, and social critic. At various points in his life he considered himself a liberal
, a socialist, and a pacifist, but he also admitted that he had never been any of these things in any profound sense. He was born in Monmouthshire, into one of the most prominent aristocratic families in Britain.
Russell led the British "revolt against idealism
" in the early 1900s.
In the revolt against idealism, the ambiguities of the word “experience” have been perceived, with the result that realists have more and more avoided the word. It is to be feared, however, that if the word is avoided the confusions of thought with which it has been associated may persist.
Every philosophical problem, when it is subjected to the necessary analysis and justification, is found either to be not really philosophical at all, or else to be, in the sense in which we are using the word, logical.
No nation was ever so virtuous as each believes itself, and none was ever so wicked as each believes the other.
, and social critic. At various points in his life he considered himself a liberal
, a socialist, and a pacifist, but he also admitted that he had never been any of these things in any profound sense. He was born in Monmouthshire, into one of the most prominent aristocratic families in Britain.
Russell led the British "revolt against idealism
" in the early 1900s. He is considered one of the founders of analytic philosophy
along with his predecessor Gottlob Frege
and his protégé Ludwig Wittgenstein
, and is widely held to be one of the 20th century's premier logicians. He co-authored, with A. N. Whitehead, Principia Mathematica
, an attempt to ground mathematics on logic. His philosophical essay "On Denoting
" has been considered a "paradigm of philosophy." His work has had a considerable influence on logic
, set theory
, computer science
(see type theory
and type system
), and philosophy
, especially philosophy of language
, epistemology, and metaphysics
Russell was a prominent anti-war
; he championed free trade
. Russell went to prison for his pacifism during World War I. Later, he campaigned against Adolf Hitler
, then criticised Stalinist totalitarianism
, attacked the United States of America's involvement in the Vietnam War
, and was an outspoken proponent of nuclear disarmament
. One of his last acts was to issue a statement which condemned Israeli aggression in the Middle East.
In 1950, Russell was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature
, "in recognition of his varied and significant writings in which he champions humanitarian ideals and freedom of thought
AncestryBertrand Russell was born on 18 May 1872 at Ravenscroft, Trellech
, Wales, into an influential and liberal family of the British aristocracy. His paternal grandfather, John Russell, 1st Earl Russell
, was the third son of John Russell, 6th Duke of Bedford
, and had twice been asked by Queen Victoria to form a government, serving her as Prime Minister
in the 1840s and 1860s.
. They established themselves as one of Britain's leading Whig
families, and participated in every great political event from the Dissolution of the Monasteries
in 1536–40 to the Glorious Revolution
in 1688–89 to the Great Reform Act in 1832.
Russell's mother Katharine Louisa (1844–1874) was the daughter of Edward Stanley, 2nd Baron Stanley of Alderley
, and was the sister of Rosalind Howard, Countess of Carlisle. Kate and Rosalind's mother was one of the founders of Girton College, Cambridge
Russell's parents were radical for their times. Russell's father, Viscount Amberley
, was an atheist and consented to his wife's affair with their children's tutor, the biologist Douglas Spalding
. Both were early advocates of birth control
at a time when this was considered scandalous. John Russell's atheism was evident when he asked the philosopher John Stuart Mill
to act as Russell's secular godfather
. Mill died the year after Russell's birth, but his writings had a great effect on Russell's life.
Childhood and adolescenceRussell had two siblings: Frank
(nearly seven years older than Bertrand), and Rachel (four years older). In June 1874 Russell's mother died of diphtheria
, followed shortly by Rachel's death. In January 1876, his father also died of bronchitis
following a long period of depression. Frank and Bertrand were placed in the care of their staunchly Victorian
grandparents, who lived at Pembroke Lodge
in Richmond Park
. John Russell, 1st Earl Russell
, his grandfather, who had been Prime Minister
, died in 1878, and was remembered by Russell as a kindly old man in a wheelchair. As a result, his widow, the Countess Russell (née Lady Frances Elliot), was the dominant family figure for the rest of Russell's childhood and youth.
The countess was from a Scottish Presbyterian family, and successfully petitioned the Court of Chancery
to set aside a provision in Amberley's will
requiring the children to be raised as agnostics. Despite her religious conservatism, she held progressive views in other areas (accepting Darwinism
and supporting Irish Home Rule
), and her influence on Bertrand Russell's outlook on social justice
and standing up for principle remained with him throughout his life — her favourite Bible verse, 'Thou shalt not follow a multitude to do evil' (Exodus 23:2), became his motto. The atmosphere at Pembroke Lodge was one of frequent prayer, emotional repression and formality; Frank reacted to this with open rebellion, but the young Bertrand learned to hide his feelings.
was very lonely, and he often contemplated suicide. He remarked in his autobiography that his keenest interests were in religion and mathematics, and that only the wish to know more mathematics kept him from suicide. He was educated at home by a series of tutors. His brother Frank introduced him to the work of Euclid
, which transformed Russell's life.
