Beechcraft King Air
Overview
 
The Beechcraft King Air family is part of a line of twin-turboprop
Turboprop
A turboprop engine is a type of turbine engine which drives an aircraft propeller using a reduction gear.The gas turbine is designed specifically for this application, with almost all of its output being used to drive the propeller...

 aircraft
Aircraft
An aircraft is a vehicle that is able to fly by gaining support from the air, or, in general, the atmosphere of a planet. An aircraft counters the force of gravity by using either static lift or by using the dynamic lift of an airfoil, or in a few cases the downward thrust from jet engines.Although...

 produced by the Beech Aircraft Corporation
Beechcraft
Beechcraft is an American manufacturer of general aviation and military aircraft, ranging from light single engine aircraft to business jets and light military transports. Previously a division of Raytheon, it has been a brand of Hawker Beechcraft since 2006....

 (now Beechcraft Division of Hawker Beechcraft
Hawker Beechcraft
Hawker Beechcraft Corporation is an aerospace manufacturing company that builds the Beechcraft and Hawker business jet lines of aircraft....

). The King Air line comprises a number of models that have been divided into two families; the Model 90 and 100 series are known as King Airs, while the Model 200 and 300 series were originally marketed
Marketing
Marketing is the process used to determine what products or services may be of interest to customers, and the strategy to use in sales, communications and business development. It generates the strategy that underlies sales techniques, business communication, and business developments...

 as Super King Airs
Beechcraft Super King Air
The Beechcraft Super King Air family is part of a line of twin-turboprop aircraft produced by the Beech Aircraft Corporation . The King Air line comprises a number of model series that fall into two families: the Model 90 series, Model 100 series , Model 200 series and Model 300 series...

, with "Super" being dropped by Beechcraft in 1996 (although it is still often used to differentiate the 200 and 300 series King Airs from their smaller stablemates).

The King Air was the first aircraft in its class and has been in continuous production since 1964.
Encyclopedia
The Beechcraft King Air family is part of a line of twin-turboprop
Turboprop
A turboprop engine is a type of turbine engine which drives an aircraft propeller using a reduction gear.The gas turbine is designed specifically for this application, with almost all of its output being used to drive the propeller...

 aircraft
Aircraft
An aircraft is a vehicle that is able to fly by gaining support from the air, or, in general, the atmosphere of a planet. An aircraft counters the force of gravity by using either static lift or by using the dynamic lift of an airfoil, or in a few cases the downward thrust from jet engines.Although...

 produced by the Beech Aircraft Corporation
Beechcraft
Beechcraft is an American manufacturer of general aviation and military aircraft, ranging from light single engine aircraft to business jets and light military transports. Previously a division of Raytheon, it has been a brand of Hawker Beechcraft since 2006....

 (now Beechcraft Division of Hawker Beechcraft
Hawker Beechcraft
Hawker Beechcraft Corporation is an aerospace manufacturing company that builds the Beechcraft and Hawker business jet lines of aircraft....

). The King Air line comprises a number of models that have been divided into two families; the Model 90 and 100 series are known as King Airs, while the Model 200 and 300 series were originally marketed
Marketing
Marketing is the process used to determine what products or services may be of interest to customers, and the strategy to use in sales, communications and business development. It generates the strategy that underlies sales techniques, business communication, and business developments...

 as Super King Airs
Beechcraft Super King Air
The Beechcraft Super King Air family is part of a line of twin-turboprop aircraft produced by the Beech Aircraft Corporation . The King Air line comprises a number of model series that fall into two families: the Model 90 series, Model 100 series , Model 200 series and Model 300 series...

, with "Super" being dropped by Beechcraft in 1996 (although it is still often used to differentiate the 200 and 300 series King Airs from their smaller stablemates).

The King Air was the first aircraft in its class and has been in continuous production since 1964. It has outsold all of its turboprop competitors combined. It now faces competition from jet aircraft such as the Beechcraft Premier I and Cessna Citation Mustang
Cessna Citation Mustang
|-Operators:The aircraft is operated by private individuals, companies and executive charter operators. A number of companies also use the aircraft as part of fractional ownership programs.-See also:-External links:* * * * .* * * *...

 as well as newer single-engine turboprop aircraft, namely the Piper Malibu Meridian and Socata TBM
Socata TBM
|-See also:-References:* Jackson, Paul. Jane's All The World's Aircraft 2003–2004. Coulsdon, UK: Jane's Information Group, 2003. ISBN 0 7106 2537 5....

.

Model 90 series

The Model 90 King Air was conceived as the Model 120 in 1961. In May 1963, Beechcraft began test flights of the proof-of-concept Model 87, a modified Queen Air with Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6
Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6
The Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6 is one of the most popular turboprop aircraft engines in history, and is produced by Pratt & Whitney Canada. The PT6 family is particularly well known for its extremely high reliability, with MTBO's on the order of 9000 hours in some models. In US military use, they...

