Barranquilla
Overview
Barranquilla is an industrial port city and municipality located in northern Colombia
Colombia
Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia , is a unitary constitutional republic comprising thirty-two departments. The country is located in northwestern South America, bordered to the east by Venezuela and Brazil; to the south by Ecuador and Peru; to the north by the Caribbean Sea; to the...

, near the Caribbean Sea
Caribbean Sea
The Caribbean Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean located in the tropics of the Western hemisphere. It is bounded by Mexico and Central America to the west and southwest, to the north by the Greater Antilles, and to the east by the Lesser Antilles....

. The capital of the Atlántico Department
Atlántico Department
Atlántico is a department of Colombia, located in northern Colombia with the Caribbean sea to its north, the Bolívar Department to its south, and the Magdalena Department to its east separated by the Magdalena River...

, it is the largest industrial city and port in the Colombian Caribbean region with a population of 1,148,506 as of 2005, which makes it Colombia's fourth most populous city after Bogotá
Bogotá
Bogotá, Distrito Capital , from 1991 to 2000 called Santa Fé de Bogotá, is the capital, and largest city, of Colombia. It is also designated by the national constitution as the capital of the department of Cundinamarca, even though the city of Bogotá now comprises an independent Capital district...

, Medellín
Medellín
Medellín , officially the Municipio de Medellín or Municipality of Medellín, is the second largest city in Colombia. It is in the Aburrá Valley, one of the more northerly of the Andes in South America. It has a population of 2.3 million...

 and Cali
Santiago de Cali
Santiago de Cali , simply referred to as Cali, is a city in western Colombia and the capital of the Valle del Cauca Department. With a population of 2.5 million, Cali is the third largest city in the country. It has one of the fastest growing economies and infrastructure in the country because...

.

Barranquilla lies strategically next to the delta of the Magdalena River
Magdalena River
The Magdalena River is the principal river of Colombia, flowing northward about through the western half of the country. It takes its name from the biblical figure Mary Magdalene. It is navigable through much of its lower reaches, in spite of the shifting sand bars at the mouth of its delta, as...

, 7.5 kilometres (originally 25 km before rapid urban growth) from its mouth at the Caribbean Sea, serving as port for river and maritime transportation within Colombia.
Encyclopedia
Barranquilla is an industrial port city and municipality located in northern Colombia
Colombia
Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia , is a unitary constitutional republic comprising thirty-two departments. The country is located in northwestern South America, bordered to the east by Venezuela and Brazil; to the south by Ecuador and Peru; to the north by the Caribbean Sea; to the...

, near the Caribbean Sea
Caribbean Sea
The Caribbean Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean located in the tropics of the Western hemisphere. It is bounded by Mexico and Central America to the west and southwest, to the north by the Greater Antilles, and to the east by the Lesser Antilles....

. The capital of the Atlántico Department
Atlántico Department
Atlántico is a department of Colombia, located in northern Colombia with the Caribbean sea to its north, the Bolívar Department to its south, and the Magdalena Department to its east separated by the Magdalena River...

, it is the largest industrial city and port in the Colombian Caribbean region with a population of 1,148,506 as of 2005, which makes it Colombia's fourth most populous city after Bogotá
Bogotá
Bogotá, Distrito Capital , from 1991 to 2000 called Santa Fé de Bogotá, is the capital, and largest city, of Colombia. It is also designated by the national constitution as the capital of the department of Cundinamarca, even though the city of Bogotá now comprises an independent Capital district...

, Medellín
Medellín
Medellín , officially the Municipio de Medellín or Municipality of Medellín, is the second largest city in Colombia. It is in the Aburrá Valley, one of the more northerly of the Andes in South America. It has a population of 2.3 million...

 and Cali
Santiago de Cali
Santiago de Cali , simply referred to as Cali, is a city in western Colombia and the capital of the Valle del Cauca Department. With a population of 2.5 million, Cali is the third largest city in the country. It has one of the fastest growing economies and infrastructure in the country because...

.

Barranquilla lies strategically next to the delta of the Magdalena River
Magdalena River
The Magdalena River is the principal river of Colombia, flowing northward about through the western half of the country. It takes its name from the biblical figure Mary Magdalene. It is navigable through much of its lower reaches, in spite of the shifting sand bars at the mouth of its delta, as...

, 7.5 kilometres (originally 25 km before rapid urban growth) from its mouth at the Caribbean Sea, serving as port for river and maritime transportation within Colombia. It is also the main industrial, shopping, educational and cultural centre of the Caribbean Region of Colombia. The city is the core of the Metropolitan Area of Barranquilla, which is constituted by the municipalities of Soledad
Soledad, Atlántico
Soledad is a municipality in the Colombian department of Atlántico part of the metropolitan area of Barranquilla is 6th in population in Colombia and the 3rd in the Caribbean region, after Barranquilla and Cartagena. It is also the city with the highest population growth in Colombia and in 2005 was...

, Galapa, Malambo, and Puerto Colombia
Puerto Colombia
Puerto Colombia is a town and municipality in Atlántico Department, Colombia. Famous for its "Pier of Puerto Colombia". Duties were later transferred to the larger and modern Port of Barranquilla in Bocas de Cenizas, the mouth of the Magdalena River in the Caribbean sea.-External links:...

.

Barranquilla was legally established as a town on April 7, 1813, although it dated from at least 1629. It grew into an important port, serving as a haven for immigrants from Europe, especially during and right after World War I and World War II, with waves of additional immigrants from the Middle East and Asia. Barranquilla became Colombia's principal port, and with its level of industrialization and modernity earned the city the nickname Colombia's Golden Gate (Spanish: La Puerta de Oro de Colombia). In the 1940s, Barranquilla was the second largest city in Colombia and one of the most modern cities in the Caribbean and in South America, while later, local administrations, given to widespread corruption, brought about a decline in the standard of living. As government investment increased in other Colombian cities, Barranquilla's national position was surpassed.

The city is home to one of the most important folk and cultural festivals of Colombia, the Carnival of Barranquilla, which was declared a National Cultural Heritage by the Congress of Colombia
Congress of Colombia
The Congress of the Republic of Colombia is the name given to Colombia's bicameral national legislature.The Congress of Colombia consists of the 102-seat Senate , and the 166-seat Chamber of Representatives ...

 in 2001 and recognized by UNESCO
UNESCO
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations...

 in 2003.
Ernesto Cortissoz International Airport
Ernesto Cortissoz International Airport
Ernesto Cortissoz International Airport is located in the municipality of Soledad from Barranquilla, the capital of the Atlántico department in Colombia. The airport owes its name to one of the pioneers of Colombian aviation, Ernesto Cortissoz....

, was built in Barranquilla in 1919, becoming the first airport in South America. The city is served by domestic and international flights.

Etymology

Barranquilla's name refers to the canyons that existed in the sector adjacent to the Magdalena, where the city began to form. During the Spanish colonization of the Americas
Spanish colonization of the Americas
Colonial expansion under the Spanish Empire was initiated by the Spanish conquistadores and developed by the Monarchy of Spain through its administrators and missionaries. The motivations for colonial expansion were trade and the spread of the Christian faith through indigenous conversions...

, the name "barranca" was common in coastal communities (Barrancabermeja
Barrancabermeja
Barrancabermeja is a city and municipality in Santander Department, in northeastern Colombia. It is located on the banks of the Magdalena River in the Middle Magdalena region, 110 km west of Bucaramanga. Founded in 1536, Barrancabermeja is home of the biggest petroleum refinery in Colombia,...

, Barranca Nueva, Barranca Vieja etc.). This name was probably due to an alteration of Aragon. During the Spanish colonization, the area was known as Camacho
Camacho
Camacho is the last name of:* Alicia Sánchez-Camacho, a Spanish politician* Antonio Camacho Vizcaino, Spanish ministry of the interior* Carlos Camacho, a Guamanian politician* Carlos Camacho , a Colombian actor* Carlos S...

 or Kamash Indian site and San Nicolás de la Barranquilla (patron saint of San Nicolás de Tolentino) began to develop the area with the estates of Barrancas de Camacho, Barrancas de San Nicolás, Barranquilla de Camacho and Barranquilla de San Nicolás of which the city name is derived.

Nicknames

In 1921, President Marco Fidel Suárez
Marco Fidel Suárez
Marco Fidel Suárez was a Colombian political figure. He served as president of Colombia from 1918 to 1921. He was born on April 23, 1855, in the town of Hatoviejo, Antioquia...

 called the city the Pórtico Dorado de la República (Golden Gate of the Republic) in recognition of its economic importance as a port since the late 19th century. In 1946, opening the 5th Central American and Caribbean Games, President Mariano Ospina Pérez
Mariano Ospina Pérez
Luis Mariano Ospina Pérez was a Colombian engineer and political figure, member of the Colombian Conservative Party. He served as President of Colombia between 1946 and 1950.- Biographic data :...

 reaffirmed the nickname of the city as the "Golden Gate".

Barranquilla is also known as La Arenosa (meaning The Sandy), as called by the president of New Granada
Republic of New Granada
The Republic of New Granada was a centralist republic consisting primarily of present-day Colombia and Panama with smaller portions of today's Ecuador, and Venezuela. It was created after the dissolution in 1830 of Gran Colombia. It was later abolished in 1858 when the Granadine Confederation was...

, Tomás Cipriano de Mosquera
Tomás Cipriano de Mosquera
Tomás Cipriano de Mosquera y Arboleda was a Colombian general and political figure. He was president of Colombia four times. The first time was as president of Republic of New Granada from 1845 to 1849. During the Colombian Civil War of 1860-1862 he led liberal forces in a civil war against...

, during his stay in Barranquilla in 1849. Curramba, la Bella was also used to refer to Barranquilla by journalist Juan Eugenio Cañavera in Bogotá
Bogotá
Bogotá, Distrito Capital , from 1991 to 2000 called Santa Fé de Bogotá, is the capital, and largest city, of Colombia. It is also designated by the national constitution as the capital of the department of Cundinamarca, even though the city of Bogotá now comprises an independent Capital district...

 in the mid-twentieth century. The "la Bella" part was assigned by fellow journalist Roger Araújo as a counterweight to the word Curramba, which is seen as derogatory, derived from adjective "currambero". The thinker Agustín Nieto Caballero
Agustín Nieto Caballero
Agustín Nieto Caballero was a Colombian pedagogue; who, in 1914, founded Gimnasio Moderno, a prestigious private school, located in Bogotá. The school is considered to be the oldest new school in South America....

 called Barranquilla "Ciudad de los Brazos Abiertos" ("City of the Open Arms") and Enrique Ancízar, president of the Colombian Society of Agriculture, called it "Faro de América" ("Beacon/Lighthouse of America.").

