     (2008)
  • School Gyrls
    School Gyrls
    School Gyrls is an American girl group. Signed to Nick Cannon's NCredible Entertainment, the group starred in an eponymous movie that premiered on Nickelodeon on February 21, 2010...

     (2009)
  • St. Trinian's 2: The Legend of Fritton's Gold (2009)
  • Cracks
    Cracks (film)
    Cracks is an independent drama film starring Eva Green, Juno Temple, María Valverde, and Imogen Poots, which was released theatrically in the UK and Ireland on December 4, 2009...

     (2009)
  • Percy Jackson & the Olympians: The Lightning Thief
    Percy Jackson & the Olympians: The Lightning Thief
    Percy Jackson & the Olympians: The Lightning Thief is a 2010 fantasy-adventure film directed by Chris Columbus. The film is loosely based on The Lightning Thief, the first novel in the Percy Jackson & The Olympians series by Rick Riordan...

     (2010)
  • Wild Child (2009)
  • Barbie: Princess Charm School
    Barbie: Princess Charm School
    Barbie: Princess Charm School is a direct-to-DVD, 2011-computer-animated film, directed by Zeke Norton, which was released on September 13, 2011 in the US and on August 28 in the UK...

     (2011)


Television

Animated television shows:
  • Code Lyoko
    Code Lyoko
    Code Lyoko is a French animated television series created by Thomas Romain and Tania Palumbo. The series centers on boarding school students Jeremie, Ulrich, Yumi, and Odd who travel to the virtual world of Lyoko to fight against multi-agent computer program XANA with Aelita, a being originally...

  • Yu-Gi-Oh! GX
    Yu-Gi-Oh! GX
    Yu-Gi-Oh! GX, known in Japan as , is an anime spin-off and sequel of the original Yu-Gi-Oh! Duel Monsters anime. It aired in Japan on TV Tokyo between October 6, 2004 and March 26, 2008, and was succeeded by Yu-Gi-Oh! 5D's...

  • Yu-Gi-Oh! Duel Monsters GX
  • Gakuen Alice
    Gakuen Alice
    , also known as Alice Academy, is a Japanese manga series written and illustrated by Tachibana Higuchi, currently being serialized in the shōjo manga magazine Hana to Yume. It was adapted into an anime series produced by Aniplex and Group TAC which originally premiered on NHK BS-2. It spanned...

  • Madeline
    Madeline
    Madeline is a children's book series written by Ludwig Bemelmans, an Austrian author. The books have been adapted into numerous formats, spawning telefilms, television series and a live action feature film...

  • Team Galaxy
    Team Galaxy (TV series)
    Team Galaxy, le Collège de l'Espace or Galaxie Académie is a French and Canadian animated series made by Marathon Production...

  • "Busou Renkin"
  • "Speed Racer: The Next Generation
    Speed Racer: The Next Generation
    Speed Racer: The Next Generation is an American animated television series based on the classic Japanese Speed Racer franchise, in which the internal events take place decades after those in the 1967 Japanese series. It is the fourth television adaptation of the franchise, and is executive produced...

    "


Live-action television shows:
  • Zoey 101
    Zoey 101
    Zoey 101 is an American television series that ran from January 9, 2005 to May 2, 2008 starring Jamie Lynn Spears as teenager Zoey Brooks, produced for Nickelodeon and syndicated worldwide. The show was initially filmed at Pepperdine University in Malibu, California, then at stages in Valencia,...

  • The Facts of Life
    The Facts of Life (TV series)
    The Facts of Life is an American sitcom that originally ran on the NBC television network from August 24, 1979 to May 7, 1988. A spin-off of the sitcom Diff'rent Strokes, the series' premise focused on Edna Garrett as she becomes a housemother at the fictional Eastland School, a prestigious...

  • Breaker High
    Breaker High
    Breaker High was a Canadian teen comedy-drama series that ran from 1997 to 1998, airing on YTV in Canada and on UPN in the United States.-Synopsis:...

  • El Internado
    El Internado
    El Internado Laguna Negra was a Spanish television drama thriller focusing on the students of a fictional boarding school in a forest, where teenagers are sent by their parents to study. The boarding school is situated in a forest far from the city, on the outskirts on which macabre events occur...

  • Young Americans
    Young Americans (TV series)
    Young Americans is an American television drama created by Steven Antin. The show debuted on July 12, 2000 on The WB network as a summer replacement for, and spin-off from, another Columbia TriStar Television production, Dawson's Creek. The series was originally ordered for the fall 1999-2000...

  • Strange Days at Blake Holsey High
    Strange Days at Blake Holsey High
    Black Hole High is a Canadian science fiction television program which first aired in North America in October 2002 on NBC and Discovery Kids...

  • Hex
    Hex (TV series)
    Hex is a British television programme developed by Shine Limited and aired on the Sky One satellite channel. The story is about a remote English country school that becomes the battleground between a demonic entity and the witches who oppose it...

  • Tower Prep
    Tower Prep
    Tower Prep is an American-Canadian television series that aired on Cartoon Network. It debuted on October 16, 2010, after the world premiere of Scooby-Doo! Curse of the Lake Monster. The series is created by Paul Dini, a former producer and writer of Batman: The Animated Series and Superman: The...

