Battle of Jemappes
Overview
 
The Battle of Jemappes (6 November 1792) took place near the town of Jemappes
Jemappes
Jemappes is a Walloon town in south-western Belgium, province Hainaut. Since 1976, it is part of the city Mons...

 in Hainaut, Belgium
Belgium
Belgium , officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a federal state in Western Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts the EU's headquarters, and those of several other major international organisations such as NATO.Belgium is also a member of, or affiliated to, many...

, near Mons
Mons
Mons is a Walloon city and municipality located in the Belgian province of Hainaut, of which it is the capital. The Mons municipality includes the old communes of Cuesmes, Flénu, Ghlin, Hyon, Nimy, Obourg, Baudour , Jemappes, Ciply, Harmignies, Harveng, Havré, Maisières, Mesvin, Nouvelles,...

. General Charles François Dumouriez
Charles François Dumouriez
Charles-François du Périer Dumouriez was a French general during the French Revolutionary Wars. He shared the victory at Valmy with General François Christophe Kellermann, but later deserted the Revolutionary Army and became a royalist intriguer during the reign of Napoleon.-Early life:Dumouriez...

, in command of the French Revolution
French Revolution
The French Revolution , sometimes distinguished as the 'Great French Revolution' , was a period of radical social and political upheaval in France and Europe. The absolute monarchy that had ruled France for centuries collapsed in three years...

ary Army, defeated the greatly outnumbered Austria
Habsburg Monarchy
The Habsburg Monarchy covered the territories ruled by the junior Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg , and then by the successor House of Habsburg-Lorraine , between 1526 and 1867/1918. The Imperial capital was Vienna, except from 1583 to 1611, when it was moved to Prague...

n army of Field Marshal
Field Marshal
Field Marshal is a military rank. Traditionally, it is the highest military rank in an army.-Etymology:The origin of the rank of field marshal dates to the early Middle Ages, originally meaning the keeper of the king's horses , from the time of the early Frankish kings.-Usage and hierarchical...

 Duke Albert of Saxe-Teschen and his second-in-command François de Croix, Count of Clerfayt
François Sebastien Charles Joseph de Croix, Count of Clerfayt
François Sebastien Charles Joseph de Croix, Count of Clerfayt , a Walloon, joined the army of the Habsburg Monarchy and soon fought in the Seven Years War. Later in his military career, he led Austrian troops in the war against Ottoman Turkey...

.
Dumouriez, intent on invading the Austrian Netherlands, advanced late in the season and attacked the Austrians with greatly superior forces. Jemappes was won by costly but effective charges against the Austrians' prepared position.
Encyclopedia
The Battle of Jemappes (6 November 1792) took place near the town of Jemappes
Jemappes
Jemappes is a Walloon town in south-western Belgium, province Hainaut. Since 1976, it is part of the city Mons...

 in Hainaut, Belgium
Belgium
Belgium , officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a federal state in Western Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts the EU's headquarters, and those of several other major international organisations such as NATO.Belgium is also a member of, or affiliated to, many...

, near Mons
Mons
Mons is a Walloon city and municipality located in the Belgian province of Hainaut, of which it is the capital. The Mons municipality includes the old communes of Cuesmes, Flénu, Ghlin, Hyon, Nimy, Obourg, Baudour , Jemappes, Ciply, Harmignies, Harveng, Havré, Maisières, Mesvin, Nouvelles,...

. General Charles François Dumouriez
Charles François Dumouriez
Charles-François du Périer Dumouriez was a French general during the French Revolutionary Wars. He shared the victory at Valmy with General François Christophe Kellermann, but later deserted the Revolutionary Army and became a royalist intriguer during the reign of Napoleon.-Early life:Dumouriez...

, in command of the French Revolution
French Revolution
The French Revolution , sometimes distinguished as the 'Great French Revolution' , was a period of radical social and political upheaval in France and Europe. The absolute monarchy that had ruled France for centuries collapsed in three years...

ary Army, defeated the greatly outnumbered Austria
Habsburg Monarchy
The Habsburg Monarchy covered the territories ruled by the junior Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg , and then by the successor House of Habsburg-Lorraine , between 1526 and 1867/1918. The Imperial capital was Vienna, except from 1583 to 1611, when it was moved to Prague...

n army of Field Marshal
Field Marshal
Field Marshal is a military rank. Traditionally, it is the highest military rank in an army.-Etymology:The origin of the rank of field marshal dates to the early Middle Ages, originally meaning the keeper of the king's horses , from the time of the early Frankish kings.-Usage and hierarchical...

 Duke Albert of Saxe-Teschen and his second-in-command François de Croix, Count of Clerfayt
François Sebastien Charles Joseph de Croix, Count of Clerfayt
François Sebastien Charles Joseph de Croix, Count of Clerfayt , a Walloon, joined the army of the Habsburg Monarchy and soon fought in the Seven Years War. Later in his military career, he led Austrian troops in the war against Ottoman Turkey...

.