Also, during these formative years, he discovered the works of Percy Bysshe Shelley
. In his autobiography, he writes: "I spent all my spare time reading him, and learning him by heart, knowing no one to whom I could speak of what I thought or felt, I used to reflect how wonderful it would have been to know Shelley, and to wonder whether I should meet any live human being with whom I should feel so much sympathy." Russell claimed that beginning at age 15, he spent considerable time thinking about the validity of Christian
religious dogma, and by 18 had decided to discard the last of it.
University and first marriageRussell won a scholarship to read for the Mathematical Tripos at Trinity College, Cambridge
, and commenced his studies there in 1890. He became acquainted with the younger G.E. Moore
and came under the influence of Alfred North Whitehead
, who recommended him to the Cambridge Apostles
. He quickly distinguished himself in mathematics and philosophy, graduating as a high Wrangler in 1893 and becoming a Fellow in the latter in 1895.
Russell first met the American Quaker
Alys Pearsall Smith
when he was 17 years old. He became a friend of the Pearsall Smith family—they knew him primarily as 'Lord John's grandson' and enjoyed showing him off—and travelled with them to the continent; it was in their company that Russell visited the Paris Exhibition of 1889 and was able to climb the Eiffel Tower
soon after it was completed.
He soon fell in love with the puritanical, high-minded Alys, who was a graduate of Bryn Mawr College
near Philadelphia, and, contrary to his grandmother's wishes, married her on 13 December 1894. Their marriage began to fall apart in 1901 when it occurred to Russell, while he was cycling, that he no longer loved her. She asked him if he loved her and he replied that he didn't. Russell also disliked Alys's mother, finding her controlling and cruel. It was to be a hollow shell of a marriage and they finally divorced in 1921, after a lengthy period of separation.
During this period, Russell had passionate (and often simultaneous) affairs with a number of women, including Lady Ottoline Morrell and the actress Lady Constance Malleson.
Early careerRussell began his published work in 1896 with German Social Democracy, a study in politics that was an early indication of a lifelong interest in political and social theory. In 1896, he taught German social democracy at the London School of Economics
, where he also lectured on the science of power in the autumn of 1937. He was also a member of the Coefficients dining club
of social reformers set up in 1902 by the Fabian
campaigners Sidney and Beatrice Webb
He now started an intensive study of the foundations of mathematics
at Trinity during which he discovered Russell's paradox
which challenged the foundations of set theory
. In 1903 he published his first important book on mathematical logic, The Principles of Mathematics
showing that mathematics could be deduced from a very small number of principles, and contributing significantly to the cause of logicism
In 1905 he wrote the essay "On Denoting
", which was published in the philosophical journal Mind
. Russell became a fellow of the Royal Society
in 1908. The first of three volumes of Principia Mathematica
, written with Whitehead, was published in 1910, which, along with the earlier The Principles of Mathematics, soon made Russell world famous in his field.
In 1910 he became a lecturer in the University of Cambridge
where he soon received an approach from the Austrian engineering student Ludwig Wittgenstein
, who became his PhD
student and whom he viewed as a genius and a successor who would continue his work on logic. He spent hours dealing with Wittgenstein's various phobia
s and his frequent bouts of despair. This was often a drain on Russell's energy, but Russell continued to be fascinated by him and encouraged his academic development, including the publication of Wittgenstein's Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus
in 1922. Russell delivered his lectures on Logical Atomism
, his version of these ideas, in 1918 before the end of the First World War and whilst Wittgenstein was still a prisoner of war.
First World WarDuring the First World War
, Russell was one of a very small number of intellectuals engaged in pacifist activities
, and, in 1916, he was dismissed from Trinity College following his conviction under the Defence of the Realm Act.
He was charged a fine of £100 which he refused to pay, hoping that he would be sent to prison, but they instead sold his books at auction to raise the money. The books were bought by friends and he later treasured his copy of the King James Bible that was stamped "Confiscated by Cambridge Police." Russell was released from prison in September 1918. He was reinstated in 1919, resigned in 1920, was Tarner Lecturer 1926, and became a Fellow again 1944–1949.
A later conviction for publicly lecturing against inviting the US to enter the war on Britain's side, resulted in six months' imprisonment in Brixton prison
(see Bertrand Russell's views on society
Between the wars, and second marriageIn August 1920, Russell travelled to Russia as part of an official delegation sent by the British government to investigate the effects of the Russian Revolution
. He met Vladimir Lenin
and had an hour-long conversation with him. In his autobiography, he mentions that he found Lenin rather disappointing, sensing an "impish cruelty" in him and comparing him to "an opinionated professor". He also cruised down the Volga on a steamship. Russell's lover Dora Black
also visited Russia independently at the same time — she was enthusiastic about the revolution, but Russell's experiences destroyed his previous tentative support for it. He wrote a book "The Practice and Theory of Bolshevism" about his experiences on this trip, which included 24 others from Britain, all of whom came home thinking well of the regime, despite Russell's attempts to change their mind. For example, he told them that he heard shots fired in the middle of the night and was sure these were clandestine executions, but the others maintained that it was only cars backfiring.