Heraldry and symbols

Flag
In 1811, the patriots that achieved the Independence of the Cartagenas adopted the current flag. It consists of three rectangles, red being the outermost, then yellow, and green in the center. Red symbolizes the blood of patriots; yellow, the sun of freedom and hope; and green, for a proud home. In the centre, there is a silver star of eight points to symbolize the eight provinces of the confederacy. The flag was carried by Simon Bolívar
Simón Bolívar
Simón José Antonio de la Santísima Trinidad Bolívar y Palacios Ponte y Yeiter, commonly known as Simón Bolívar was a Venezuelan military and political leader...

 during the campaign of Lower Magdalena in 1812. In 1814, the Congress of Tunja adopted it as the emblem of the United Provinces of New Granada
United Provinces of New Granada
The United Provinces of New Granada was a country in South America from 1811 to 1816, a period known in Colombian history as the Patria Boba. It was formed from areas of the New Kingdom of Granada. The government was a federation with a parliamentary system, consisting of a weak executive and...

. In 1910, the Council approved the flag for Barranquilla.
Coat of arms
The seal of the city was mentioned in the decree that granted Barranquilla a city by Manuel Rodríguez Torices
Manuel Rodríguez Torices
Manuel Rodrí­guez Torices was a Neogranadine statesman, lawyer, journalist, and Precursor of the Independence of Colombia...

, the then President of the Sovereign State of Cartagena de Indias, in reward for the determined and courageous patriots who participated in the defense of the independence of Cartagena de Indias
Cartagena, Colombia
Cartagena de Indias , is a large Caribbean beach resort city on the northern coast of Colombia in the Caribbean Coast Region and capital of Bolívar Department...

 against Santa Marta
Santa Marta
Santa Marta is the capital city of the Colombian department of Magdalena in the Caribbean Region. It was founded in July 29, 1525 by the Spanish conqueror Rodrigo de Bastidas, which makes it the oldest remaining city in Colombia...

 in 1813.

Anthem
The music and lyrics of Himno de Barranquilla were chosen in competition by the Sociedad de Mejoras Públicas and officially adopted as the anthem of the city by the Municipal Council in a meeting on October 19, 1942. The lyrics are authored by the poet Amira de la Rosa (winner of the contest in 1942) and the music is of Panama, by Simón Urbina (1928).

Other symbols
The flowers of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, the Tabebuia rosea
Tabebuia rosea
Tabebuia rosea is a neotropical tree that grows up to and can reach a diameter at breast height of up to . The name Roble de Sabana is widely used in Costa Rica meaning "savannah oak" in Spanish, probably because it often remains in heavily deforested areas, where people prize its intense...

 and the animals Volatinia jacarina and iguana
Iguana
Iguana is a herbivorous genus of lizard native to tropical areas of Central America and the Caribbean. The genus was first described in 1768 by Austrian naturalist Josephus Nicolaus Laurenti in his book Specimen Medicum, Exhibens Synopsin Reptilium Emendatam cum Experimentis circa Venena...

 are used as other symbols of the city.

Origins and colonial era

Unlike other cities in Colombia such as Cartagena or Bogotá D.C., Barranquilla was not founded during the Spanish colonial times and it is not founded on the site of a pre-Columbian site. The first mention of the current territory of Barranquilla dates back to 1533 and was written by Gonzalo Fernández de Oviedo y Valdés. He describes the route of Pedro de Heredia, founder of Cartagena, just weeks before he founded that city, and says that this was a point of landing of canoes for the Indians of Santa Marta within the interior. They had two canoes full of dried shrimp as merchandise and went to the Magdalena River
Magdalena River
The Magdalena River is the principal river of Colombia, flowing northward about through the western half of the country. It takes its name from the biblical figure Mary Magdalene. It is navigable through much of its lower reaches, in spite of the shifting sand bars at the mouth of its delta, as...

 to trade with this commodity, salt and other things. However, the Kamash Indians were known to occupy the area and the settlement itself was established in about 1629. For this reason the city does not celebrate its foundation, but rather the date in which it was declared a town on April 7, 1813.

The first mention of the territory now occupied by Barranquilla dates back to 1533 and was written by Gonzalo Fernández de Oviedo y Valdés. It describes the travel of Pedro de Heredia
Pedro de Heredia
Pedro de Heredia, Spanish conqueror, founder of the city Cartagena de Indias, in Colombia.Noble from birth, for being involved in many brawls he was forced to leave Spain. He established himself in La Española. Later on, he accepted the job of lieutenant offered by the governor of Santa Marta,...

, founder of Cartagena, only weeks before founding the city, who affirms that this point was a berth for the canoes of indios of the Government of Santa Marta. He mentions two canoes full of dried shrimps which they carried as merchandise to sell along the Magdalena River, together with salt and other things.

Nevertheless, the home location of the Kamash indios (hispanized to Camacho or Camach) is known as the first permanent human settlement of Barranquilla. During the 19th century, an encomienda
Encomienda
The encomienda was a system that was employed mainly by the Spanish crown during the colonization of the Americas to regulate Native American labor....

 of captain Domingo de Santa Cruz was established, granted by the Spanish crown for his notable military performance. This encomienda disappeared in [1559, when it was in the hands of señora Ana Ximénez, widow of Santa Cruz, after the death of her husband. She became the victim of a disregardful violent act by the second encomendero of Galapa
Galapa
Galapa is a municipality and town in the Colombian department of Atlántico.-External links:...

, don Pedro de Barros I, when he arbitrarily grabbed all the Camacho population that could offer labour and took them to his encomienda.
Between 1627 and 1637, Hacienda San Nicolás de Tolentino was founded by Nicolás de Barros, great-grandson of Don Pedro de Barros I. The farm was established on the banks of the river channel. The original property area was 24.78 square kilometres (9.6 sq mi). Pedro Vasquez Buezo expanded the property to 41.3 square kilometres (15.9 sq mi). On this estate, Barros allowed his workers to build their homes and support their families, which helped further develop his field operations. After the death of Barros, the estate began to accommodate others, such as people who for reasons of health, age or cronyism with the hacienda owner were allowed to stay. There were also Indians from Malambo and Galapa
Galapa
Galapa is a municipality and town in the Colombian department of Atlántico.-External links:...

. For 1681, the ranch was considered a village, known as Barrancas de San Nicolas. Before 1700, Barranquilla was occupied by Aguerra of Tierradentro
Tierradentro
Tierradentro is a National archeological park in the jurisdiction of the municipality of Inza, Department of Cauca, Colombia. The park is located 100 km away from the capital of the Department, Popayán....

 and in 1772, the township was expanded by the same group, adding a Judge Counsel.

The origin of Barranquilla, promoted in the second half of the 19th century by the historian Domingo Malabet, was not supported by oral tradition nor scientifically validated. The work of B. J. A. Blanco, El norte de Tierradentro y los orígenes de Barranquilla: Estudios y documentos para una geografía histórica del Departamento del Atlántico ("Northern Tierradentro and the origins of Barranquilla") (1987), argued that Barranquilla had been founded by farmers from the neighboring town of Galapa who left their land, following their herds to the Magdalena River.

Era of Independence (1810–1823)

In the era of the Colombian War of Independence, Barranquilla distinguished itself as a supporter of the pro-independence forces. In 1812, General Pierre Labatut
Pierre Labatut
Pierre Labatut, also known as Pedro Labatut was a French mercenary who fought in the Brazilian War of Independence.- Biography :...

 attacked and defeated royalist forces at Sitioviejo and Sitionuevo. On April 7, 1813, which was later celebrated as “Barranquilla Day” ("el Día de Barranquilla"), the President-Governor of the Free and Independent State of Cartagena de Indias, Manuel Rodríguez Torices
Manuel Rodríguez Torices
Manuel Rodrí­guez Torices was a Neogranadine statesman, lawyer, journalist, and Precursor of the Independence of Colombia...

, granted the title of “villa” to the town, thereby allowing it to benefit from certain privileges, and making it the capital of the department of Barlovento
Barlovento
Several places have the name Barlovento :*Barlovento, a municipality in the northern part of the island of La Palma in the Province of Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Canary Islands...

(or Tierradentro), in recognition for the valor and patriotism displayed by the town for its defense of the pro-independence city of Cartagena de Indias against the royalist stronghold of Santa Marta.

In 1815, Joaquín Vallejo, a rich merchant, maintained a pro-independence battalion for three months at his own expense. When the Spanish forces under Colonel Valentín Capmani approached Barranquilla, its inhabitants resisted Capmani but were defeated on April 25, 1815. The population of the town was attacked and taken prisoner by the royalist troops, which also defeated Vallejo’s pro-independence battalion. In the following 5–6 years, Barranquilla was a center for republican military operations. On October 10, 1821, the last royalist stronghold at Cartagena was defeated. At that time, Cartagena was capital of the Sovereign State of Bolivar, to which Barranquilla belonged. In the same year, Barranquilla was governed by its very first mayor, Agustín Del Valle, who carried out his duties from his own home, which later was converted in a military headquarters. On July 24, 1823, the naval Battle of Lake Maracaibo
Battle of Lake Maracaibo
The Battle of Lake Maracaibo also known as the "Naval Battle of the Lake" was fought on 24 July 1823 in Venezuela's Lake Maracaibo between Admiral José Prudencio Padilla and royalist Captain Ángel Laborde....

 took place, which resulted in the final expulsion of the Spanish from Gran Colombia.

