Bissel bogie
A Bissel truck is a very simple and commonly used way of designing a carrying axle on a steam locomotive
Steam locomotive
A steam locomotive is a railway locomotive that produces its power through a steam engine. These locomotives are fueled by burning some combustible material, usually coal, wood or oil, to produce steam in a boiler, which drives the steam engine...

 to enable it to negotiate curves more easily. The design uses a single-axled bogie
A bogie is a wheeled wagon or trolley. In mechanics terms, a bogie is a chassis or framework carrying wheels, attached to a vehicle. It can be fixed in place, as on a cargo truck, mounted on a swivel, as on a railway carriage/car or locomotive, or sprung as in the suspension of a caterpillar...

, usually known as a pony truck
Pony truck
A pony truck, in railway terminology, is a leading truck with only two wheels.Its invention is generally credited to Levi Bissell, who devised one in 1857 and patented it the following year. Hence the term Bissel bogie or axle is used in continental Europe...

, whose pivot is towards the centre of the locomotive. As a result, the Bissell axle is not only able to turn about its vertical axis, but also to swing radially to the side, something which is necessary on steam locomotives because their position on the track is dictated by the driving
Driving wheel
On a steam locomotive, a driving wheel is a powered wheel which is driven by the locomotive's pistons...

 or coupled wheels.

The [pony] truck can move radially around a real or virtual pivot. When the pivot is situated at a point inside the truck, the truck is called a bogie. What makes it a Bissel bogie is the pivot being placed outside to the rear or fore.

The Bissel bogie was invented in 1857 by Levi Bissell.


Examples of steam engines fitted with Bissell trucks include the German DRG Class 64
DRG Class 64
The Deutsche Reichsbahn had a standard passenger train tank engine with a wheel arrangement of 1'C1' or 2-6-2 and a low axle load, which was designated in their classification system as the DRG Class 64 . The Class 64 was developed from 1926 onwards and it was built between 1928 and 1940...

 and Class 99.73-76 locomotives.

Even some older electric locomotives have Bissell trucks, if the driving axles are located in the main frame rather than the now usual bogies.

A British example was the London and North Western Railway
London and North Western Railway
The London and North Western Railway was a British railway company between 1846 and 1922. It was created by the merger of three companies – the Grand Junction Railway, the London and Birmingham Railway and the Manchester and Birmingham Railway...

Under the Whyte notation for the classification of steam locomotives, 0-4-2 represents the wheel arrangement with no leading wheels, four powered and coupled driving wheels on two axles, and two trailing wheels on one axle...

 tank locomotive
Tank locomotive
A tank locomotive or tank engine is a steam locomotive that carries its water in one or more on-board water tanks, instead of pulling it behind it in a tender. It will most likely also have some kind of bunker to hold the fuel. There are several different types of tank locomotive dependent upon...

 which was known as a "Bissell tank" or "Bissell truck tank". It was also used on the South African Class 4E
South African Class 4E
Between 1952 and 1954 the South African Railways placed forty Class 4E electric locomotives with a 1Co+Co1 wheel arrangement in service.-Manufacturer:...

 electric and Class 32-000
South African Class 32-000
Between November 1959 and November 1961 the South African Railways placed one hundred and fifteen Class 32-000 GE U18C1 diesel-electric locomotives in service in South West Africa.- Manufacturer :...

 and 32-200
South African Class 32-200
In June and July 1966 the South African Railways placed ten Class 32-200 GE U20C1 diesel-electric locomotives in service in South West Africa..- Manufacturer :...

diesel-electric locomotives.

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