A-6 engines. On 14 July, Beech announced a new type, and a month later began accepting orders for the "King Air", with deliveries to commence in Autumn 1964. After 10 months of test flying, in 1964 the Model 87 was delivered to the United States Army
United States Army
The United States Army is the main branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for land-based military operations. It is the largest and oldest established branch of the U.S. military, and is one of seven U.S. uniformed services...

 as the NU-8F. On 24 January, the first definitive prototype, by now designated Model 65-90 and also fitted with PT6A-6 engines, flew for the first time. The first production aircraft was delivered on October 8, and by the end of the month, 152 aircraft had been ordered; by year's end, seven had been built. John T. Calhoun was a major contributor to the development of the King Air. He was Project Engineer for the King Air through the whole King Air series.

In 1966, after 112 65-90s were completed, production switched to the Model 65-A90 with PT6A-20 engines. As a measure of the type's popularity, 206 65-A90s were built in less than two years when production switched to the Model B90, the first of these rolling off the production line in 1968. Military versions built during these years included the 65-A90-1, 65-A90-2, 65-A90-3, and 65-A90-4, all being unpressurised models based on the Model 87. These were produced for the US Army which designated them U-21s of various sub-models; many were fitted out for electronic battlefield surveillance. A total of 162 of these were built between 1967 and 1971.

A total of 184 B90 models were produced before the Model C90 was introduced in 1971, with wingspan increased over earlier models by 4 in 11 in (1.5 m) to 50 ft 3 in (15.32 m), Maximum Take-Off Weight (MTOW) increased by 350 lb (158.8 kg) to 9,650 lb (4,378 kg), and PT6A-20A engines. The broadly similar Model E90 was introduced the following year, with PT6A-28 engines; the two were produced in parallel. Further refinement of the 90 series resulted in the Model F90 and follow-on Model F90-1. The F-models featured the T-tail of the Model 200 King Air mated to the fuselage and wings of the E90, with PT6A-135 engines of 750 shp (560 kW) driving four-bladed propellers. The F90 prototype flew on 16 January 1978 and 203 production versions followed between 1979 and 1983, when the F90 was superseded by the F90-1. The F90 prototype was re-engined with Garrett AiResearch TPE-331
Garrett AiResearch TPE-331
|-See also:-External links:* * *...

 engines to test the feasibility of a Model G90, but this model was not put into production.

The Model C90-1 entered production in 1982 after 507 C90s and 347 E90s had been built, and featured PT6A-21 engines and improvements to the pressurization system. 54 were built. The following year the F90-1 was put into production with redesigned engine cowlings, upgraded PT6A-135A engines, hydraulic landing gear, and triple-fed electrical bus; only 33 were built by the time production terminated in 1985. The C90-1 was soon followed by the Model C90A, which featured the redesigned engine cowlings of the F90-1. The C90A received an increase in MTOW in 1987, being certified to 10,100 lb (4,580 kg). The C90A model was in production until 1992, by which time 235 had been built, all but 74 with the increased MTOW.

Only two C90As were built in 1992, the Model C90B followed that year with airframe improvements, four-bladed propellers, and propeller synchrophasing, all in an effort to reduce cabin noise. This model also had PT6A-21s; the first production C90B was fitted with the 10,000th PT6 engine delivered to Beechcraft. In 1994 a cheaper version was introduced as the C90SE (Special Edition), with three-bladed propellers, standardised interior and mechanical instruments instead of the Electronic Flight Instrument System
Electronic Flight Instrument System
An electronic flight instrument system is a flight deck instrument display system in which the display technology used is electronic rather than electromechanical. EFIS normally consists of a primary flight display , multi-function display and engine indicating and crew alerting system display...

 (EFIS) fitted to the C90B. A total of 456 C90Bs and C90SEs were delivered by the time production of these models ended in late 2005.

In July 2005, during the Oshkosh Airshow
Oshkosh Airshow
EAA AirVenture Oshkosh is America's largest annual gathering of aviation enthusiasts held each summer at Wittman Regional Airport in Oshkosh, Wisconsin, United States....