Russell subsequently lectured in Beijing
on philosophy for one year, accompanied by Dora. He went there with optimism and hope, as China
was then on a new path. Among other scholars there was Rabindranath Tagore
, the India
n poet and also a Nobel Laureate. While in China, Russell became gravely ill with pneumonia
, and incorrect reports of his death were published in the Japan
ese press. When the couple visited Japan on their return journey, Dora notified the world that "Mr. Bertrand Russell, having died according to the Japanese press, is unable to give interviews to Japanese journalists." The press were not amused and did not appreciate the sarcasm.
On the couple's return to England on 26 August 1921, Dora was six months pregnant, and Russell arranged a hasty divorce from Alys, marrying Dora six days after the divorce was finalised, on 27 September 1921. Their children were John Conrad Russell, 4th Earl Russell, born on 16 November 1921 and Katharine Jane Russell (now Lady Katharine Tait) born on 29 December 1923. Russell supported himself during this time by writing popular books explaining matters of physics
, and education
to the layman
. Some have suggested that at this point he had an affair with Vivienne Haigh-Wood, first wife of T. S. Eliot
Together with Dora, he also founded the experimental Beacon Hill School in 1927. The school was run from a succession of different locations, including its original premises at the Russells' residence, Telegraph House, near Harting
, West Sussex
. On 8 July 1930 Dora gave birth to her third child, a daughter, Harriet Ruth. After he left the school in 1932, Dora continued it until 1943.
Upon the death of his elder brother Frank, in 1931, Russell became the 3rd Earl Russell. He once said that his title was primarily useful for securing hotel rooms.
Russell's marriage to Dora grew increasingly tenuous, and it reached a breaking point over her having two children with an American journalist, Griffin Barry. They separated in 1932 and finally divorced. On 18 January 1936, Russell married his third wife, an Oxford
undergraduate named Patricia ("Peter") Spence
, who had been his children's governess
since 1930. Russell and Peter had one son, Conrad Sebastian Robert Russell
, 5th Earl Russell, who became a prominent historian and one of the leading figures in the Liberal Democratic
During the 1930s, Russell also became a close friend and collaborator of V.K. Krishna Menon, then secretary of the India League, the foremost lobby for Indian independence in Great Britain.
Second World WarRussell opposed rearmament against Nazi Germany
, but in 1940 changed his view that avoiding a full scale world war
was more important than defeating Hitler. He concluded that Adolf Hitler taking over all of Europe would be a permanent threat to democracy. In 1943, he adopted a stance toward large-scale warfare, "Relative Political Pacifism": War was always a great evil, but in some particularly extreme circumstances, it may be the lesser of two evils.
Post-Second World WarBefore the Second World War
, Russell taught at the University of Chicago
, later moving on to Los Angeles to lecture at the University of California, Los Angeles
. He was appointed professor at the City College of New York
in 1940, but after a public outcry, the appointment was annulled by a court judgement: his opinions (especially those relating to sexual morality, detailed in Marriage and Morals
ten years earlier) made him "morally unfit" to teach at the college. The protest was started by the mother of a student who would not have been eligible for his graduate-level course in mathematical logic. Many intellectuals, led by John Dewey
, protested against his treatment. Albert Einstein
's often-quoted aphorism that "Great spirits have always encountered violent opposition from mediocre minds..." originated in his open letter in support of Russell, during this time. Dewey and Horace M. Kallen edited a collection of articles on the CCNY affair in The Bertrand Russell Case
. He soon joined the Barnes Foundation, lecturing to a varied audience on the history of philosophy; these lectures formed the basis of A History of Western Philosophy. His relationship with the eccentric Albert C. Barnes
soon soured, and he returned to Britain in 1944 to rejoin the faculty of Trinity College.
Later lifeDuring the 1940s and 1950s, Russell participated in many broadcasts over the BBC, particularly The Brains Trust
and the Third Programme
, on various topical and philosophical subjects. By this time Russell was world famous outside of academic circles, frequently the subject or author of magazine and newspaper articles, and was called upon to offer up opinions on a wide variety of subjects, even mundane ones. En route to one of his lectures in Trondheim
, Russell was one of 24 survivors (among a total of 43 passengers) in an aeroplane crash in Hommelvik
in October 1948. A History of Western Philosophy (1945) became a best-seller, and provided Russell with a steady income for the remainder of his life.
In a speech in 1948, Russell said that if the USSR's aggression continued, it would be morally worse to go to war after the USSR possessed an atomic bomb than before it possessed one, because if the USSR had no bomb the West's victory would come more swiftly and with fewer casualties than if there were atom bombs on both sides. At that time, only the USA possessed an atomic bomb, and the USSR was pursuing an extremely aggressive policy towards the countries in Eastern Europe
which it was absorbing into its sphere of influence
. Many understood Russell's comments to mean that Russell approved of a first strike
in a war with the USSR, including Lawson, who was present when Russell spoke. Others, including Griffin who obtained a transcript of the speech, have argued that he was merely explaining the usefulness of America's atomic arsenal in deterring the USSR from continuing its domination of Eastern Europe.