Republican Period

19th century

The geographic area of Barranquilla did not include mineral or natural riches, and thus did not serve as a location where the Spanish maintained a permanent presence. Its importance was not appreciated until the mid-19th century, due to the introduction of steamships that navigated the Magdalena River
Magdalena River
The Magdalena River is the principal river of Colombia, flowing northward about through the western half of the country. It takes its name from the biblical figure Mary Magdalene. It is navigable through much of its lower reaches, in spite of the shifting sand bars at the mouth of its delta, as...

 by the German Juan Bernardo Elbers on behalf of Simón Bolívar at the founding of Gran Colombia in 1823. The route was opened on November 10, 1825. Barranquilla thus initiated a lively exchange of goods with cities and towns of the Colombian interior, as well as with international merchants, and it became a principal port for the export of coffee. With the establishment of the new nation of the Republic of New Granada
Republic of New Granada
The Republic of New Granada was a centralist republic consisting primarily of present-day Colombia and Panama with smaller portions of today's Ecuador, and Venezuela. It was created after the dissolution in 1830 of Gran Colombia. It was later abolished in 1858 when the Granadine Confederation was...

 in 1831, two revolutions began in Barranquilla. One was led by Policarpo Martínez, Antonio Pantoja, Lorenzo Hernández, Crispín Luque, Esteban Márquez y Santos de la Hoz against the dictatorship of Rafael Urdaneta
Rafael Urdaneta
Rafael José Urdaneta y Faría was a Venezuelan General and hero of the Spanish American wars of independence in several countries in northern South America.- Biographic data :...

. The second was led by General Ignacio Luque, who had crushed the first revolution.

In 1840, merchants and commercial carriers of Barranquilla tried to form an independent province, Cibeles, which was to comprise the cantons of Barlovento. They proclaimed Colonel Ramón Antigüedad as their leader. The primary objective was to rehabilitate the town of Sabanilla as an independent port, as exports were controlled by the cities of Cartagena and Santa Marta. This rebellion was quickly crushed by Cartagenan troops. In 1845, the city was one of nine cantons that comprised the province of Cartagena.
At the end of the decade, in 1849, President Tomás Cipriano de Mosquera
Tomás Cipriano de Mosquera
Tomás Cipriano de Mosquera y Arboleda was a Colombian general and political figure. He was president of Colombia four times. The first time was as president of Republic of New Granada from 1845 to 1849. During the Colombian Civil War of 1860-1862 he led liberal forces in a civil war against...

 issued a decree that revitalized the bay of Sabanilla as a port to export goods. A customs house was built there, the Castillo de Salgar, to accommodate the new traffic. In early June 1849, an outbreak of cholera
Cholera
Cholera is an infection of the small intestine that is caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. The main symptoms are profuse watery diarrhea and vomiting. Transmission occurs primarily by drinking or eating water or food that has been contaminated by the diarrhea of an infected person or the feces...

 occurred in Barranquilla. It had originated in Cartagena, which in turn had received it from shipments coming from Panama.

On March 20, 1852, a law was passed by the Congress of New Granada that separated the province of Cartagena from the cantons of Barranquilla, Soledad, and Sabanalarga, which became part of the province of Sabanilla, with Barranquilla as the capital. On May 2, 1854, Tomás Cipriano de Mosquera arrived at Barranquilla, and the inhabitants supported him in his fight against the revolutionary José María Melo
José María Melo
José María Dionisio Melo y Ortiz was a Colombian general and politician of Pijao ancestry, who fought in the South American wars of independence, and who in 1854 rose to power and held the presidency of Colombia. In August, 1850, artisans demanded protection and the creation of a national workshop...

 in Bogotá
Bogotá
Bogotá, Distrito Capital , from 1991 to 2000 called Santa Fé de Bogotá, is the capital, and largest city, of Colombia. It is also designated by the national constitution as the capital of the department of Cundinamarca, even though the city of Bogotá now comprises an independent Capital district...

. On October 7, 1857, Barranquilla was granted the status of “ciudad” (“city”) by the Constituent Assembly of the State of Bolívar; and in the same year, the Municipal Council of Barranquilla designated three zones in the city: Abajo del Río, Arriba del Río, and El Centro. Barranquilla formed part of the department of Sabanilla, one of the five departments that comprised the Sovereign State of Bolívar, whose formation had succeeded the province of Cartagena by law of June 15, 1857. During the time of the Granadine Confederation
Granadine Confederation
The Granadine Confederation was a short-lived federal republic established in 1858 as a result of a constitutional change replacing the Republic of New Granada. It comprised the present day nations of Colombia and Panama...

, Conservative General Joaquín Posada Gutiérrez attacked and defeated the city square in Barranquilla defended by the Liberal leader Vicente Palacio on November 6, 1859. Subsequently, the city would be recovered by the Liberal leader Manuel Cabeza on December 9.
On January 25, 1861, General Juan José Nieto Gil
Juan José Nieto Gil
Juan José Nieto Gil was a Colombian politician, Army general and writer. A Liberal party caudillo of Cartagena, he served interimly as Governor of the Province of Cartagena, and was later elected President of the Sovereign State of Bolívar from 1959 to 1964...

, president of the State of Bolívar, launched a rebellion from Barranquilla. Barranquilla became the capital of a province of the same name by law on December 26, 1862, and the Sovereign State of Bolívar was divided into 12 provinces. At the establishment of the United States of Colombia, the growing commercial importance of Barranquilla led to the construction, between 1869 and 1871, of the Bolívar Railway (Ferrocarril de Bolívar), the first railway of the present-day Republic of Colombia. It linked Barranquilla and Sabanilla (Salgar), the latter being the location of the customs house. Due to the shallowness of the waters, it was necessary to extend the railway to Puerto Cupino, where the Cuban engineer Francisco Javier Cisneros built what was then one of the longest piers in the world, second only to the one in Southampton
Southampton
Southampton is the largest city in the county of Hampshire on the south coast of England, and is situated south-west of London and north-west of Portsmouth. Southampton is a major port and the closest city to the New Forest...

, England.

In 1872, an epidemic with symptoms similar to those of cholera became manifest in the city. In 1876, an enormous amount of contraband entered the city from Salgar. In the last decades of the 19th century, Barranquilla experienced a series of advances represented by the founding of the Society of the Aqueduct in 1877, commissioning in 1884 of a mule-pulled tram, the installation of the first phones in Colombia on September 1, 1885, and the foundation of the first private telephone service in Colombia, the Colombian-West Indian Mobile Company of Mobile by the U.S. citizen William Ladd.

It was at this time that the city became important for its booming business and its strategic geographic location, becoming the first port on a river of Colombia.

On January 6, 1885, revolutionary forces under General Ricardo Gaitán Obeso occupied the city. On February 11, the head of government, General Vicente Carlos Urueta, attacked an area defended by General Nicolás Jimeno Collante. Urueta triumphed over Obeso, but additional troops overtook Urueta. The modern Republic of Colombia was established the following year. Barranquilla became one of the 34 new departments, comprising the provinces of Barranquilla and Sabanalarga. During this time, the city was established as the principal port of Colombia helped along by the commissioning of the steam tramway in 1890 and the construction of the port of Puerto Colombia in 1893, which served as the Barranquilla port into the 20th century. The goods moved by rail to Barranquilla, and then by river to the interior.

20th century

As part of the country's restructuring, President General Rafael Reyes
Rafael Reyes
Rafael Reyes Prieto was Chief of Staff of the Colombian National Army and President of Colombia .- Biographic data :...

, of the National Constituent and Legislative Assembly, through Act April 17, 11, 1905 created the Atlántico department, consisting of the provinces of Barranquilla and Sabanalarga, the department of Bolivar, and Barranquilla as the capital. However, in 1908, the was Atlántico department was changed to the Department of Barranquilla by Act 1. With the fall of General Reyes in 1909, the Department of Barranquilla was abolished by Act 65 of that year, with Barranquilla again integrating into the department of Bolivar. The National Constituent Assembly of 1910 enacted Law 21 on July 14, which definitively established the Department of Barranquilla Atlántico again as capital.

With the city's economic boom, the Chamber of Commerce of Barranquilla was created in June 28, 1905. On September 7, 1909, a bill was passed by Congress recognizing the opening of Bocas de Ceniza as a national necessity. In June of the same year, 'The Barranquillazo' coup was attempted by followers of General Ramón González Valencia
Ramón González Valencia
Ramón González Valencia was a Colombian conservative, military officer and statesman. He participated in the civil wars of 1876, Colombian Civil War of 1895, and the Thousand Days War.- Biographic data :...

 against the General Jorge Holguín
Jorge Holguín
Jorge Marcelo Holguín Mallarino was a Colombian politician and military officer, two time Acting President of Colombia for the periods between June, 1909 to August of the same year as interim president, and from November, 1921 to August, 1922...

 who was designated the rank of president of the republic after the resignation of the incumbent, General Reyes. The first flight of a Colombian airplane occurred in Barranquilla in December 1912, the plane being flown by the Canadian pilot George Schmitt. On December 10, 1919, the first commercial airline arrived in the Americas, and second in the world; Scadta
SCADTA
The Colombian-German Air Transport Society , or SCADTA, was the world's second airline, and the first airline of the American continent, operating from 1919 until World War II. After the war, SCADTA merged with Colombian regional carrier Colombian Air Service , or SACO. Together, SCADTA and SACO...

 later became Avianca
Avianca
Avianca S.A. is the flag carrier airline of Colombia since December 5, 1919 when it was initially registered under the name SCADTA. It is headquartered in Bogotá, D.C. with its hub at the El Dorado International Airport...

. In June 1919, U.S. pilot William Knox Martin and Mario Santo Domingo inaugurated industrial airmail in Colombia with a flight between Barranquilla and Puerto Colombia
Puerto Colombia
Puerto Colombia is a town and municipality in Atlántico Department, Colombia. Famous for its "Pier of Puerto Colombia". Duties were later transferred to the larger and modern Port of Barranquilla in Bocas de Cenizas, the mouth of the Magdalena River in the Caribbean sea.-External links:...

, where Santo Domingo delivered the mail sack.