, Beechcraft introduced the C90GT. The C90GT was fitted with 750 shp PT6A-135As, flat rated
Flat rated
When an engine is Flat rated it means that an engine of high Horsepower rating is constrained to a lower horsepower rating. The engine output in this case will always remain the same, but when atmospheric conditions such as high temperatures and high altitude reduce the power output of the engine...

 to the same 550 shp as the earlier King Airs. This engine change increased performance due to lower operating temperatures, improving both cruise speed and climb rate. With a 275 kt (509 km/h, 316 mph) cruise speed, the C90GT was highly competitive with the new generation of Very Light Jet
Very Light Jet
A very light jet, entry-level jet or personal jet, previously known as a microjet, is a category of small jet aircraft approved for single-pilot operation, seating 4-8 people, with a maximum take-off weight of under...

s over short to medium distances, while providing a larger and more luxurious cabin. C90GT deliveries commenced at the beginning of 2006. On 21 May 2007, during the 7th Annual European Business Aviation Convention & Exhibition in Geneva
Geneva
Geneva In the national languages of Switzerland the city is known as Genf , Ginevra and Genevra is the second-most-populous city in Switzerland and is the most populous city of Romandie, the French-speaking part of Switzerland...

, Beechcraft announced the Model C90GTi updated version of the C90GT, featuring the Rockwell Collins
Rockwell Collins
Rockwell Collins, Inc. is a large United States-based international company headquartered in Cedar Rapids, Iowa, primarily providing aviation and information technology systems and services to governmental agencies and aircraft manufacturers.- History :...

 Proline 21
avionics
Avionics
Avionics are electronic systems used on aircraft, artificial satellites and spacecraft.Avionic systems include communications, navigation, the display and management of multiple systems and the hundreds of systems that are fitted to aircraft to meet individual roles...

 package previously only offered for the B200 and B300 King Airs. Deliveries commenced in 2008 after 97 C90GTs were delilvered to customers over the previous two years.

Model 100 series

The Model 100 is a stretched derivative of the Model 90 featuring five cabin windows instead of the Model 90's three; MTOW increased by 1,300 lb (590 kg) over the 90, to 10,600 lb (4,810 kg). The 100 used the wings, tail, and engines (two PT6A-28 engines rated at 620 shp) from the Model 99
Beechcraft Model 99
|-See also:-External links:*...

 airline, itself a development of the Queen Air (as was the Model 90).

The Model 100 was flown for the first time on 17 March 1969 and unveiled to the public in May. 89 Model 100s were built before it was superseded by the Model A100 in 1972, with a further increase in MTOW to 11,500 lb (5,220 kg), fuel capacity increased by 94 gallons (355.8 l), and four-bladed propellers. A total of 157 A100s were built by the time production of this model ceased in 1979. The next in the series was the B100, which featured 715 shp Garrett AiResearch TPE-331 engines as an alternative to the Pratt & Whitneys offered on other King Airs, and another increase in MTOW to 11,800 lb (5,350 kg). The B100 was introduced in 1976 and was produced concurrently with the A100 for several years; manufacture ceased in 1983 after 137 were built. The Model 200 Super King Air
Beechcraft Super King Air
The Beechcraft Super King Air family is part of a line of twin-turboprop aircraft produced by the Beech Aircraft Corporation . The King Air line comprises a number of model series that fall into two families: the Model 90 series, Model 100 series , Model 200 series and Model 300 series...

 was developed from the Model 100, with the same fuselage design (with some differences, mainly associated with the different tails) being used for both models. The Model 200 had different wings and a T-tail and entered service in 1974.

Military King Air versions

The Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force
Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force
The , or JMSDF, is the naval branch of the Japan Self-Defense Forces, tasked with the naval defense of Japan. It was formed following the dissolution of the Imperial Japanese Navy after World War II....

 (JMSDF) has operated a total of 40 C90 and C90A King Airs, with deliveries beginning in 1973. These have been given various designations by the JMSDF and consist of 34 TC-90 trainers, five LC-90 transports and a single UC-90 which is configured for photographic aerial survey. The TC-90s and the UC-90 comprise the 202 Kyoiku Kokutai (Training Squadron) based at Tokushima
Tokushima, Tokushima
is the capital city of Tokushima Prefecture on Shikoku island in Japan.As of May 1, 2011, the city had an estimated population of 263,372, with 114,325 households, and a population density of 1,377.25 persons per km². Its total area is 191.23 km²....

, while the LC-90s are attached to various Lockheed P-3 Kokutai (Squadrons) and a NAMC YS-11
NAMC YS-11
The NAMC YS-11 is a turboprop airliner built by a Japanese consortium, the Nihon Aircraft Manufacturing Corporation. The program was initiated by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry in 1954, the aircraft was rolled out in 1962, and production ceased in 1974.-Development and design:In...

 Kokutai as liaison aircraft. In late 2005 the JMSDF marked 500,000 accident-free flying hours of the TC-90 trainer fleet.

The U.S. military has used King Air 90s in various roles, primarily VIP and liaison transport, with designations including the VC-6A, the T-44 Pegasus, and the U-21 Ute. The U-21 Ute used by the US Army was the most common version.