In 1948, Russell was invited by the BBC to deliver the inaugural Reith Lectures - what was to become an annual series of lectures, still broadcast by the BBC. His series of six broadcasts, titled Authority and the Individual explored themes such as the role of individual initiative in the development of a community and the role of state control in a progressive society. Russell also continued to write about philosophy. He wrote a foreword to Words and Things by Ernest Gellner
which was highly critical of the later thought of Ludwig Wittgenstein
and of Ordinary language philosophy
. Gilbert Ryle
refused to have the book reviewed in the philosophical journal Mind
which caused Russell to respond via the Times
. The result was a month-long correspondence in the Times, between the supporters and detractors of Ordinary language philosophy which was only ended when the Times published an editorial about the matter, which was critical of both sides but agreeing with the opponents of Ordinary language philosophy.
In the King's Birthday Honours of 9 June 1949, Russell was awarded the Order of Merit, and the following year he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature
. When he was given the Order of Merit, King George VI was affable but slightly embarrassed at decorating a former jail
bird, saying that "You have sometimes behaved in a manner that would not do if generally adopted." Russell merely smiled, but afterwards claimed that the reply "That's right, just like your brother
" immediately came to mind.
In 1952, Russell was divorced by Spence, with whom he had been very unhappy. Conrad, Russell's son by Spence, did not see his father between the time of the divorce and 1968 (at which time his decision to meet his father caused a permanent breach with his mother).
Russell married his fourth wife, Edith Finch
, soon after the divorce, on 15 December 1952. They had known each other since 1925, and Edith had taught English at Bryn Mawr College
near Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
, sharing a house for 20 years with Russell's old friend Lucy Donnelly. Edith remained with him until his death, and, by all accounts, their marriage was a happy, close, and loving one. Russell's eldest son, John, suffered from serious mental illness
, which was the source of ongoing disputes between Russell and John's mother, Russell's former wife, Dora. John's wife Susan was also mentally ill, and eventually Russell and Edith became the legal guardians of their three daughters (two of whom were later found to have schizophrenia
In 1962, Russell played a public role in the Cuban Missile Crisis: in an exchange of telegrams with the Soviet Union leader Nikita Khrushchev
, Khrushchev assured him that the Soviet government would not be reckless.
Russell also wrote to President Kennedy, who returned his telegram unopened.
After the John F. Kennedy assassination
- according to historian Peter Knight - in June 1964, Bertrand Russell, "prompted by the emerging work of the lawyer Mark Lane
in the US ... rallied support from other noteworthy and left-leaning compatriots to form a Who Killed Kennedy Committee, members of which included Michael Foot MP, the wife of Tony Benn MP, the publisher Victor Gollancz
, the writers John Arden
and J. B. Priestley
, and the Oxford history professor Hugh Trevor-Roper. Russell published a highly critical article weeks before the Warren Commission
Report was published, setting forth 16 Questions on the Assassination and equating the Oswald case with the Dreyfus affair
of late nineteenth century France in which the state wrongly convicted an innocent man. Russell also criticized the American press for failing to heed any voices critical of the official version."
Political causesRussell spent the 1950s and 1960s engaged in various political causes, primarily related to nuclear disarmament and opposing the Vietnam war
(see also Russell Vietnam War Crimes Tribunal
). The 1955 Russell–Einstein Manifesto was a document calling for nuclear disarmament and was signed by 11 of the most prominent nuclear physicists and intellectuals of the time. He wrote a great many letters to world leaders during this period. He was in contact with Lionel Rogosin
while the latter was filming his anti-war film Good Times, Wonderful Times in the 1960s. He also became a hero to many of the youthful members of the New Left
. In early 1963, in particular, Russell became increasingly vocal about his disapproval of what he felt to be the US government's near-genocidal policies in South Vietnam. In 1963 he became the inaugural recipient of the Jerusalem Prize
, an award for writers concerned with the freedom of the individual in society. In October 1965 he tore up his Labour Party
card because he suspected the party was going to send soldiers to support the USA in the Vietnam War.
Views on the creation of the state of IsraelIn an essay titled 'On Israel and bombing' written in 1970, Russell says:
"...The tragedy of the people of Palestine is that their country was "given" by a foreign Power to another people for the creation of a new State. How much longer is the world willing to endure this spectacle of wanton cruelty? It is abundantly clear that the refugees have every right to the homeland from which they were driven, and the denial of this right is at the heart of the continuing conflict. No people anywhere in the world would accept being expelled en masse from their own country; how can anyone require the people of Palestine to accept a punishment which nobody else would tolerate? A permanent just settlement of the refugees in their homeland is an essential ingredient of any genuine settlement in the Middle East. We are frequently told, "We must sympathize with Israel because of the suffering of the Jews in Europe at the hands of the Nazis." What Israel is doing today cannot be condoned, and to invoke the horrors of the past to justify those of the present is gross hypocrisy. Not only does Israel condemn a vast number of refugees to misery; not only are many Arabs under occupation condemned to military rule; but also Israel condemns the Arab nations only recently emerging from colonial status, to continued impoverishment as military demands take precedence over national development.