With the connections of the river and seaport reach the country's interior and abroad, the city became in the second half of the 19th century through the early decades of the 20th century, one of the most cosmopolitan and multicultural cities of Colombia. Puerto Colombia
Puerto Colombia
Puerto Colombia is a town and municipality in Atlántico Department, Colombia. Famous for its "Pier of Puerto Colombia". Duties were later transferred to the larger and modern Port of Barranquilla in Bocas de Cenizas, the mouth of the Magdalena River in the Caribbean sea.-External links:...

 became one of the longest piers in the world and the principal port of Colombia, nicknamed the "Golden Gate of Colombia". A major inflow of Jewish immigrants, as well as foreigners from Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, France, Germany, the United States, Italy, China and Japan, invigorated the industry and helped to make Barranquilla a modern city. Of these immigrants, the Arab and Jewish from the Midde East immigrants were prominent, referred to wrongly as "Turks" by the Colombian people. As a result, during the first half of the twentieth century, Barranquilla became one the fastest growing cities of Colombia, growing at rates well above other Colombian cities, which was maintained until the 1970s. In this context, the office Salgar office was moved to Barranquilla, the Customs Administration of Barranquilla was constructed between 1919 and 1921, designed by the English architect Leslie Arbouin. Under economic dynamism, the city's business strength grew. This was attributed to its point of entry to the country by thousands of immigrants and many advances such as aviation. The city received from President Marco Fidel Suarez
Marco Fidel Suárez
Marco Fidel Suárez was a Colombian political figure. He served as president of Colombia from 1918 to 1921. He was born on April 23, 1855, in the town of Hatoviejo, Antioquia...

 the title of "Golden Gate Republic". On January 12, 1919, amid great excitement in the Costa Caribe against Bogota, Barranquilla joined the League Costeña. In 1920, archaeologists revealed that Barranquilla is located on a vast historic necropolis
Necropolis
A necropolis is a large cemetery or burial ground, usually including structural tombs. The word comes from the Greek νεκρόπολις - nekropolis, literally meaning "city of the dead"...

. On June 8, 1924, while distributing flyers for the work of Bocas de Ceniza, the Tolima A-16 airplane, flown by German aviator Helmuth Von Krohn crashed, killing all six people aboard, including Ernesto Cortissoz, president of SCADTA
SCADTA
The Colombian-German Air Transport Society , or SCADTA, was the world's second airline, and the first airline of the American continent, operating from 1919 until World War II. After the war, SCADTA merged with Colombian regional carrier Colombian Air Service , or SACO. Together, SCADTA and SACO...

.

In 1925, the first public companies based in the country were established in Barranquilla. The initial effect of the aqueduct that was built in 1929 was the arrival of piped water to 80% of the homes, while water supply coverage in Bogota was 59%, and decreasing to 57.3% in Medellín, 74.8% in Cali, 21.4% in Cartagena, and 36.2% in Santa Marta. In 1927, the electricity service provided by the Electric Power Company Barranquilla addressed the needs of 10,300 homes, equivalent to 74% of the total. ln February 4, 1925, Scadta acquired the planes large enough to make the first international flights, which took place in August of that year between Barranquilla and Key West
Key West
Key West is an island in the Straits of Florida on the North American continent at the southernmost tip of the Florida Keys. Key West is home to the southernmost point in the Continental United States; the island is about from Cuba....

, Florida, with stops in Central America, Mexico and Cuba
Cuba
The Republic of Cuba is an island nation in the Caribbean. The nation of Cuba consists of the main island of Cuba, the Isla de la Juventud, and several archipelagos. Havana is the largest city in Cuba and the country's capital. Santiago de Cuba is the second largest city...

.

In an era of significant progress for the city, the first private commercial radio station was founded in the country, the first station being the state HJN Colombia Bogota. Elías Pellet Buitrago started commercial radio in Colombia with the first issue of La Voz de Barranquilla on December 8, 1929. In April 10, 1931, in a mutiny against hunger and unemployment, the people of Barranquilla destroyed the Theatre Columbia. On August 16, 1933, the Senate approved the contract for Bocas de Ceniza and work was completed in 1936 with President Alfonso Lopez
Alfonso López Pumarejo
Alfonso López Pumarejo was a two-time Colombian president and political figure, as a member of the Colombian Liberal Party. He served as president of Colombia for the first time between 1934 and 1938 and again between 1942 and 1945....

 inaugurating the Maritime Terminal Barranquilla. In 1935, the construction of a municipal football stadium enabled hosting of the National Game III. Since the late 1950s, the city has plunged into a socioeconomic decline, largely due to the failure of the political class as well as the collapse of major sectors of industrial activity. In 1958, the government created the first zone of Colombia in Barranquilla.

From the 1960s until the early 1980s, Barranquilla plunged into an economic decline. The city's expansion to reach neighboring towns led to the creation of the Metropolitan Area of Barranquilla in 1981. On August 18, 1993, the Congress of Colombia
Congress of Colombia
The Congress of the Republic of Colombia is the name given to Colombia's bicameral national legislature.The Congress of Colombia consists of the 102-seat Senate , and the 166-seat Chamber of Representatives ...

, through Legislative Act Number August 1, 17, 1993, conferred to Barranquilla he category of "Special District, Industrial and Port".

21st century

In the 21st century, the city has been working on new projects to restore itself as the strategic capital within the country. Rapid urban growth, including the mass migration of peasants to the main cities, attracted by economic development, has led to the demand of numerous proposals to accommodate such growth. Barranquilla has always been famous for its chaotic urban planning, understandable given its spontaneous origin as a port and the reality of high administrative corruption which has hampered the channeling of resources for building an urban centre of greater structure and dimensions. The presentation of a new infrastructure, changes in local and regional administration, decentralization since 1991, international pressure to open markets, and competition between the other major Colombian cities will bring about considerable development in Barranquilla into the 21st century.

Geography

The city is located in the northeastern corner of the department of the Atlantic, on the west bank of the Magdalena River
Magdalena River
The Magdalena River is the principal river of Colombia, flowing northward about through the western half of the country. It takes its name from the biblical figure Mary Magdalene. It is navigable through much of its lower reaches, in spite of the shifting sand bars at the mouth of its delta, as...

, 7.5 kilometres (originally 25 km before rapid urban growth) from its mouth in the Caribbean. The municipality covers an area of 154 km2, equivalent to 4.5% of the area of the Atlántico Department. Barranquilla is located at latitude 10 º 59 '16 "north of the Equator
Equator
An equator is the intersection of a sphere's surface with the plane perpendicular to the sphere's axis of rotation and containing the sphere's center of mass....

 and longitude 74 º 47' 20" west of Greenwich
Greenwich
Greenwich is a district of south London, England, located in the London Borough of Greenwich.Greenwich is best known for its maritime history and for giving its name to the Greenwich Meridian and Greenwich Mean Time...

, with reference to the Plaza de la Paz, ground zero of the city.
The urban area is built on a slightly inclined plane whose extreme heights, according to the Codazzi, are 4 m and 98 m east to west. Other sources say the slopes accidental heights of up to 120 meters outside the city. According to Google Earth
Google Earth
Google Earth is a virtual globe, map and geographical information program that was originally called EarthViewer 3D, and was created by Keyhole, Inc, a Central Intelligence Agency funded company acquired by Google in 2004 . It maps the Earth by the superimposition of images obtained from satellite...

, the height of the city varies between 0 m in the western breakwater, up to maximum 142 m in the neighborhood of Los Nogales.
Politically, Barranquilla is limited to the east by the department of Magdalena (in between the Magdalena River), north to the town of Puerto Colombia
Puerto Colombia
Puerto Colombia is a town and municipality in Atlántico Department, Colombia. Famous for its "Pier of Puerto Colombia". Duties were later transferred to the larger and modern Port of Barranquilla in Bocas de Cenizas, the mouth of the Magdalena River in the Caribbean sea.-External links:...

 and the Caribbean Sea, west with the municipalities of Puerto Colombia, Galapa and Tubará and south with the municipality of Soledad
Soledad, Atlántico
Soledad is a municipality in the Colombian department of Atlántico part of the metropolitan area of Barranquilla is 6th in population in Colombia and the 3rd in the Caribbean region, after Barranquilla and Cartagena. It is also the city with the highest population growth in Colombia and in 2005 was...

.

The main river is the Magdalena River; other rivers include the Arriba, Los Tramposos, La Ahuyama, La Tablaza and Las Compañías; streams run through the barrio
Barrio
Barrio is a Spanish word meaning district or neighborhood.-Usage:In its formal usage in English, barrios are generally considered cohesive places, sharing, for example, a church and traditions such as feast days...

s of Rebolo, Santo Domingo, Las Américas y el Bosque; El Lindero, El Platanal, El Salado, El Salado 2, Don Juan, Hospital, La Paz, Bolívar, Felicidad, Coltabaco, Siape, Calle 92, and the streets 8, 15, 19, 51, 53, 58, 65 and 71. There are also the marshes of Mallorquín Swamp. The north of Barranquilla, from 11 ° N, corresponded to a region "with good chances of rain water infiltration, " while the southern part appears as "low infiltration, poor soil and possible flooding from rain."

The geological composition of the region is the Tertiary period (Miocene
Miocene
The Miocene is a geological epoch of the Neogene Period and extends from about . The Miocene was named by Sir Charles Lyell. Its name comes from the Greek words and and means "less recent" because it has 18% fewer modern sea invertebrates than the Pliocene. The Miocene follows the Oligocene...

 and Pliocene
Pliocene
The Pliocene Epoch is the period in the geologic timescale that extends from 5.332 million to 2.588 million years before present. It is the second and youngest epoch of the Neogene Period in the Cenozoic Era. The Pliocene follows the Miocene Epoch and is followed by the Pleistocene Epoch...

) in western hills and Quaternary
Quaternary
The Quaternary Period is the most recent of the three periods of the Cenozoic Era in the geologic time scale of the ICS. It follows the Neogene Period, spanning 2.588 ± 0.005 million years ago to the present...

 (Pleistocene
Pleistocene
The Pleistocene is the epoch from 2,588,000 to 11,700 years BP that spans the world's recent period of repeated glaciations. The name pleistocene is derived from the Greek and ....

 and Holocene
Holocene
The Holocene is a geological epoch which began at the end of the Pleistocene and continues to the present. The Holocene is part of the Quaternary period. Its name comes from the Greek words and , meaning "entirely recent"...