Most U-21s were unpressurized Model 87 derivatives, but there were also five U-21Fs based on the A100 King Air; and three U-21Js, which Beechcraft designated Model A100-1, but were actually the first three production Model 200 Super King Airs (C/Ns BB-3, BB-4 and BB-5, after prototypes C/N BB-1 and BB-2 had been built). The majority of U-21s were delivered as U-21As (102 65-A90-1s), but there were also four RU-21As (65-A90-1s), three RU-21Bs (65-A90-2s), two RU-21Cs (65-A90-3s), 18 RU-21Ds (65-A90-1s), 16 RU-21Es (65-A90-4s), and 17 RU-21Gs (65-A90-1s). The RU-21Es (except one written off) were later converted to U-21Hs and RU-21Hs, with two U-21Hs and an RU-21H being further converted to JU-21Hs. As of August 2008, only the three surviving RU-21As remain in military service. The majority of the U-21 series were retired in the second half of the 1990s and most are now owned by Dynamic Aviation of Bridgewater, Virginia
Bridgewater, Virginia
Bridgewater is an incorporated town in Rockingham County, Virginia, United States. The population was 5,644 at the 2010 census. It is included in the Harrisonburg, Virginia Metropolitan Statistical Area. Bridgewater is home to the Reds of the Rockingham County Baseball League...

. Some have been modified as spraying aircraft and are used on insect control work.

The T-44A Pegasus is a trainer version, designated the Model H90 by Beechcraft, used to train United States Navy
United States Navy
The United States Navy is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States. The U.S. Navy is the largest in the world; its battle fleet tonnage is greater than that of the next 13 largest navies combined. The U.S...

, Marine Corps
United States Marine Corps
The United States Marine Corps is a branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for providing power projection from the sea, using the mobility of the United States Navy to deliver combined-arms task forces rapidly. It is one of seven uniformed services of the United States...

, Coast Guard
United States Coast Guard
The United States Coast Guard is a branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven U.S. uniformed services. The Coast Guard is a maritime, military, multi-mission service unique among the military branches for having a maritime law enforcement mission and a federal regulatory agency...

, and Air Force pilots to fly multi-engine aircraft. A total of 61 were delivered to the US Navy between 1977 and 1980. In August 2006, the Navy announced that after 29 years of operation, the T-44A fleet would be upgraded with modernized avionics systems, and redesignated T-44Cs.

Two VC-6A aircraft were operated by the US military. One was a Model 65-A90 operated by the US Army and serialled 66-15361, the other a B90 operated by the United States Air Force
United States Air Force
The United States Air Force is the aerial warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the American uniformed services. Initially part of the United States Army, the USAF was formed as a separate branch of the military on September 18, 1947 under the National Security Act of...

 as Air Force One.

Air Force One

During the administration of President
President of the United States
The President of the United States of America is the head of state and head of government of the United States. The president leads the executive branch of the federal government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces....

 Lyndon Johnson, the United States Air Force
United States Air Force
The United States Air Force is the aerial warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the American uniformed services. Initially part of the United States Army, the USAF was formed as a separate branch of the military on September 18, 1947 under the National Security Act of...

 acquired a Model B90 King Air "off-the-shelf". With the military designation VC-6A, the aircraft, serialled 66-7943, was used to transport President Johnson between Bergstrom Air Force Base
Bergstrom Air Force Base
Bergstrom Air Force Base was a United States Air Force base located seven miles southeast of downtown Austin, Texas. It was activated during World War II as a troop carrier training airfield, and was a front-line Strategic Air Command base during the Cold War...

 (near Austin, Texas
Austin, Texas
Austin is the capital city of the U.S. state of :Texas and the seat of Travis County. Located in Central Texas on the eastern edge of the American Southwest, it is the fourth-largest city in Texas and the 14th most populous city in the United States. It was the third-fastest-growing large city in...

) and the Johnson family ranch near Johnson City, Texas
Johnson City, Texas
Johnson City is a city in Blanco County, Texas, United States. The population was 1,191 at the 2000 census. It is the county seat of Blanco County. It was the hometown of President Lyndon Johnson and was founded by James Polk Johnson, nephew of Samuel Ealy Johnson, Sr., cousin to President Johnson....

. When Johnson was aboard, the aircraft used the callsign Air Force One
Air Force One
Air Force One is the official air traffic control call sign of any United States Air Force aircraft carrying the President of the United States. In common parlance the term refers to those Air Force aircraft whose primary mission is to transport the president; however, any U.S. Air Force aircraft...

. This aircraft is now on display, with other presidential aircraft, at the National Museum of the United States Air Force
National Museum of the United States Air Force
The National Museum of the United States Air Force is the official museum of the United States Air Force located at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base northeast of Dayton, Ohio. The NMUSAF is the world's largest and oldest military aviation museum with more than 360 aircraft and missiles on display...

 at Wright Patterson Air Force Base near Dayton, Ohio
Dayton, Ohio
Dayton is the 6th largest city in the U.S. state of Ohio and the county seat of Montgomery County, the fifth most populous county in the state. The population was 141,527 at the 2010 census. The Dayton Metropolitan Statistical Area had a population of 841,502 in the 2010 census...