All who want to see an end to bloodshed in the Middle East must ensure that any settlement does not contain the seeds of future conflict. Justice requires that the first step towards a settlement must be an Israeli withdrawal from all the territories occupied in June, 1967. A new world campaign is needed to help bring justice to the long-suffering people of the Middle East."
Final years and deathRussell published his three-volume autobiography in 1967, 1968, and 1969. On 23 November 1969 he wrote to The Times
newspaper saying that the preparation for show trials in Czechoslovakia
was "highly alarming". The same month he appealed to Secretary General U Thant
of the United Nations to support an international war crimes commission to investigate alleged torture and genocide by the USA in South Vietnam. The following month, he protested to Alexei Kosygin over the expulsion of Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn
from the Writers Union.
On 31 January 1970, Russell issued a statement which condemned Israeli aggression in the Middle East and called for Israeli withdrawal from territory occupied in 1967. This was Russell's final political statement or act. It was read out at the International Conference of Parliamentarians in Cairo
on 3 February 1970, the day after his death.
Russell died of influenza
on 2 February 1970 at his home, Plas Penrhyn, in Penrhyndeudraeth
, Wales. His body was cremated in Colwyn Bay
on 5 February 1970. In accordance with his will there was no religious ceremony; his ashes were scattered over the Welsh mountains later that year.
In 1980, a memorial to Russell was commissioned by a committee including the philosopher A. J. Ayer. It consists of a bust of Russell in Red Lion Square
sculpted by Marcelle Quinton.
Titles and honours from birthRussell held throughout his life the following styles and honours:
- from birth until 1908: The Honourable Bertrand Arthur William Russell
- from 1908 until 1931: The Honourable Bertrand Arthur William Russell, FRS
- from 1931 until 1949: The Right Honourable The Earl Russell, FRS
- from 1949 until death: The Right Honourable The Earl Russell, OM, FRS
Views on philosophyRussell is generally credited with being one of the founders of analytic philosophy
. He was deeply impressed by Gottfried Leibniz
(1646–1716) and wrote on every major area of philosophy except aesthetics. He was particularly prolific in the field of metaphysics
, the logic and the philosophy of mathematics, the philosophy of language, ethics and epistemology. When Brand Blanshard
asked Russell why he didn't write on aesthetics, Russell replied that he didn't know anything about it, "but that is not a very good excuse, for my friends tell me it has not deterred me from writing on other subjects."
Views on societyPolitical and social activism
occupied much of Russell's time for most of his life, which makes his prodigious and seminal writing on a wide range of technical and non-technical subjects all the more remarkable. Russell remained politically active almost to the end of his life, writing to and exhorting world leaders and lending his name to various causes. He was also famously noted for saying "No one can sit at the bedside of a dying child and still believe in God."
Russell determined man to be "the product of causes . . . his origin, his growth, his hopes and fears, his loves and his beliefs, are but the outcome of accidental collocations of atoms, that no fire, no heroism, no intensity of thought and feeling, can preserve an individual life beyond the grave; that all the labors of the ages, all the inspiration, all the noonday brightness of human genius are destined to extinction in the vast death of the solar system, that the whole temple of man's achievement must inevitably be buried beneath the debris of a universe in ruins -- all these things, if not quite beyond dispute, are so nearly certain, that no philosophy which rejects them can hope to stand. . . ."
Selected bibliography of Russell's booksThis is a selected bibliography of Russell's books in English sorted by year of first publication.
- 1896. German Social Democracy. London: Longmans, Green.
- 1897. An Essay on the Foundations of Geometry. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- 1900. A Critical Exposition of the Philosophy of Leibniz. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- 1903. The Principles of Mathematics, Cambridge University Press.
- 1905. On DenotingOn Denoting"On Denoting", written by Bertrand Russell, is one of the most significant and influential philosophical essays of the 20th century. It was published in the philosophy journal Mind in 1905; then reprinted, in both a special 2005 anniversary issue of the same journal and in Russell's Logic and...
, Mind, vol. 14. ISSN: 00264425. Basil Blackwell.
- 1910. Philosophical Essays. London: Longmans, Green.
- 1910–1913. http://quod.lib.umich.edu/cgi/t/text/text-idx?c=umhistmath;cc=umhistmath;view=toc;idno=AAT3201.0001.001Principia MathematicaPrincipia MathematicaThe Principia Mathematica is a three-volume work on the foundations of mathematics, written by Alfred North Whitehead and Bertrand Russell and published in 1910, 1912, and 1913...
] (with Alfred North WhiteheadAlfred North WhiteheadAlfred North Whitehead, OM FRS was an English mathematician who became a philosopher. He wrote on algebra, logic, foundations of mathematics, philosophy of science, physics, metaphysics, and education...
). 3 vols. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- 1912. http://www.ditext.com/russell/russell.htmlThe Problems of PhilosophyThe Problems of PhilosophyThe Problems of Philosophy is one of Bertrand Russell's attempts to create a brief and accessible guide to the problems of philosophy...
]. London: Williams and Norgate.
- 1914. Our Knowledge of the External World as a Field for Scientific Method in Philosophy. Chicago and London: Open Court Publishing.
- 1916. Why Men Fight. New York: The Century Co.