) in the more flat, like the sole of river. According to the Geographic Institute Agustin Codazzi, the materials in the area are mainly Quaternary alluvial, lacustrine, fluviolacustre. The land ranges from banks, dikes, terraces, valleys, narrow, small alluvial fans, to marshes, swamps, flats and hills. The materials of the Tertiary (Miocene and Pliocene) are in the western hills, and presented as varied slopes.

Climate

Barranquilla has a tropical savanna climate
Tropical savanna climate
Tropical savanna climate or tropical wet and dry climate is a type of climate that corresponds to the Köppen climate classification categories "Aw" and '"As."...

 (Aw) according to Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by Crimea German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen himself, notably in 1918 and 1936...

; it is hot all-year-round, with high levels of relative humidity
Relative humidity
Relative humidity is a term used to describe the amount of water vapor in a mixture of air and water vapor. It is defined as the partial pressure of water vapor in the air-water mixture, given as a percentage of the saturated vapor pressure under those conditions...

. The average temperature is 28.4 °C (85 °F). Daytime temperature usually remains around 32 °C (90 °F). Nevertheless, from late November to early April, trade wind
Trade wind
The trade winds are the prevailing pattern of easterly surface winds found in the tropics, within the lower portion of the Earth's atmosphere, in the lower section of the troposphere near the Earth's equator...

s more or less cool it to a more comfortable temperature during daylight. During evening and through the night, temperature can change due to the strong winds it receives. Rainy seasons are from April to June and from August to November, when some streets flood producing "arroyos" (streams) that can be very dangerous, given the lack of appropriate rain drainage in some sectors of town.


Flora

According to the Agustín Codazzi Geographic Institute (Instituto Geográfico Agustín Codazzi), Barranquilla has a dry tropical forest vegetation (according to the Holdridge life zones
Holdridge life zones
The Holdridge life zones system is a global bioclimatic scheme for the classification of land areas. It was first published by Leslie Holdridge in 1947, and updated in 1967. It is a relatively simple system based on few empirical data, giving objective mapping criteria...

), which includes species like cacti
Cacti
-See also:* RRDtool The underlying software upon which Cacti is built* MRTG The original Multi Router Traffic Grapher from which RRDtool was "extracted".* Munin -External links:******...

, mangroves, Opuntia elatior, Acanthocereus
Acanthocereus
Acanthocereus is a genus of cacti. Its species take the form of shrubs with arching or climbing stems up to several meters in height. The generic name is derived from the Greek word άκανθα , meaning spine, and the Latin word cereus, meaning candle.The six species occur in the tropical Americas...

, Prosopis juliflora
Prosopis juliflora
Prosopis juliflora is a shrub or small tree native to Mexico, South America and the Caribbean. It has become established as a weed in Asia, Australia and elsewhere. Its uses include forage, wood and environmental management. The tree grows to a height of up to and has a trunk with a diameter of...

, Divi-divi
Divi-divi
Caesalpinia coriaria is a leguminous tree or large shrub native to the Caribbean, Mexico, Central America, and northern South America. Common names include Divi-divi, Cascalote, Guaracabuya, Guatapana, Nacascol, and Watapana .- Description :C...

, Tabebuia rosea
Tabebuia rosea
Tabebuia rosea is a neotropical tree that grows up to and can reach a diameter at breast height of up to . The name Roble de Sabana is widely used in Costa Rica meaning "savannah oak" in Spanish, probably because it often remains in heavily deforested areas, where people prize its intense...

, Cordia alba and varieties of acacia like Flamboyant or flame tree and Leucaena leucacephala.

In the fertile lands water by the Magdalena River, one can find species like Eichhornia azurea
Eichhornia azurea
Eichhornia azurea is a water hyacinth from the Americas, sometimes known as anchored water hyacinth. It is of some interest as an aquarium plant.- External links :*: World Checklist of Selected Plant Families at Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew...

, Typha angustifolia
Typha angustifolia
Typha angustifolia L., , is a perennial herbaceous plant of genus Typha. This cattail is an "obligate wetland" species that is commonly found in the northern hemisphere in brackish locations...

, Heliconia
Heliconia
Heliconia, derived from the Greek word helikonios, is a genus of about 100 to 200 species of flowering plants native to the tropical Americas and the Pacific Ocean islands west to Indonesia. Many species of Heliconia are found in rainforests or tropical wet forests of these regions...

, Eichhornia crassipes
Eichhornia crassipes
Eichhornia crassipes, commonly known as Common Water Hyacinth, is an aquatic plant native to the Amazon basin, and is often considered a highly problematic invasive species outside its native range.-Ecology:...

, Bactris minor, Anacardium excelsum, Ficus radula, and Lecythis minor.

In the urban areas, one can find tree species such as Gliricidia sepium
Gliricidia sepium
Gliricidia sepium, often simply referred to as Gliricidia , is a medium size leguminous tree belonging to the family Fabaceae...

, Cassia nodosa, Bursera simaruba
Bursera simaruba
Bursera simaruba, commonly known as the Gumbo-limbo, is a tree species in the family Burseraceae, native to tropical regions of the Americas from the southeasternmost United States south through Mexico and the Caribbean to Brazil and Venezuela...

, Terminalia catappa
Terminalia catappa
Terminalia catappa is a large tropical tree in the Leadwood tree family, Combretaceae. The tree has been spread widely by humans and the native range is uncertain. It has long been naturalised in a broad belt extending from Africa to Northern Australia and New Guinea through Southeast Asia and...

, Casuarina equisetifolia
Casuarina equisetifolia
Casuarina equisetifolia is a she-oak species of the genus Casuarina. The native range extends from Burma and Vietnam throughout Malesia east to French Polynesia, New Caledonia, and Vanuatu, and south to Australia...

, and varieties of Ceiba
Ceiba
Ceiba is the name of a genus of many species of large trees found in tropical areas, including Mexico, Central America, South America, The Bahamas, Belize and the Caribbean, West Africa, and Southeast Asia...

 like Ceiba pentandra, Hura crepitans and Bombax septenatum, Ficus elastica
Ficus elastica
Ficus elastica, also called the rubber fig, rubber bush, rubber tree, rubber plant, or Indian rubber bush is a species of plant in the fig genus, native to northeast India and southern Indonesia....

, Ochroma pyramidale, Erythroxylum cartagenensis, Licania tomentosa, Ficus religiosa, Ficus benghalensis
Ficus benghalensis
Ficus benghalensis, the banyan, is a large and extensive growing tree of the Indian subcontinent. Ficus benghalensis produces propagating roots which grow downwards as aerial roots. Once these roots reach the ground, they grow into woody trunks that can become indistinguishable from the main...

, Spathodea campanulata, Enterolobium cyclocarpum, Samanea saman
Samanea saman
Albizia samanalso known as samanea saman, is a species of flowering tree in the pea family, Fabaceae, that is native to the Neotropics. Its range extends from Mexico south to Peru and Brazil, but it has been widely introduced to South and Southeast Asia, as well as the Pacific Islands, including...

, Capparis odoratissima, Tabebuia coralibe, Gmelina arborea
Gmelina arborea
Gmelina arborea, , locally known as Gamhar, is a fast growing deciduous tree, occurring naturally throughout greater part of India at altitudes up to 1500 meters...

, Ficus nitida, Cordia sebestena, Tabebuia chrysantha
Tabebuia chrysantha
Tabebuia chrysantha , known as cañaguate in northern Colombia , as tajibo in Bolivia, and as ipê-amarelo in Brazil, is a native tree of the intertropical broadleaf deciduous forests of South America above the Tropic of Capricorn...

, Pithecellobium lanceolatum, Kigelia pinnata, Swietenia macrophylla
Swietenia macrophylla
Swietenia macrophylla, commonly known as big leaf mahogany, is a species of plant in the Meliaceae family. It is one of two species that yields genuine mahogany timber, the other being Swietenia mahagoni....

, Thespesia populnea, Sterculia apetala
Sterculia apetala
Sterculia apetala, commonly known as the Panama tree or manduvi tree, is a species of plant in the Sterculiaceae family. It is found in Central and South America....

, Calophyllum mariae, Platymiscium pinnatum, Cordia bidentata, Cocos nucifera, Ficus benjamina, Guazuma ulmifolia
Guazuma ulmifolia
Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. is also commonly known as guácima, guácimo , tablote, majagua de toro tapaculo, cualote, cambá-acá, as well as many other names. It is a small to medium sized tree normally found in pastures and disturbed forests. This flowering plant from the Malvaceae family grows up to...

, Albizia guachapele, Erythrina variegata
Erythrina variegata
Erythrina variegata is a species of Erythrina native to the tropical and subtropical regions of eastern Africa, the Indian Subcontinent, northern Australia, and the islands of the Indian Ocean and the western Pacific Ocean east to...

, Crescentia cujete
Crescentia cujete
Crescentia cujete, commonly known as the Calabash Tree, is species of flowering plant that is native to Central and South America. It is a dicotyledonous plant with tripinnate leaves...

, Cassia fistula, Zyzygium cuminil, Azadirachta indica, Sapindus saponaria
Sapindus saponaria
Sapindus saponaria is a small to medium-sized deciduous tree native to the Americas. Common names include wingleaf soapberry, western soapberry, jaboncillo, and mānele . Its genus name, "Sapindus", comes from the Latin, meaning Indian soap, and its specific epithet means "soapy."-Subspecies:*S. s....

 and varieties of palm trees like Roystonea regia
Roystonea regia
Roystonea regia, commonly known as the Cuban royal palm, Florida royal palm, or simply the royal palm is a species of palm which is native to southern Florida, Mexico and parts of Central America and the northern Caribbean. It ranged into central Florida in the eighteenth century but in modern...

 and Phoenix roebelenii
Phoenix roebelenii
Phoenix roebelenii is a species of date palm native to southeastern Asia from southwestern China , northern Laos and northern Vietnam,...

.

Fruit trees in the area include mangifera indica
Mangifera indica
Mangifera indica is a species of mango in the Anacardiaceae family. It is found in the wild in India and cultivated varieties have been introduced to other warm regions of the world...