.

Modification and upgrade programs

A number of aftermarket modifications and upgrades are available for 90 and 100 Series King Airs. An engine upgrade involves earlier-build 90 Series aircraft being re-engined with the PT6A-135A engines of the C90GT. A more radical re-engining program involves the replacement of the PT6s in C90 and E90 King Airs with TPE-331s.
Among the numerous airframe modifications available; a cargo conversion for the 90 model, the CargoLiner, which replaces the rear door with a large pallet accessible cargo door, a heavy duty floor structure and cabin cargo liner, also a crew hatch for cockpit access for the crew in the 90, 100, and 200; a Wing Front Spar Reinforcement Kit for both 90 and 100 Series aircraft,; a modification for the entire King Air line that entails reworking and extending the nose to house a baggage compartment as well as the avionics normally found in the noses of King Air aircraft. Modifications available for the King Air 100 include a belly cargo pod similar to those fitted to the Beech 99 and the Model 1300 version of the King Air 200 series.

Military operators

  • Royal Australian Air Force
    Royal Australian Air Force
    The Royal Australian Air Force is the air force branch of the Australian Defence Force. The RAAF was formed in March 1921. It continues the traditions of the Australian Flying Corps , which was formed on 22 October 1912. The RAAF has taken part in many of the 20th century's major conflicts...


  • Barbados Defence Force
    Barbados Defence Force
    The Barbados Defence Force is the name given to the combined armed forces of Barbados. The BDF was established August 15, 1979, and has responsibility for the territorial defence and internal security of the island. The headquarters for the Barbados Defence Force are located in the St...


  • Colombian Air Force
    Colombian Air Force
    The Colombian Air Force or FAC is the Air Force of the Republic of Colombia.The Colombian Air Force is one of the three institutions of the Armed Forces of Colombia, charge according to the 1991 Constitution of the work to exercise and maintain control of Colombia's airspace to defend the...

  • Colombian Army
    Colombian Army
    The National Army of Colombia is the land military force of the government of Colombia and the largest service of the Colombian Armed Forces...

  • Colombian Navy
  • Colombian National Police
    Colombian National Police
    The National Police of Colombia is the national police force of Colombia. Although the National Police is not part of the Military of Colombia , it constitutes along with them the "Public Force" and is also controlled by the Ministry of Defense. They are the largest police force in Colombia...



  • Hellenic Army
    Hellenic Army
    The Hellenic Army , formed in 1828, is the land force of Greece.The motto of the Hellenic Army is , "Freedom Stems from Valor", from Thucydides's History of the Peloponnesian War...


  • Jamaica Defence Force
    Jamaica Defence Force
    The Jamaica Defence Force is the combined military forces of Jamaica, consisting of an Army, Air Wing and Coast Guard. The JDF is based upon the British military model with organisation, training, weapons and traditions closely aligned with Commonwealth Realm countries...


  • Japan Maritime Self Defense Force

  • Spanish Air Force
    Spanish Air Force
    -The early stages:Hot air balloons had been used with military purposes in Spain as far back as 1896. In 1905, with the help of Alfredo Kindelán, Leonardo Torres y Quevedo directed the construction of the first Spanish dirigible in the Army Military Aerostatics Service, created in 1896 and located...


  • United States Air Force
    United States Air Force
    The United States Air Force is the aerial warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the American uniformed services. Initially part of the United States Army, the USAF was formed as a separate branch of the military on September 18, 1947 under the National Security Act of...

  • United States Army
    United States Army
    The United States Army is the main branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for land-based military operations. It is the largest and oldest established branch of the U.S. military, and is one of seven U.S. uniformed services...

  • United States Navy
    United States Navy
    The United States Navy is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States. The U.S. Navy is the largest in the world; its battle fleet tonnage is greater than that of the next 13 largest navies combined. The U.S...


  • Venezuelan Navy

Eight C90A King Airs were operated by Bombardier
Bombardier Aerospace
Bombardier Aerospace is a division of Bombardier Inc. and is the third-largest airplane manufacturer in the world. It is headquartered in Dorval, Quebec, Canada.- History :...

 on behalf of the Canadian Air Force
Canadian Forces Air Command
The Royal Canadian Air Force , formerly Canadian Forces Air Command, is one of three environmental commands of the Canadian Forces...

