Bayamo is the capital city of the Granma Province
Granma Province
Granma is one of the provinces of Cuba. Its capital is Bayamo. Other towns include Manzanillo and Pilón.-History:...

 of Cuba
The Republic of Cuba is an island nation in the Caribbean. The nation of Cuba consists of the main island of Cuba, the Isla de la Juventud, and several archipelagos. Havana is the largest city in Cuba and the country's capital. Santiago de Cuba is the second largest city...

, and one of the largest cities in the Oriente region.

The community of Bayamo lies on a plain by the Bayamon River. It is affected by the violent Bayamo wind
Bayamo (wind)
A bayamo is a violent wind blowing from the land on the south coast of Cuba, especially near the Bight of Bayamo.It is also the namesake for Giddings and Webster's most popular tuba mouthpiece....


One of the most important education institutions in the province is the University of Granma
University of Granma
- See also :*Education in Cuba*List of universities in Cuba* Bayamo* Granma Province-External links:* ----...



Bayamo was the second of the seven cities founded by Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar
Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar
Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar was a Spanish conquistador. He conquered and governed Cuba on behalf of Spain.-Early life:...

, and was established on November 5, 1513. Francisco Iznaga, a rich Basque landowner in the western portion of Cuba during the first 30 years of the colonization of Cuba, was elected Mayor in 1540.Iznaga was the originator of a powerful lineage that finally settled in Trinidad where the Torre Iznaga is. His descendents fought for the Independence of Cuba and the Annexation to the US from 1820 to 1900.

During much of the 16th century it was one of the most important agricultural and commercial settlements of the island. Its inland situation gave it relative security against the pirates who then infested West Indian
The Caribbean is a crescent-shaped group of islands more than 2,000 miles long separating the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea, to the west and south, from the Atlantic Ocean, to the east and north...

 seas, and the misfortunes of Santiago
Santiago de Cuba
Santiago de Cuba is the second largest city of Cuba and capital city of Santiago de Cuba Province in the south-eastern area of the island, some south-east of the Cuban capital of Havana....

 were the fortunes of Bayamo. Down the Cauto River
Cauto River
The Cauto River or Río Cauto, located in southeast Cuba, is the longest river of Cuba.It flows on a total length of from the Sierra Maestra to the west and north-west, and enters the Caribbean Sea north of Manzanillo. However, it provides only of transport waterway...

, then open to the sea for vessels of 200 tons, and through Manzanillo
Manzanillo, Cuba
Manzanillo is a municipality and city in the Granma Province of Cuba.It is a port city in the Granma Province in eastern Cuba on the Gulf of Guacanayabo, near the delta of the Cauto River...

, Bayamo drove a thriving contraband trade that made it at the opening of the 17th century the leading town of Cuba.

A tremendous flood, in 1616, choking the Cauto with trees and wrecked vessels, cut if off from direct access to the sea; but through Manzanillo it continued a great clandestine traffic with Curaçao
Curaçao is an island in the southern Caribbean Sea, off the Venezuelan coast. The Country of Curaçao , which includes the main island plus the small, uninhabited island of Klein Curaçao , is a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands...

, Jamaica
Jamaica is an island nation of the Greater Antilles, in length, up to in width and 10,990 square kilometres in area. It is situated in the Caribbean Sea, about south of Cuba, and west of Hispaniola, the island harbouring the nation-states Haiti and the Dominican Republic...

, and other foreign islands throughout the 17th and 18th centuries. Bayamo was then surrounded by fine plantations.

In 1827 it acquired the status of city
A city is a relatively large and permanent settlement. Although there is no agreement on how a city is distinguished from a town within general English language meanings, many cities have a particular administrative, legal, or historical status based on local law.For example, in the U.S...

. In the war of 1868–1878
Ten Years' War
The Ten Years' War , also known as the Great War and the War of '68, began on October 10, 1868 when sugar mill owner Carlos Manuel de Céspedes and his followers proclaimed Cuba's independence from Spain...

 it was an insurgent stronghold; near it was fought one of the most desperate conflicts of the war, and it was nearly destroyed by the opposing parties.


In 2004, the municipality of Bayamo had a population of 222,118. With a total area of 918 km² (354.4 sq mi), it has a population density of 242 /km2.


Bayamo is an under recognized world leader in sustainable transportation. Per a UN study only about 15% of commuters rely on motorized transport and almost three times as many (39%) rely on about 500 licensed horse drawn carriages generally following fixed routes. The rest of the non-pedestrian traffic is bicycle and bicycle taxi.

Notable residents

  • Francisco Vicente Aguilera
    Francisco Vicente Aguilera
    Francisco Vicente Aguilera was a Cuban patriot born in Bayamo, Cuba on June 23, 1821. He had ten children with his wife Ana Manuela Maria Dolores Sebastiana Kindelan y Sanchez...

     (1821–1877), revolutionary.
  • Conrado Roblejo Aguilera (born 1966), doctor
  • José Antonio Cedeño
    José Antonio Cedeño
    José Antonio Cedeño is a self-taught Cuban artist specializing in sculpture, drawing and painting....

     (born 1939), artist.
  • Carlos Manuel de Céspedes
    Carlos Manuel de Céspedes
    Carlos Manuel de Céspedes del Castillo was a Cuban planter who freed his slaves and made the declaration of Cuban independence in 1868 which started the Ten Years' War...

     (1819–1874), revolutionary.
  • Perucho Figueredo
    Perucho Figueredo
    Pedro Felipe Figueredo, mostly known as Perucho was a Cuban poet, musician, and freedom fighter of the 19th century...

     (1818–1870), composer of the Cuban national anthem
  • Pablo Milanés
    Pablo Milanés
    Pablo Milanés Arias is a Cuban singer-songwriter and guitar player. He studied at a conservatory in Havana. He is considered one of the founders of the Cuban nueva trova, along with Silvio Rodríguez and Noel Nicola...

     (born 1943), singer.
  • Tomás Estrada Palma (1832–1908), President of Cuba.
  • Felo Ramírez
    Felo Ramírez
    Rafael Ramírez is the Cuban-American Spanish language radio voice of the Miami Marlins. Ramirez is also a boxing expert, having broadcast fights for Latin American radio and television audiences since 1948 .Ramírez was born in Bayamo, Cuba, and is commonly known as "El Orgullo de...

     (born 1921), radio presenter
  • Rolando Uríos (born 1971), handball player.
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