, Manilkara zapota, Melicoccus bijugatus, Psidium littorale, Coccoloba uvifera
Coccoloba uvifera
Coccoloba uvifera is a species of flowering plant in the buckwheat family, Polygonaceae, that is native to coastal beaches throughout tropical America and the Caribbean, including southern Florida, the Bahamas, Barbados and Bermuda...

, Zyziphus vulgaris, Annona squamosa
Annona squamosa
Annona squamosa a small well-branched tree or shrub that bears edible fruits called sugar-apple, species of the genus Annona and member of the family Annonaceae more willing to grow at lower altitudes than its relatives Annona reticulata and Annona cherimola making it the most widely cultivated of...

, Tamarindus indica, Spondias purpurea, Anacardium occidentale, guanábana, Citrus x limon and Swingla ornata.

Fauna

Some animal species can be found in the city such as birds like the owl
Owl
Owls are a group of birds that belong to the order Strigiformes, constituting 200 bird of prey species. Most are solitary and nocturnal, with some exceptions . Owls hunt mostly small mammals, insects, and other birds, although a few species specialize in hunting fish...

, wren
Wren
The wrens are passerine birds in the mainly New World family Troglodytidae. There are approximately 80 species of true wrens in approximately 20 genera....

, the parrot; fish such as mullet
Mullet (fish)
The mullets or grey mullets are a family and order of ray-finned fish found worldwide in coastal temperate and tropical waters, and in some species in fresh water. Mullets have served as an important source of food in Mediterranean Europe since Roman times...

 in the marshes; insects such as butterflies, flies, mosquitoes, gnat
Gnat
A gnat is any of many species of tiny flying insects in the Dipterid suborder Nematocera, especially those in the families Mycetophilidae, Anisopodidae and Sciaridae.In British English the term applies particularly to Nematocerans of the family Culicidae...

s, cockroaches
Cockroaches
A cockroach is an insect of the order Blattaria. "Cockroach" may also refer to:*Cockroach , a 2001 album by Danger Danger*Cockroach , a 2008 novel by Rawi Hage...

 and termites; mammals such as dogs and cats, monkeys and rodents like zorrochuchos; reptiles such as iguanas, snakes, tortoises. In some rural areas horses and donkeys and cattle such as pigs and goats are reared.

Ecology and natural resources

Barranquilla has important ecosystems such as the Magdalena River, Mallorquín Swamp and the Eastern pipe system. The completion of the construction of embankments of Bocas de Ceniza in 1936 resulted in the deterioration of the swamp, which was originally four marshes, and led to the detriment of the nearby beaches of Puerto Colombia.

The stream of La Victoria flows through Barranquilla Botanical Garden, a community and recreational green area for public use with an approximate area of 7 hectares, located in the southeastern part of the city, in the neighborhood of La Victoria. The lush vegetation and clear water springs have allowed a suitable habitat for rare native plant and animal species found within the city.

Environmental pollution

Air quality
Under wind, atmospheric pollutants move in a north and northeasterly direction, and in times of low winds or moderate winds, are more evenly distributed over the city. The most polluting industrial processes in the city are ammonium sulfate
Ammonium sulfate
Ammonium sulfate , 2SO4, is an inorganic salt with a number of commercial uses. The most common use is as a soil fertilizer. It contains 21% nitrogen as ammonium cations, and 24% sulfur as sulfate anions...

, cement, plaster
Plaster
Plaster is a building material used for coating walls and ceilings. Plaster starts as a dry powder similar to mortar or cement and like those materials it is mixed with water to form a paste which liberates heat and then hardens. Unlike mortar and cement, plaster remains quite soft after setting,...

 and paper pulp. The emission of gases from motor vehicle traffic is more critical in the central district, where much of the business is. The main source of air pollution is from the vehicles at 34% and then industry with 18%. The pollutants emitted by vehicles are carbon monoxide
Carbon monoxide
Carbon monoxide , also called carbonous oxide, is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly lighter than air. It is highly toxic to humans and animals in higher quantities, although it is also produced in normal animal metabolism in low quantities, and is thought to have some normal...

 (89.12%), sulfur dioxide
Sulfur dioxide
Sulfur dioxide is the chemical compound with the formula . It is released by volcanoes and in various industrial processes. Since coal and petroleum often contain sulfur compounds, their combustion generates sulfur dioxide unless the sulfur compounds are removed before burning the fuel...

 (0.23%), hydrocarbon
Hydrocarbon
In organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon. Hydrocarbons from which one hydrogen atom has been removed are functional groups, called hydrocarbyls....

s (6.46%), oxides of nitrogen
Nitrogen
Nitrogen is a chemical element that has the symbol N, atomic number of 7 and atomic mass 14.00674 u. Elemental nitrogen is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, and mostly inert diatomic gas at standard conditions, constituting 78.08% by volume of Earth's atmosphere...

 (3.82%) and other particles (0. 37%). To help remedy this problem, several state enterprises and private sector have supported a project to convert liquid fuel vehicles to natural gas. Furthermore, the city has installed more than 12 service stations catering to natural gas vehicles. Barranquilla is the fourth biggest atmospheric polluter from industry. According to research conducted by the Institute of Hydrology, Meteorology and Environmental Studies of Colombia (IDEAM), monthly concentrations in Barranquilla of particulate matter smaller than 160 micrograms per cubic meter exceeds the highest international standard allowed of 70. The causes of this problem lie heavily on the poor quality of petrol and diesel used by vehicles of the city, with record levels of 5,000 ppm (parts per million sulfur) and 4,500 ppm respectively, when there are countries whose rates do not even exceed 50.

Water pollution
All of the surface water systems of Barranquilla, the Magdalena River, the Mallorquín swamp, and the system of pipes and streams in the east are subject to water pollution as well as the dumping of raw sewage and solid waste by individuals. The environmental impact has been reduced mainly on the Mallorquín swamp with the construction of ponds and the Estación Depuradora de Aguas Residuales (EDAR) by the Triple A.

Noise
The maximum noise allowed is 64 decibels for residential areas, and 70 to 75 for commercial and industrial areas. In the center of Barranquilla, the noise generated by vehicular traffic and commercial activity in peak hours can reach levels above 90 decibels, making it a risk factor for population health.

Branches of public power

Barranquilla is administered by the Mayor, elected for 4 years, who represents the executive branch, to pronounce decrees and acts as legal representative, in the court and district court. The current mayor Alejandro Char was elected on January 1, 2008 by popular vote. Also appointed are local mayors which have the coordinating role of taking district government administrative action at each location along with the mayors elected by popular vote, which integrate local administrative boards of the localities in which the city is divided.

The governor of Atlántico from January 1, 2008, Eduardo Verano de la Rosa
Eduardo Verano De la Rosa
Eduardo Ignacio Verano de la Rosa is a Colombian politician, businessman, and active member of the Colombian Liberal Party. On October 28, 2007 Verano was elected Governor of Atlántico Department.-Early years and education:...

, also has an impact on the management of the city. In Barranquilla, the Governor is responsible in entities such as the Universidad del Atlántico, Atlantic University, the Library Department and the Regional Autonomous Corporation of the Atlántico, involving environmental management. Through its headquarters in Barranquilla he also performs functions such as issuing passports and participation in projects like the revitalization of the historic center of Barranquilla by restoring the old buildings of the Interior, in order to launch a multipurpose cultural center in the Historic Center in January 2010 and other cultural restoration works. Administratively, the mayor of Barranquilla is backed by the central government, with agencies reporting directly to the Mayor. Some administrative and technical departments are responsible for advising the mayor, the control of urban and administrative aspects and the development of different urban projects.
Central administration Decentralized entities
Despacho del Alcalde Área Metropolitana de Barranquilla
Secretaría de Gobierno Terminal Metropolitana de Transportes de Barranquilla S.A.
Secretaría de Planeación Transmetro S.A.
Secretaría de Hacienda Promotora del Desarrollo del Distrito Central de Barranquilla S.A. – Promocentro
Secretaría de Salud Empresa de Desarrollo Urbano de Barranquilla – Edubar
Secretaría de Infraestructura Pública Departamento Técnico Administrativo del Medio Ambiente de Barranquilla – Damab
Secretaría de Gestión Social
Secretaría de Educación
Secretaría de Recreación y Deportes
Secretaría de Movilidad
Secretaría de Control Urbano y Espacio Público
Secretaría de Cultura, Patrimonio y Turismo
Secretaría General

As for the judiciary branch, the Judicial District of Barranquilla is formed by the Superior Court of the Judicial District of Barranquilla, the Judicial Circle of Barranquilla, the Judicial Circle of Soledad and the Judicial Circle of Sabanalarga. The Court is formed by the Civil-Family Chamber (six judges), the Laboral Chamber (five judges) and the Penal Chamber (three judges). The Judicial Circle of Barranquilla is formed by the civil, family, laboral and penal tribunals of Barranquilla, as well as the combined tribunals of Galapa, Juan de Acosta-Tubará, Piojó and Puerto Colombia

Administrative divisions

Map of the localities Urban-rural map
Localities: 1. Riomar 2. Norte-Centro Histórico 3. Sur Occidente 4. Metropolitana 5. Sur Oriente. Corregimientos: 1. La Playa (Eduardo Santos) 2. Juan Mina.

According to Act 768 of 2002, the district of Barranquilla is politically and administratively divided into five locations: Riomar, Norte-Centro Histórico, Sur Occidente, Metropolitana and Sur Oriente. Each location is co-managed by the elected mayors and local mayors (one per location) appointed by the Mayor. This choice is regulated by the District Administration. At the same time, localities are subdivided into districts. The city has 188 barrio
Barrio
Barrio is a Spanish word meaning district or neighborhood.-Usage:In its formal usage in English, barrios are generally considered cohesive places, sharing, for example, a church and traditions such as feast days...

s or wards and approximately 7,611 blocks.