. These were used as multi-engine trainers and flew with Canadian civil registrations. All entered service in 1992 and were operated until 2005. That year a new contract was awarded to Allied Wings, a consortium of Kelowna Flightcraft Ltd.
Kelowna Flightcraft Ltd.
Kelowna Flightcraft Ltd. is an Approved Maintenance Organization which operates two Maintenance, Repair and Overhaul facilities in Canada, one in Kelowna, British Columbia, and the other in Hamilton, Ontario....

, Canadian Helicopters Ltd
CHC Helicopter
CHC Helicopter is one of the world’s largest helicopter services company specializing in: Transportation to offshore oil and gas platforms; Civilian search and rescue services; Helicopter maintenance repair and overhaul...

, Canadian Base Operators and Atlantis Systems International, which uses seven civil-registered C90B King Airs.

Governmental operators

  • Government of Province of Tierra del Fuego and Catamarca.

  • Government of Canada - Transport Canada
    Transport Canada
    Transport Canada is the department within the government of Canada which is responsible for developing regulations, policies and services of transportation in Canada. It is part of the Transportation, Infrastructure and Communities portfolio...

  • Government of the Province of Alberta
    Alberta
    Alberta is a province of Canada. It had an estimated population of 3.7 million in 2010 making it the most populous of Canada's three prairie provinces...

  • Government of the Province of New Brunswick
    New Brunswick
    New Brunswick is one of Canada's three Maritime provinces and is the only province in the federation that is constitutionally bilingual . The provincial capital is Fredericton and Saint John is the most populous city. Greater Moncton is the largest Census Metropolitan Area...

  • Government of the Province of Saskatchewan
    Saskatchewan
    Saskatchewan is a prairie province in Canada, which has an area of . Saskatchewan is bordered on the west by Alberta, on the north by the Northwest Territories, on the east by Manitoba, and on the south by the U.S. states of Montana and North Dakota....


  • Chile's Civil Aviation Administration (DGAC).

  • All the State Govt.

  • USDA Forest Service
  • Drug Enforcement Administration
    Drug Enforcement Administration
    The Drug Enforcement Administration is a federal law enforcement agency under the United States Department of Justice, tasked with combating drug smuggling and use within the United States...

  • Federal Aviation Administration
    Federal Aviation Administration
    The Federal Aviation Administration is the national aviation authority of the United States. An agency of the United States Department of Transportation, it has authority to regulate and oversee all aspects of civil aviation in the U.S...

  • Governments of the States of Arizona
    Arizona
    Arizona ; is a state located in the southwestern region of the United States. It is also part of the western United States and the mountain west. The capital and largest city is Phoenix...

    , Arkansas
    Arkansas
    Arkansas is a state located in the southern region of the United States. Its name is an Algonquian name of the Quapaw Indians. Arkansas shares borders with six states , and its eastern border is largely defined by the Mississippi River...

    , Florida
    Florida
    Florida is a state in the southeastern United States, located on the nation's Atlantic and Gulf coasts. It is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the north by Alabama and Georgia and to the east by the Atlantic Ocean. With a population of 18,801,310 as measured by the 2010 census, it...

    , Georgia
    Georgia (U.S. state)
    Georgia is a state located in the southeastern United States. It was established in 1732, the last of the original Thirteen Colonies. The state is named after King George II of Great Britain. Georgia was the fourth state to ratify the United States Constitution, on January 2, 1788...

    , Indiana
    Indiana
    Indiana is a US state, admitted to the United States as the 19th on December 11, 1816. It is located in the Midwestern United States and Great Lakes Region. With 6,483,802 residents, the state is ranked 15th in population and 16th in population density. Indiana is ranked 38th in land area and is...

    , Montana
    Montana
    Montana is a state in the Western United States. The western third of Montana contains numerous mountain ranges. Smaller, "island ranges" are found in the central third of the state, for a total of 77 named ranges of the Rocky Mountains. This geographical fact is reflected in the state's name,...

    , New Mexico
    New Mexico
    New Mexico is a state located in the southwest and western regions of the United States. New Mexico is also usually considered one of the Mountain States. With a population density of 16 per square mile, New Mexico is the sixth-most sparsely inhabited U.S...

    , North Dakota
    North Dakota
    North Dakota is a state located in the Midwestern region of the United States of America, along the Canadian border. The state is bordered by Canada to the north, Minnesota to the east, South Dakota to the south and Montana to the west. North Dakota is the 19th-largest state by area in the U.S....

    , Ohio
    Ohio
    Ohio is a Midwestern state in the United States. The 34th largest state by area in the U.S.,it is the 7th‑most populous with over 11.5 million residents, containing several major American cities and seven metropolitan areas with populations of 500,000 or more.The state's capital is Columbus...

     and Tennessee
    Tennessee
    Tennessee is a U.S. state located in the Southeastern United States. It has a population of 6,346,105, making it the nation's 17th-largest state by population, and covers , making it the 36th-largest by total land area...