  • House of Anubis
    House of Anubis
    House of Anubis is a jointly American/British/Belgian produced teen mystery/drama television show based on the Belgian/Dutch television series Het Huis Anubis. The series was created by Hans Bourlon & Gert Verhulst and premiered on Nickelodeon on New Year's Day 2011 in the United States and on 25...

  • Glee
    Glee (TV series)
    Glee is an American musical comedy-drama television series that airs on Fox in the United States, and on GlobalTV in Canada. It focuses on the high school glee club New Directions competing on the show choir competition circuit, while its members deal with relationships, sexuality and social issues...

     (Dalton Academy)


Video games

  • Skool Daze
    Skool Daze
    Skool Daze is a computer game created by David Reidy for the ZX Spectrum and released by Microsphere in 1985. A Commodore 64 port was subsequently made...

     (1985)
  • Back to Skool
    Back to Skool
    Back to Skool is a computer game, sequel to the popular Skool Daze, created by David Reidy for the ZX Spectrum and released by Microsphere in 1985...

     (1985)
  • EarthBound
    EarthBound
    EarthBound, also known as EarthBound: The War Against Giygas! and released as in Japan, is a role-playing video game co-developed by Ape and HAL Laboratory and published by Nintendo for the Super Nintendo Entertainment System video game console...

     (1995)
  • Final Fantasy VIII
    Final Fantasy VIII
    is a role-playing video game released for the PlayStation in 1999 and for Windows-based personal computers in 2000. It was developed and published by Square as the Final Fantasy series' eighth title, removing magic point-based spell-casting and the first title to consistently use realistically...

     (1999)
  • Bully
    Bully (video game)
    Bully, also known as Canis Canem Edit for the PAL PlayStation 2 version, is an open world video game released by Rockstar Vancouver for the PlayStation 2 on 17 October 2006 in North America, and 25 October 2006 in the United Kingdom...

     (2006)
  • Clock Tower 3
    Clock Tower 3
    is a survival horror video game co-developed by Capcom Production Studio 3 and Sunsoft. The fourth installment in the Clock Tower series, it was released in Japan on December 12, 2002, in North America on March 18, 2003 and in Europe on June 25, 2003...

     (2002)

See also

  • List of boarding schools
  • Therapeutic boarding schools
  • Secondary education
    Secondary education
    Secondary education is the stage of education following primary education. Secondary education includes the final stage of compulsory education and in many countries it is entirely compulsory. The next stage of education is usually college or university...

  • Special school
  • Military school
  • Semester school
    Semester school
    Semester school is a term used to describe a school that complements a student’s secondary education by providing them with the opportunity to step out of their regular school for half an academic year and step into a uniquely different educational setting while continuing their required academic...

  • School and university in literature
    School and university in literature
    -School in literature:*Thomas Bailey Aldrich: The Story of a Bad Boy*Laurie Halse Anderson: Speak*Christine Anlauff: Good morning, Lehnitz*F...

  • School story
    School story
    The school story is a fiction genre centering on older pre-adolescent and adolescent school life, at its most popular in the first half of the twentieth century. While examples do exist in other countries, it is most commonly set in English boarding schools and mostly written in girls and boys sub...

  • Residential education
    Residential education
    Residential Education, broadly defined, is a pre-college education provided in an environment where students both live and learn outside of their family homes. Varied forms of residential education have been in existence in the United States since before the nation's founding...


Selected bibliography

  • Cookson, Peter W., Jr., and Caroline Hodges Persell. Preparing for Power: America's Elite Boarding Schools. (New York: Basic Books, 1985).
  • Fisher, S. & Hood, B. (1987). The stress of the transition to university: a longitudinal study of psychological disturbance, absent-mindedness and vulnerability to homesickness. British Journal of Psychology, 78, 425-441
  • Hein, David (1986). The founding of the Boys' School of St. Paul's Parish, Baltimore. Maryland Historical Magazine, 81, 149-59.
  • Hein, David (1991). The High Church origins of the American boarding school. Journal of Ecclesiastical History, 42, 577-95.
  • Hein, David, ed. (2009). Religion and Politics in Maryland on the Eve of the Civil War: The Letters of W. Wilkins Davis. Eugene, OR: Wipf & Stock. Revised edition of book published in 1988 as A Student's View of the College of St. James on the Eve of the Civil War.
  • Hein, David (4 January 2004). What has happened to Episcopal schools? The Living Church, 228, no. 1, 21-22.
  • Hickson, A. "The Poisoned Bowl: Sex Repression and the Public School System". (London: Constable, 1995).
  • Johann, Klaus: Grenze und Halt: Der Einzelne im "Haus der Regeln". Zur deutschsprachigen Internatsliteratur. (Heidelberg: Universitätsverlag Winter 2003, Beiträge zur neueren Literaturgeschichte, 201.), ISBN 3-8253-1599-1. Review
  • Ladenthin, Volker; Fitzek, Herbert; Ley, Michael: Das Internat. Aufgaben, Erwartungen und Evaluationskriterien. Bonn 2006 (7. Aufl.).
  • Duffel N. (2000) The making of them. London: Lone Arrow Press
  • Schaverien, J. (2004) Boarding School: The Trauma of the Privileged Child, in Journal of Analytical Psychology, vol 49, 683-705 (http://www.isana.org.au/_Upload/Files/2005112215407_Boardingschool%5B1%5D.pdf )
The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
x
OK