Legislative Act 01 of 1993 established that the district of Barranquilla also includes the neighborhood Las Flores, the village of La Playa (formerly belonging to the municipality of Puerto Colombia), and the western breakwater of Bocas de Ceniza in the Magdalena River Swamp area of Mallorquín/ The local authority also includes the village of Juan Mina

Metropolitan Area

The Metropolitan Area of Barranquilla is an urban conglomerate located in the northeastern corner of Atlántico. Its main focus is the district of Barranquilla and Soledad peripheral municipalities, Galapa, Puerto Colombia, Malambo. It was created by Decree Law 3104 December 14, 1979, article 16, and put into operation by ordinance 028 December 11, 1981. Its operation is governed by Act 128 of 1994 ("Ley Orgánica de Áreas Metropolitanas"). It is run by the Metropolitan Board, which is chaired by the Metropolitan Mayor, who in turn is the district mayor of Barranquilla. In addition, the Board is composed of the governor of the Atlántico department, the mayors of suburban municipalities, the representative council of Barranquilla and one representative from the councils of the associated municipalities. The director of the entity is the Secretary of the Metropolitan Board.
Municipality Area
km²
Population
(hab)
Density
(hab/km²)
Altitude
m
Distance from
Barranquilla (km)
Metropolitan map
Barranquilla 154 1.148.506 7.458 4 0
Soledad 67 503.477 7.514,58 5 3
Malambo 108 105.957 981,08 10 12
Puerto Colombia
Puerto Colombia
Puerto Colombia is a town and municipality in Atlántico Department, Colombia. Famous for its "Pier of Puerto Colombia". Duties were later transferred to the larger and modern Port of Barranquilla in Bocas de Cenizas, the mouth of the Magdalena River in the Caribbean sea.-External links:...

93 28.565 307,15 5 13
Galapa
Galapa
Galapa is a municipality and town in the Colombian department of Atlántico.-External links:...

98 35.012 357,26 83 8
Total 520 1.821.517 3.502,91
Census 2005 by DANE
National Administrative Department of Statistics
The National Administrative Department of Statistics , commonly referred to as DANE, is the Colombian Administrative Department responsible for the planning, implementation, analysis and diffusion of the official statistics of Colombia. DANE is also in charge of carrying out the National census...

 – Official municipal websites

Defense

Barranquilla is home to the First Division of the National Army of Colombia, formed in part by the Second Mechanised Brigade, which consists of the No. 4 Battalion Mechanized Infantry Battalion. No. 2 Military Police Battalion. No. 2 Support Services, and other units. In the nearby town of Malambo is located the No.3 Air Combat Command (Cacom 3) of the Colombian Air Force
Colombian Air Force
The Colombian Air Force or FAC is the Air Force of the Republic of Colombia.The Colombian Air Force is one of the three institutions of the Armed Forces of Colombia, charge according to the 1991 Constitution of the work to exercise and maintain control of Colombia's airspace to defend the...

, which is responsible for ensuring the constitutional order and to exercise national sovereignty over air operations and whose jurisdiction comprises the mainland north of Colombia, the island area of the Archipelago of San Andrés, Providencia and Santa Catalina and Colombian territorial waters in the Caribbean Sea.

State institutions

In Barranquilla are the most important regional headquarters of many Colombian state entities, which are intended to develop programs and strategies defined by national guidelines. Aside from the Judiciary and Superior courts of Barranquilla these include the Attorney General's Office, Attorney General's Office, Comptroller General's Office, the Administrative Security Department, National Apprenticeship Service, the National Civil Registry, National Police, Army, Superintendent of Public Services Ombudsman, Telecom, Instituto de Seguros Sociales (ISS), Instituto Colombiano de Bienestar Familiar, Colombian Institute of Educational Credit and Technical Studies Abroad Solidarity Network, National Bureau of Statistics, Chamber of Commerce, Bureau of Revenue and Customs (DIAN) Banco de la República, the Colombian Air Force), Navy, Codazzi, the Supreme Judicial Council, National Compensation Fund (Cajanal), among others.

Economy


Economic indicators

Category Figures
 PIB:
(2006)
US $4.605 millones
COP $ 10.858.185 millones
 PIB per cápita:
(2006)
US $ 2.209
COP $ 4.945.029
 Tasa de desempleo:
(2010)
9,2%
 Inflación anual:
(2010)
3,38% 
 Inflación mensual:
(2010)
0,28% 
 Riesgo país:
(2009)
38,85 puntos 
Datos tomados de Cámara de Comercio de Barranquilla – Fuente: DANE.

To give a boost to the infrastructure development of the city, World Bank
World Bank
The World Bank is an international financial institution that provides loans to developing countries for capital programmes.The World Bank's official goal is the reduction of poverty...

 (IBRD) loans were sought from 1952 onwards to improve municipal water works, sewage system and slaughterhouse services.
Because of its importance in the sector of national economy, the municipality of Barranquilla passed to the category of Special Industrial District and Port in 1993. Barranquilla is a major industrial centre and its economic activity is dynamic, concentrated mainly in industry, commerce, finance, services and fishing. Among the industrial products are vegetable fats and oils
Vegetable fats and oils
Vegetable fats and oils are lipid materials derived from plants. Physically, oils are liquid at room temperature, and fats are solid. Chemically, both fats and oils are composed of triglycerides, as contrasted with waxes which lack glycerin in their structure...

, pharmaceuticals, chemicals, industrial footwear, dairy products, meats, beverages, soap, building materials, furniture, plastics, cement, metalworking parts, garments clothing, buses and boats, and petroleum products. Its port is also the hub for cotton from the rural areas, coffee and petroleum, apart from the diversified industrial products manufactured in the city.

The Arabs (Syro Lebanese) and Jews who were a small group of immigrants to the country in late 19th century were exclusively involved in commercial activities and made significant value additions to the economy of Caribbean Columbia as a whole and Barranquilla in particular. Their prominent presence in the community known as “cosmopolitan bourgeoisie” as social and political elites, which has enabled them to diversify their activities.

Statistics

According to the Integrated Household Survey by DANE, in Barranquilla, during the quarter February to April 2010, the overall participation rate (TGP) was 58.5% occupancy rate (TO) of 53 5%, the underemployment rate subjective (TS Sub), 18.4%, the underemployment rate target (TS Obj) of 8.5% and the unemployment rate (TD) of 8.5%. Also, for the period May 2009 – April 2010, the TGP was 58%, 52.4% OT, ST (U) of 16.6%, CS (Obj) 7.6% and TD of 9.7%. According to the 2005 census, 12.0% of establishments engaged in industry, 45.2% in trade, services 41.3% and 1.4% to another activity. 84.8% of rural homes were occupied in farming. 93.5% of the establishments served between 1 and 10 jobs the month before the census. Most households simultaneously have 2 or 3 types of activities to make a living. The Gran Central de Abastos del Caribe market hall is very important for the collection and distribution of food to the city.

Economic zones

According to the results of the Index of Industrial density by department in four major cities (IDI) 2000–2006 DANE, Barranquilla is fourth with a coefficient of 1.4338 establishments per km ². The primary industrial corridors are the Vía 40, Circunvalar, Calle 30, and Barranquillita.
Industrial parks include Metroparque, Industrial del Caribe, Industrial Riomar, Industrial, Comercial y Portuario (PIPCA), Industrial del Norte, Industrial La Trinidad, and the long established Marisol and Almaviva.

The city is divided into different infrastructure zones; the Zona Franca de Barranquilla is the oldest and largest of the country which has around 90 companies operating within it. As of 2007, the construction of three new zones is underway with all international specifications, the first in Galapa, to 11 km and 20 minutes from the port, the second in Barranquillita and third in the neighboring village of Juan Mina, known as the La Cayena.

The sea and river terminals are the engines of industrial and commercial development of the Caribbean Region. The port of Barranquilla covers two main routes, the Magdalena River, which communicates with the interior of the country and the Caribbean Sea, from which millions of tonnes of goods are traded Europe and Asia. With the growing expansion and demand for coal, the authorities are considering developing a Deep Water Port of Barranquilla, "Superpuerto", as it is called locally, with an initial investment of $ 170 million.

Demographics

Population of Barranquilla
(1905–2005)
Census years
|
1905 38.555
1938 150.395
1951 279.627
1964* 498.301
1973* 703.488
1985* 899.781
1993* 1.026.370
2005* 1.112.889
* Census by DANE
National Administrative Department of Statistics
The National Administrative Department of Statistics , commonly referred to as DANE, is the Colombian Administrative Department responsible for the planning, implementation, analysis and diffusion of the official statistics of Colombia. DANE is also in charge of carrying out the National census...


According to the census conducted by DANE
National Administrative Department of Statistics
The National Administrative Department of Statistics , commonly referred to as DANE, is the Colombian Administrative Department responsible for the planning, implementation, analysis and diffusion of the official statistics of Colombia. DANE is also in charge of carrying out the National census...

 in 2005, adjusted to June 30, 2007, the population of Barranquilla is 1,148,506, with 1,821,517 people in its metropolitan area, making it the most populous city of the Colombian Caribbean Coast and the fourth in the nation after Bogotá, Medellín and Cali.

In accordance with Article 102 of Act 142 of 1994, the different neighborhoods of the city are classified according to the 6 socioeconomic categories for residential property in Colombia. The layers 1 and 2 correspond to the sectors in southeast, southwest, northwest and northeast of the city, layers 3 and 4 to the south-central, the central and northern part, and layers 5 and 6 to the north.

Approximately 1,144,470 people live in urban areas and 4,036 in rural areas. The population density is 6918.71 inhabitants per square kilometre. 47.5% of the population is male and the remaining 52.5% female. Approximately 57.9% of households have 4 or fewer people. 26.7% of the population of the city was born in another municipality and 0.4% in another country. 5.3% of the population of Barranquilla has a permanent limitation.

According to the 2005 census, 61.5% of people living were living in a home, 32.4% in apartments and 6.2% in another housing solution. Among the causes of change of residence, 63.3% of the population of Barranquilla who changed residence in the last five years did so for family reasons. 9.2% for difficulty in finding a job, 13.3% for other reasons and 2% to avoid life-threatening situations.
Gender proportion Type of housing Population by place of birth

Birth and death

In 2007 there were 29,900 births in Barranquilla, which was a sharp decrease compared to 32,108 in 2006. Deaths in 2007 were 4,310 in the city, which shows a decrease compared to 5,938 in 2006. Barranquilla men have a life expectancy at birth of 72.07 years and women 77.71 years, much like the national average (74.0).

The infant mortality rate of 17.7% for every thousand children born is well below the national average (26). The government aims to lower it to 15%, and in children under five years from 20.7% to 18%.