Basic Battle Summary

Dumouriez, intent on invading the Austrian Netherlands, advanced late in the season and attacked the Austrians with greatly superior forces. Jemappes was won by costly but effective charges against the Austrians' prepared position. Dumouriez overran the Austrian Netherlands within a month, but lost it at the Battle of Neerwinden
Battle of Neerwinden (1793)
The Battle of Neerwinden took place on near the village of Neerwinden in present-day Belgium between the Austrians under Prince Josias of Coburg and the French under General Dumouriez...

 in March. The French would not reconquer the Austrian Netherlands until the summer of 1794.

Order of battle

See Jemappes 1792 Order of Battle
Jemappes 1792 Order of Battle
Battle of Jemappes 1792 - Order of BattleIn the Battle of Jemappes on 6 November 1792, a French army led by Charles François Dumouriez attacked and defeated an Austrian army commanded by Albert of Saxe-Teschen...

 for details of Austrian and French organization.

Battle

Saxe-Teschen entrenched his 11,628 infantry, 2,168 cavalry and 56 guns along the Cuesmes Ridge just a few kilometers west of Mons
Mons
Mons is a Walloon city and municipality located in the Belgian province of Hainaut, of which it is the capital. The Mons municipality includes the old communes of Cuesmes, Flénu, Ghlin, Hyon, Nimy, Obourg, Baudour , Jemappes, Ciply, Harmignies, Harveng, Havré, Maisières, Mesvin, Nouvelles,...

. The Austrian artillery included fourteen 12-lb cannon, thirty-six 6-lb and 3-lb cannon and six 7-lb howitzers. The north end of the position, defended by Feldmarschal-Leutnant
Lieutenant General
Lieutenant General is a military rank used in many countries. The rank traces its origins to the Middle Ages where the title of Lieutenant General was held by the second in command on the battlefield, who was normally subordinate to a Captain General....

 (FML) Franz Freiherr von Lilien, was anchored on the village of Jemappes. Feldzeugmeister
Feldzeugmeister
Feldzeugmeister was a military rank in various European armies , especially in the artillery. It was commonly used in the 16th or 17th century, but could even be found in the beginning of the 20th century in some European countries...

 Count Clerfayt commanded the center and FML Johann Beaulieu
Johann Peter Beaulieu
Johann Peter Beaulieu de Marconnay, also Jean Pierre Beaulieu de Marconnay, born 26 October 1725 – died 22 December 1819, was an Austrian military officer. He joined the Austrian army and fought against the Prussians during the Seven Years War. A cultured man, he later battled Belgian rebels...

 led the Left Wing. The Austrian right wing faced to the west, the center and the left wing faced toward the southwest. The village of Cuesmes lay behind the Austrian left. One flaw in the position was that an Austrian retreat could only be made across a single bridge over the Hain River.

Dumouriez had 32,000 infantry, 3,800 cavalry and 100 artillery pieces. He expected to be joined by General Louis Harville's additional 4,000 men on the right. (Smith gives a total of 40,000 infantry and 3,000 cavalry.) Dumouriez planned to turn both Austrian flanks. Accordingly, he divided his army into two wings, giving General Jean Ferrand command of the left and General Pierre Beurnonville
Pierre de Ruel, marquis de Beurnonville
Pierre de Ruel, marquis de Beurnonville was a French general during the French Revolutionary Wars and later a marshal of France.-Biography:Bournonville was born at Champignol-lez-Mondeville, Aube....

 control of the right. The French army was made up of a collection of royal army, volunteer, and national guard
National Guard (France)
The National Guard was the name given at the time of the French Revolution to the militias formed in each city, in imitation of the National Guard created in Paris. It was a military force separate from the regular army...

 units.

The French made an "ill-coordinated but enthusiastic attack" A series of attacks beginning at dawn stalled. Dumouriez ordered a renewed assault at noon. The Duke of Chartres
Louis-Philippe of France
Louis Philippe I was King of the French from 1830 to 1848 in what was known as the July Monarchy. His father was a duke who supported the French Revolution but was nevertheless guillotined. Louis Philippe fled France as a young man and spent 21 years in exile, including considerable time in the...

 (who styled himself General Egalité) sent a massive French column at the center of the ridge. This gained a foothold which the Austrians could not dislodge. Some French soldiers also enveloped the enemy right, threatening the Austrian rear. Saxe-Teschen withdrew his right and center into Mons. Beaulieu ably covered the retreat with his left wing.

Results

The French lost approximately 650 dead and 1,300 wounded. The Austrians reported 305 dead, 513 wounded and 423 men and 5 guns captured. Many of the Austrian casualties were caused by the plentiful French artillery. The Bender IR # 41 suffered especially heavy casualties of 14 officers and 400 rank and file. Mons surrendered to the French the day after the battle and Brussels
Brussels
Brussels , officially the Brussels Region or Brussels-Capital Region , is the capital of Belgium and the de facto capital of the European Union...

fell on 14 November. The French populace "went wild with joy" at this first offensive victory of the war.

External references

Battle of Jemappes by historyofwar.org

Footnotes

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
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