- 1916. Justice in War-time. Chicago: Open Court.
- 1917. Political Ideals. New York: The Century Co.
- 1918. Mysticism and Logic and Other Essays. London: Longmans, Green.
- 1918. Proposed Roads to Freedom: Socialism, Anarchism, and Syndicalism. London: George Allen & Unwin.
- 1919. Introduction to Mathematical Philosophy. London: George Allen & Unwin. (ISBN 0-415-09604-9 for Routledge paperback) (Copy at Archive.org).
- 1920. The Practice and Theory of Bolshevism. London: George Allen & Unwin.
- 1921. The Analysis of Mind. London: George Allen & Unwin.
- 1922. The Problem of China. London: George Allen & Unwin.
- 1923. The Prospects of Industrial Civilization, in collaboration with Dora Russell. London: George Allen & Unwin.
- 1923. The ABC of Atoms, London: Kegan Paul. Trench, Trubner.
- 1924. Icarus; or, The Future of Science. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner.
- 1925. The ABC of Relativity. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner.
- 1925. What I BelieveWhat I Believe"What I Believe" is the title of two essays espousing humanism, by Bertrand Russell and by E. M. Forster , respectively.Several other authors have also written works with the same title, alluding to either or both of these essays....
. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner.
- 1926. On Education, Especially in Early Childhood. London: George Allen & Unwin.
- 1927. The Analysis of Matter. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner.
- 1927. An Outline of Philosophy. London: George Allen & Unwin.
- 1927. http://www.positiveatheism.org/hist/russell0.htmWhy I Am Not a ChristianWhy I Am Not a ChristianWhy I Am Not a Christian is a 1927 essay by the British philosopher Bertrand Russell hailed by The Independent as "devastating in its use of cold logic", and listed in the New York Public Library's list of the most influential books of the 20th century....
]. London: Watts.
- 1927. Selected Papers of Bertrand Russell. New York: Modern Library.
- 1928. Sceptical Essays. London: George Allen & Unwin.
- 1929. Marriage and MoralsMarriage and MoralsMarriage and Morals is a 1929 book by the philosopher and mathematician Bertrand Russell that questions the Victorian notions of morality regarding sex and marriage....
. London: George Allen & Unwin.
- 1930. The Conquest of Happiness. London: George Allen & Unwin.
- 1931. The Scientific Outlook. London: George Allen & Unwin.
- 1932. Education and the Social Order, London: George Allen & Unwin.
- 1934. Freedom and Organization, 1814–1914. London: George Allen & Unwin.
- 1935. In Praise of Idleness. London: George Allen & Unwin.
- 1935. Religion and Science. London: Thornton Butterworth.
- 1936. Which Way to Peace?. London: Jonathan Cape.
- 1937. The Amberley Papers: The Letters and Diaries of Lord and Lady Amberley, with Patricia Russell, 2 vols., London: Leonard & Virginia Woolf at the Hogarth Press.
- 1938. Power: A New Social AnalysisPower: A New Social AnalysisPower: A New Social Analysis is a work in social philosophy written by Bertrand Russell. Power, for Russell, is one's ability to achieve goals. In particular, Russell has in mind social power, that is, power over people.The volume contains a number of arguments. However, four themes have a central...
. London: George Allen & Unwin.
- 1940. An Inquiry into Meaning and Truth. New York: W. W. Norton & Company.
- 1945. A History of Western Philosophy and Its Connection with Political and Social Circumstances from the Earliest Times to the Present Day. New York: Simon and Schuster.
- 1948. Human Knowledge: Its Scope and Limits. London: George Allen & Unwin.
- 1949. Authority and the Individual. London: George Allen & Unwin.
- 1950. Unpopular Essays. London: George Allen & Unwin.
- 1951. New Hopes for a Changing World. London: George Allen & Unwin.
- 1952. The Impact of Science on Society. London: George Allen & Unwin.
- 1953. Satan in the Suburbs and Other Stories. London: George Allen & Unwin.
- 1954. Human Society in Ethics and Politics. London: George Allen & Unwin.
- 1954. Nightmares of Eminent Persons and Other Stories. London: George Allen & Unwin.
- 1956. Portraits from Memory and Other Essays. London: George Allen & Unwin.
- 1956. Logic and Knowledge: Essays 1901–1950, edited by Robert C. Marsh. London: George Allen & Unwin.
- 1957. Why I Am Not A Christian and Other Essays on Religion and Related Subjects, edited by Paul Edwards. London: George Allen & Unwin.
- 1958. Understanding History and Other Essays. New York: Philosophical Library.
- 1959. Common Sense and Nuclear Warfare. London: George Allen & Unwin.
- 1959. http://www.archive.org/details/myphilosophicald001521mbpMy Philosophical DevelopmentMy Philosophical DevelopmentMy Philosophical Development is a book written by Bertrand Russell where he is summing up his philosophical beliefs and how they have changed during his life....
]. London: George Allen & Unwin.
- 1959. Wisdom of the West, edited by Paul Foulkes. London: Macdonald.
- 1960. Bertrand Russell Speaks His Mind, Cleveland and New York: World Publishing Company.