  • NASA
    NASA
    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is the agency of the United States government that is responsible for the nation's civilian space program and for aeronautics and aerospace research...


The Department of Civil Aviation of Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea , officially the Independent State of Papua New Guinea, is a country in Oceania, occupying the eastern half of the island of New Guinea and numerous offshore islands...

 operated a C90 King Air for a number of years, but now operates a Model 200 Super King Air.
  • used in training of Iraqi airforce

Civil operators

The King Air is used by many corporate and private users, it is also used as a light transport liaison aircraft with both government and non-government organizations. It is also used by air-taxi and air charter companies.

The Royal Flying Doctor Service of Australia
Royal Flying Doctor Service of Australia
The Royal Flying Doctor Service of Australia is an emergency and primary health care service for those living in rural, remote and regional areas of Australia...

 previously operated a large number of 90 Series King Airs, but retired the last example in 2006, standardizing on the King Air 200 Series and the Pilatus PC-12
Pilatus PC-12
The Pilatus PC-12 is a single-engine turboprop passenger and cargo aircraft manufactured by Pilatus Aircraft of Switzerland. The main market for the aircraft is corporate transport and regional airliner operators.-Design and development:...

 for its fleet requirements.

Variants

A total of more than 3,100 King Air 90 and 100 series aircraft have been delivered as of August 2008:

Beechcraft designations

  • Model 87
"Proof-of-concept" test aircraft; one built (c/no. LG-1).
  • Model 65-90
Prototypes and first production model; 112 built (c/nos. LJ-1 to LJ-113, except LJ-76).
206 built (c/nos. LJ-76, LJ-114 to LJ-317; including c/nos. LJ-178 and LJ-178A), one (c/no. LJ-153) to US Army as VC-6A.
  • Model 65-A90-1
Based on the Model 87; 141 built and delivered to the US Army (c/nos. LM-1 to LM-141).
  • Model 65-A90-2
Based on the Model 87; three built and delivered to the US Army (c/nos. LS-1 to LS-3).
  • Model 65-A90-3
Based on the Model 87; two built and delivered to the US Army (c/nos. LT-1 and LT-2).
  • Model 65-A90-4
Based on the Model 87; 16 built and delivered to the US Army (c/nos. LU-1 to LU-16).
  • Model B90
Third civil model; 184 built (c/nos. LJ-318 to LJ-501), one (c/no. LJ-320) to USAF as VC-6A.
    • C90 - initial production run between 1971 and 1982 of 507 aircraft (c/nos. LJ-502 to LJ-1010, except LJ-986 and LJ-996).
    • C90-1 - marketing name for C90 with increased maximum cabin pressure differential, 54 built in 1982 and 1983 (c/nos. LJ-986 and LJ-996, LJ-1011 to LJ-1062).
    • C90A - initial production run between 1984 and 1992 of 235 aircraft (c/nos. LJ-1063 to LJ-1299, except LJ-1288 and LJ-1295). Two Pratt & Whitney PT6A-21 reverse-flow, free-turbine turboprop engines; 550 shp each.
    • C90B and C90SE - marketing names for updated versions of C90A produced between 1992 and 2005, 456 built (c/nos. LJ-1288 and LJ-1295, LJ-1300 to LJ-1755, except LJ-1727 and LJ-1754). B-model has Maximum Take-off Weight of 10 100 lb (4585 kg), quieter Hartzell four-blade, constant-speed, full-reversing 90-in diameter propellers and dynamic (passively resonating) vibration absorber (DVA) system.
  • Model C90GT
Version with PT6A-135A engines, 750 shp flat rated
Flat rated
When an engine is Flat rated it means that an engine of high Horsepower rating is constrained to a lower horsepower rating. The engine output in this case will always remain the same, but when atmospheric conditions such as high temperatures and high altitude reduce the power output of the engine...

 to 550 shp, for better climb and cruise performance. .
  • Model C90GTi
Variant of C90GT with "glass cockpit
Glass cockpit
A glass cockpit is an aircraft cockpit that features electronic instrument displays, typically large LCD screens, as opposed to the traditional style of analog dials and gauges...