- 1961. The Basic Writings of Bertrand Russell, edited by R.E. Egner and L.E. Denonn. London: George Allen & Unwin.
- 1961. Fact and Fiction. London: George Allen & Unwin.
- 1961. Has Man a Future?, London: George Allen & Unwin.
- 1963. Essays in Skepticism. New York: Philosophical Library.
- 1963. Unarmed Victory. London: George Allen & Unwin.
- 1965. On the Philosophy of Science, edited by Charles A. Fritz, Jr. Indianapolis: The Bobbs-Merrill Company.
- 1967. Russell's Peace Appeals, edited by Tsutomu Makino and Kazuteru Hitaka. Japan: Eichosha's New Current Books.
- 1967. War Crimes in Vietnam. London: George Allen & Unwin.
- 1951–1969. The Autobiography of Bertrand Russell, 3 vols.. London: George Allen & Unwin. Vol 2 1956
- 1969. Dear Bertrand Russell... A Selection of his Correspondence with the General Public 1950–1968, edited by Barry Feinberg and Ronald Kasrils. London: George Allen and Unwin.
Note: These are major publications. Russell also wrote many pamphlets, introductions, articles and letters to the editor. His works also can be found in any number of anthologies and collections, perhaps most notably The Collected Papers of Bertrand Russell, which McMaster University
began publishing in 1983. This collection of his shorter and previously unpublished works is now up to 16 volumes, and many more are forthcoming. An additional three volumes catalogue just his bibliography. The Russell Archives at McMaster University
also have more than 30,000 letters that he wrote.
- 1900, Sur la logique des relations avec des applications à la théorie des séries, Rivista di matematica 7: 115–148.
- 1901, On the Notion of Order, Mind (n.s.) 10: 35–51.
- 1902, (with Alfred North WhiteheadAlfred North WhiteheadAlfred North Whitehead, OM FRS was an English mathematician who became a philosopher. He wrote on algebra, logic, foundations of mathematics, philosophy of science, physics, metaphysics, and education...
), On Cardinal Numbers, American Journal of Mathematics 23: 367–384.
- 1948, BBC Reith Lectures: Authority and the Individual A series of six radio lectures broadcast on the BBC Home Service in December 1948.
- John Newsome Crossley. A Note on Cantor's Theorem and Russell's Paradox, Australian Journal of Philosophy 51: 70–71.
- Ivor Grattan-GuinnessIvor Grattan-GuinnessIvor Grattan-Guinness, born 23 June 1941, in Bakewell, in England, is a historian of mathematics and logic.He gained his Bachelor degree as a Mathematics Scholar at Wadham College, Oxford, got an M.Sc in Mathematical Logic and the Philosophy of Science at the London School of Economics in 1966...
, 2000. The Search for Mathematical Roots 1870–1940. Princeton University Press.
- Bertrand Russell: A Political Life by Alan Ryan 1981
Books about Russell's philosophy
- Bertrand Russell: Critical Assessments, edited by A. D. Irvine, 4 volumes, London: Routledge, 1999. Consists of essays on Russell's work by many distinguished philosophers.
- Bertrand Russell, by John Slater, Bristol: Thoemmes Press, 1994.
- Bertrand Russell's Ethics. by Michael K. Potter, Bristol: Thoemmes Continuum, 2006. A clear and accessible explanation of Russell's moral philosophy.
- The Philosophy of Bertrand Russell, edited by P.A. Schilpp, Evanston and Chicago: Northwestern University, 1944.
- Russell, by A. J. Ayer, London: Fontana, 1972. ISBN 0-00-632965-9. A lucid summary exposition of Russell's thought.
- The Lost Cause: Causation and the Mind-Body Problem, by Celia GreenCelia GreenCelia Elizabeth Green is a British writer on philosophical skepticism, twentieth-century thought, and psychology.- Biography :...
. Oxford: Oxford Forum, 2003. ISBN 0-9536772-1-4 Contains a sympathetic analysis of Russell's views on causalityCausalityCausality is the relationship between an event and a second event , where the second event is understood as a consequence of the first....
- Russell's Idealist Apprenticeship, by Nicholas Griffin. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991.
- Bertrand Russell: Philosopher and Humanist, by John LewisJohn Lewis (philosopher)John Lewis was a British Unitarian minister and Marxist philosopher and author of many works on philosophy, anthropology, and religion....
- Bertrand Russell, by A. J. Ayer (1972), reprint ed. 1988: ISBN 0-226-03343-0
- The Life of Bertrand Russell, by Ronald W. ClarkRonald W. ClarkRonald William Clark was a British author of biography, fiction and non-fiction.Born in London, Clark was educated King's College School. In 1933, he embarked on a career as a journalist, and served as a war correspondent during the Second World War after being turned down for military service on...
(1975) ISBN 0-394-49059-2
- Bertrand Russell and His World, by Ronald W. Clark (1981) ISBN 0-500-13070-1
- Bertrand Russell: Mathematics: Dreams and Nightmares by Ray MonkRay MonkRay Monk is a Professor of Philosophy at the University of Southampton, where he has taught since 1992.He won the Mail on Sunday/John Llewellyn Rhys Prize and the 1991 Duff Cooper Prize for Ludwig Wittgenstein: The Duty of Genius. His interests lie in the philosophy of mathematics, the history of...
(1997) ISBN 0-75380-190-6
- Bertrand Russell: 1872–1920 The Spirit of Solitude by Ray MonkRay MonkRay Monk is a Professor of Philosophy at the University of Southampton, where he has taught since 1992.He won the Mail on Sunday/John Llewellyn Rhys Prize and the 1991 Duff Cooper Prize for Ludwig Wittgenstein: The Duty of Genius. His interests lie in the philosophy of mathematics, the history of...
(1997) ISBN 0-09-973131-2
- Bertrand Russell: 1921–1970 The Ghost of Madness by Ray MonkRay MonkRay Monk is a Professor of Philosophy at the University of Southampton, where he has taught since 1992.He won the Mail on Sunday/John Llewellyn Rhys Prize and the 1991 Duff Cooper Prize for Ludwig Wittgenstein: The Duty of Genius. His interests lie in the philosophy of mathematics, the history of...
(2001) ISBN 0-09-927275-X
- Logicomix: An Epic Search for TruthLogicomixLogicomix: An Epic Search for Truth is a graphic novel about the foundational quest in mathematics, written by Apostolos Doxiadis, author of Uncle Petros and Goldbach's Conjecture, and theoretical computer scientist Christos Papadimitriou of the University of California, Berkeley. Character design...
by Apostolos DoxiadisApostolos DoxiadisApostolos Doxiadis is a Greek writer.Since his early years Doxiadis was drawn to mathematics and at the age of 15 he entered Columbia University in New York City to study maths...
, and Christos PapadimitriouChristos PapadimitriouChristos Harilaos Papadimitriou is a Professor in the Computer Science Division at the University of California, Berkeley, United States...
- Bertrand Russell. 1967–1969, The Autobiography of Bertrand Russell, 3 volumes, London: George Allen & Unwin.
- Wallechinsky, David & Irving Wallace. 1975–1981, "Famous Marriages Bertrand Russell & Alla Pearsall Smith, Part 1" & "Part 3", on "Alys" Pearsall Smith, webpage content from The People's Almanac, webpages: Part 1 & Part 3 (accessed 8 November 2008).
- Russell B, (1944) "My Mental Development", in Schilpp, Paul Arturn "The Philosophy of Betrand Russell", New York, Tudorm 1951, pp 3–20
External linksOther writings available online
- "A Free Man's Worship" (1903)
- "The Elements of Ethics" (1910)
- War and Non-Resistance (1915)
- The War and Non-Resistance—A Rejoinder to Professor Perry (1915)
- The Ethics of War (1915)
- Justice in Wartime (1917)
- Why Men Fight: A Method of Abolishing the International Duel (1917)
- "Has Religion Made Useful Contributions to Civilization?" 1930
- Legitimacy Versus Industrialism 1814–1848 (1935)
- "Am I an Atheist or an Agnostic?" (1947)
- "Ideas that Have Harmed Mankind" (1950)
- "What Desires Are Politically Important?" (1950)
- An Outline of Philosophy (1951)
- Is There a God? (1952)
- The Scientific Outlook (1954)
- "16 Questions on the Assassination" (of President Kennedy) (1964)
- Works by Bertrand Russell in audio format from LibriVoxLibriVoxLibriVox is an online digital library of free public domain audiobooks, read by volunteers and is probably, since 2007, the world's most prolific audiobook publisher...
- Sound clips of Bertrand Russell speaking
- Pembroke Lodge — childhood home and museum
- The Bertrand Russell Society Quarterly
- The Bertrand Russell Peace Foundation
- Bertrand Russell in Japan
- Photographs at the National Portrait Gallery (London)
- The Bertrand Russell Archives at McMaster UniversityMcMaster UniversityMcMaster University is a public research university whose main campus is located in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. The main campus is located on of land in the residential neighbourhood of Westdale, adjacent to Hamilton's Royal Botanical Gardens...
- Resource list
- The First Reith Lecture given by Russell (Real Audio)
- Nobel Prize
- Bertrand Russell at 100 Welsh Heroes
- Key Participants: Bertrand Russell – Linus Pauling and the International Peace Movement: A Documentary History
- PM@100: LOGIC FROM 1910 TO 1927 Conference at the Bertrand Russell Research Centre (McMaster UniversityMcMaster UniversityMcMaster University is a public research university whose main campus is located in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. The main campus is located on of land in the residential neighbourhood of Westdale, adjacent to Hamilton's Royal Botanical Gardens...
, Ontario, Canada), to be held on 21–24 May 2010, celebrating the 100th anniversary of the publication of Principia MathematicaPrincipia MathematicaThe Principia Mathematica is a three-volume work on the foundations of mathematics, written by Alfred North Whitehead and Bertrand Russell and published in 1910, 1912, and 1913...
- Bertrand Russell Society Bulletin (2011-present)(Kris Notaro and David Blitz)