" Collins Proline 21 avionics suite; at least 90 built (c/nos. LJ-1769, LJ-1847, LJ-1853 & after).
  • Model C90GTx
Current production version (as of August 2010). Winglets added as factory-standard, Maximum Take-off Weight increased to 10 485 lb (4756 kg) for better full-fuel payload flexibility.
  • Model E90
Manufactured concurrently with the C90; 347 built (c/nos. LW-1 to LW-347).
  • Model F90
Prototype and production model with T-tail of the Super King Air; 203 built (c/nos. LA-1 to LA-204, except LA-202).
  • Model F90-1
Follow-on from F90; 33 built (c/nos. LA-202, LA-205 to LA-236).
  • Model G90
F90 prototype re-engined with Garrett TPE-331s in place of the Pratt & Whitney PT6s originally fitted, c/no. LA-1/LE-0.
  • Model H90
Version manufactured for the US Navy; 61 built (c/nos. LL-1 to LL-61).
  • Model 100
Prototype and first production "long fuselage" King Air version; 90 built (c/nos. B-1 to B-89 and B-93).
  • Model A100
157 built (c/nos B-90 to B-247, except B-93), prototype Model 100 c/no. B-1 also converted to A100 model in 1976, three years after introduction of A100 model. Five (c/nos. B-95 to B-99) to US Army as U-21Fs.
  • Model B100
Prototype (converted from A100 c/no. B-205) plus production model, all with Garrett TPE-331 engines instead of Pratt & Whitney PT6s fitted to previous models; 137 built (c/nos. B-205/BE-1, BE-2 to BE-137).
  • Model A100-1
Beechcraft designation for first three production Model 200 Super King Airs delivered to the US Army (c/nos. BB-3 to BB-5).

Military versions

YU-21
Modification of L-23 Seminole with PT6A-6 tuboprops. One converted.

U-21A Ute
Utility aircraft for US Army, with fuselage of Queen Air 65-80 and wings of King Air 65-90, powered by 550 hp (410 kW) PT6A-20s. Beechcraft Model 65-A90-1. 102 built.
EU-21A
:Conversion of at least five U-21As as radio relay aircraft for use over Vietnam
Vietnam War
The Vietnam War was a Cold War-era military conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975. This war followed the First Indochina War and was fought between North Vietnam, supported by its communist allies, and the government of...

. Later re-converted to U-21A standard
JU-21A
:Conversion of three U-21As with Left Jab Signals intelligence (SIGINT) system. Two later re-converted to U-21A standard
RU-21A
:Conversion of four U-21As to carry Direction finding
Direction finding
Direction finding refers to the establishment of the direction from which a received signal was transmitted. This can refer to radio or other forms of wireless communication...

 equipment as part of Cefirm Leader program, to work with RU-21B and RU-21C aircraft

RU-21B
Signals intercept aircraft as part of Cefirm Leader program. Powered by 620 hp (462 kW) PT6A-29s and with modified undercarriage. Beechcraft Model 65-A90-2. Three built.

RU-21C
Similar to RU-21B, but carrying jamming equipment as part of Cefirm Leader. Beechcraft model 65-A90-3. Two built.

RU-21D
ELINT aircraft similar to U-21A. It was unsuccessful and dd not reach service, with several having their electronic equipment removed to become U-21D utility aircraft. Beechcraft Model 65-A90-1. 18 built.

RU-21E
ELINT version with Guardrail II, IIA or IV systems. Beechcraft Model 65-A90-5. 16 built.

U-21F
Five King Air A100s used by US Army as transport/utility aircraft.

U-21G Ute
U-21A with modified cockpit, mainly used as utility aircraft. Beechcraft Model 65-A90-1. 17 built.
RU-21G
:Three U-21Gs fitted with Guardrail I ELINT system

RU-21H
Conversion of 21 RU-21D, E and F aircraft to carry Guardrail V ELINT system. Higher gross weight.

U-21H Ute
Modification of 23 RU-21E and G aircraft replaced in the ELINT role by later aircraft to utility aircraft.

JU-21H
Two former RU-21Es converted as test aircraft.

VC-6A
Two B90 King Airs, powered by 550 shp (410 kW) PT6A-20s. One used as transport by US Army, and one by USAF as VIP transport for President Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon Baines Johnson , often referred to as LBJ, was the 36th President of the United States after his service as the 37th Vice President of the United States...

.

T-44A Pegasus
Multi-engine training aircraft for US Navy, based on King Air B90. Beechcraft Model H-90. 61 built.

T-44C Pegasus
T-44A upgraded with the Rockwell Collins Pro Line 21 series avionics suite. 25 upgraded.

Other information

The ICAO designator, such as might be used in a PIREP or a flight plan
Flight plan
Flight plans are documents filed by pilots or a Flight Dispatcher with the local Civil Aviation Authority prior to departure...

, for the various King Airs are BE90 (various model 90s), and BE10 (model 100).
With the exception of the F90 and F90-1, all 90 Series King Airs have been produced under the same Type Certificate (Number 3A20) used for Queen Air production. All 100 Series King Airs were produced under the same Type Certificate (Number A14CE) used for Model 99 production.

King Air C90GTi

Specifications obtained from the FAA Type Certificate and the Hawker Beechcraft website

King Air B100

Specifications obtained from The International Directory of Civil Aircraft, 1997/98 Edition.

See also

External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
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