Crime and security

In Barranquilla, in 2007 there were 348 homicides compared to 391 in 2006, a decrease of 11% over the previous year. In Colombia, in 2007 the homicide rate per 100,000 population from Barranquilla (22) is only exceeded by those of Cali (57), Bucaramanga
Bucaramanga
Bucaramanga is a Colombian city, and capital city of the department of Santander, Colombia. Bucaramanga has the fifth largest city economy and sixth largest population in Colombia, with 1,212,656 people in its metropolitan area...

 (32) and Medellín (30). In the past 6 years (2002–2007), however, the number of homicides has been declining, the lowest performing in 2007, with a peak of 483 killings in 2003. The thugs (42.24%), fights (31.61%) and robbery (14.94%) are the main types of homicide in the city. Historically, the days when most homicides occur are Saturday and Sunday, but in 2007 there was a uniform distribution (approximately 15%) on all days.

85.23% of homocides are by firearm; Barranquilla and Cali in 2007 recorded the highest percentage of homicides involving firearms in Colombia. Most homicides are concentrated in the centre and south of the city. Another type of crime in Barranquilla also showed a growth trend over the past two years is theft, commercial entities (713 in 2007, 630 in 2006, mainly in the north and centre), residences (528 in 2007, 467 in, 2006 mainly in the north), financial institutions (20 in 2006 21 in 2007 mainly in the north) and people (2,692 in 2007, 2,146 in 2006, mainly in centre, north and south).

The programs developed by the Policía del Atlántico to improve safety are: CAI Mobile Community, Youth Civic Police, DARE and Make Peace. Citizen Support Network is made up of School Safety, Security Fronts, the Road Information Community Networks, the network of informants and collaborators and the Support Network and Communications. Community management has sought to increase police presence on the streets and neighborhoods and has set up the Police Bike Block which consists of 1 officer, 3 NCOs, 8 and 60 auxiliary patrol graduates. The city is operating the emergency telephone system of the National Police, through the toll free number 112. In addition to the National Police, the Fire Department, Civil Defense and Red Cross assist in the maintenance of public safety.

City planning

Centro histórico

The Centro histórico is between Carreras 35 and 46 and Calles 30 and 46, and includes parts of San Roque and Downtown districts. It is part of the town historical centre and North-Central District. In the Centro histórico are the headquarters of the administrative powers of the city and the department. This area was the most important socio-economically of the city until the 80's, when the deterioration of the centre led to the displacement of formal trade and banking to the north of the city. Despite the decline, the Centre remains at the heart of the city and its most representative and important sector in economic terms. There is an intense commercial activity at the public market. In addition, the centre hosts a number of buildings of the Republican period and structures of immense historical and architectural value. The Centro histórico of Barranquilla is a nationally protected site by the Ministry of Culture through resolution 1614 of 1999. Since the 90's, the historic center of Barranquilla is in the process of recovery, which was consolidated in 2008 with the announcement of the Ministry of Culture for the "Concurso Público de Anteproyecto Arquitectónico para el Diseño de Diferentes Sectores Urbanos para la Recuperación del Espacio Público del Centro Histórico de Barranquilla". At local government level, the development of Barranquilla centre is sponsored by the Promotora del Desarrollo del Distrito Central de Barranquilla S.A. (Promocentro), a decentralized body attached to the District Municipality.

El paseo de Bolívar

The paseo de Bolívar,, in the heart of Barranquilla, is the most important avenue of the city, from which the city was built around it arose. Until the late nineteenth century it was called Calle Ancha (Broad Street), where in 1886 Mayor Antonio Abello renamed in Abello. In the early twentieth century it was located at the north end of Columbus statue, so it was called Paseo de Colón. In 1937, a plaza was built at its northern end and a statue placed it with an equestrian statue of the Liberator Simon Bolívar, a gift from Andrés Obregón to the city in 1919, and it was renamed Paseo de Bolívar. It is the linchpin of the historic center, which houses many buildings from the Republican period which are in the process of being restored.

Public space

Land use, including public space and urban planning are regulated by the Plan de Ordenamiento Territorial which is prepared by the Mayor through the District Planning Secretariat, and approved or revised by the District Council.Barranquilla has an acute deficiency of public spaces and planting trees, reflected in an average of 0.083 m² of squares and green areas per inhabitant. The area of the city that has the highest use of public space is the Centre, where 9069 stationary street vendors exist according to the 2005 census.

Plazas

Among the plazas of the city are Plaza de Bolívar, located at the north end of the promenade of the same name which is the epicenter of the city and the spearhead of restoration of the historic centre, rebuilt in 2003. Plaza de San Nicolás, opposite the church of San Nicolas, was the epicenter of the cultural, commercial and religious Barranquilla in early twentieth century. Plaza de la Paz was built in 1986 opposite the Metropolitan Cathedral to welcome Pope John Paul II
Pope John Paul II
Blessed Pope John Paul II , born Karol Józef Wojtyła , reigned as Pope of the Catholic Church and Sovereign of Vatican City from 16 October 1978 until his death on 2 April 2005, at of age. His was the second-longest documented pontificate, which lasted ; only Pope Pius IX ...

. It is an important site of mass social, political and cultural demonstrations. It contains the sculpture "El Policía Amigo".
Plazuela Esthercita Forero is located between Carrera 43 and Calle 74, was built in 2003. It pays tribute to the composer Esthercita Forero, who has a statue and floor plates with the names of his songs. Plaza Mario Santo Domingo is an important public space that is part of the Caribbean Cultural Park and Plaza de la Locomotora, was built in 2002, as part of the Cultural Complex of the former Customs. It exhibits a locomotive of the era where goods were moved by rail between Barranquilla and the alternate port located in the town of Puerto Colombia.

Parks

Parque Tomás Surí Salcedo was named in honor of the Minister of Finance, and built in 1921. Located in the strategic area of Calle 72 and Avenida Olaya Herrera, it offers rides and houses the Elías Chegwin basketball arena. It also hosts the annual Festival del Dulce in time for Easter. Parque Metropolitano, located on the south side of the Roberto Melendez stadium and velodrome in the south of the city also contains a part of the Murillo bridge over the Avenue Circunvalar. It was built for the 2001 Copa América
Copa América
The Copa América —previously known as South American Championship—is an international football competition contested between the men's national teams of CONMEBOL, the sport's continental governing body...

, and in 2007 a sculpture of Shakira
Shakira
Shakira Isabel Mebarak Ripoll , known professionally as Shakira , is a Colombian singer who emerged in the music scene of Colombia and Latin America in the early 1990s...

 was added. Parque Santander,dedicated to the memory of Francisco de Paula Santander
Francisco de Paula Santander
Francisco José de Paula Santander y Omaña , was a Colombian military and political leader during the 1810–1819 independence war of the United Provinces of New Granada...

, lies in the heart of the traditional neighborhood of El Prado. Parque de Los Fundadores is located in the ancient neighborhood of El Prado along the central boulevard; it contains several monuments like the eagle in tribute to aviation pioneers who were killed in the crash of 1924.

Monuments

Barranquilla pays tribute to local heroes and national personalities and sister nations, as well as national holidays, sports, art, culture and historical and religious events and religious. Among the most important monuments of the city are the Equestrian statue of Simón Bolívar (1919), in the square of the same name, the epicenter of the city, the Carrara marble statue of Christopher Columbus the Discoverer on the Boulevard de la Carrera 50., which was a gift from the Italian colony in 1892 to mark the fourth centenary of the discovery of America, the Statue of Liberty at Independence Park, a gift from the Syria
Syria
Syria , officially the Syrian Arab Republic , is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the West, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest....

n colony in 1910 to mark the centenary of the Independence of Colombia, the statue of General Francisco de Paula Santander (1922) in the park of the same name and the Monumento a la Bandera (1932).

In 2007 three historic cannons that were used in the cause of independence were restored: the famous Cañón Verde, Boliche and Rebolo The first two were located in the corners of the south side of the Plaza de Bolívar and the last in the first floor of City Hall.

Road Naming

Barranquilla has a complete road layout, where the roads are twisted in a perpendicular way forming blocks. Using an alphanumeric nomenclature replaced the vernacular names. Streets were named to the those that progress from east to west and starting at the Maritime Terminal and those moving from south to north, from Avenue Circunvalar, in the field of the Metropolitan Stadium.

If the property is situated on a street, an address will begin by Calle (otherwise by Carrera), followed by the number of the street and then separated by the # symbol and then usually the approximate number of feet of the property to the corner. For example, Calle 47B # 21-10; Carrera 5 Sur # 50-04.

Architecture

Barranquilla's architecture was built almost entirely in the twentieth century. In the city there are buildings of the colonial period in the early decades of the independent nation, but the profusion of styles that flourished from the late nineteenth century give the city a cosmopolitan atmosphere. This architectural splendor is testament to the influence of the people arriving in the port for much of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries from North America, Europe, the Middle East and Asia, many of whom settled in Barranquilla and imported architectural styles.

Among the most important styles are neoclassical and art deco and interesting examples of neo-colonial architecture, modern, contemporary, eclectic, Mudejar, Spanish late Baroque, Mozarabic and Netherlands Antilles
Netherlands Antilles
The Netherlands Antilles , also referred to informally as the Dutch Antilles, was an autonomous Caribbean country within the Kingdom of the Netherlands, consisting of two groups of islands in the Lesser Antilles: Aruba, Bonaire and Curaçao , in Leeward Antilles just off the Venezuelan coast; and Sint...

 style Caribbean architecture. Some modern buildings are influenced by international architects such as Oscar Niemeyer
Oscar Niemeyer
Oscar Ribeiro de Almeida Niemeyer Soares Filho is a Brazilian architect specializing in international modern architecture...

, Le Corbusier
Le Corbusier
Charles-Édouard Jeanneret, better known as Le Corbusier , was a Swiss-born French architect, designer, urbanist, writer and painter, famous for being one of the pioneers of what now is called modern architecture. He was born in Switzerland and became a French citizen in 1930...

 (who was in Barranquilla at the end of the 1940s), Leopoldo Rother, Mies Van der Rohe and Richard Neutra
Richard Neutra
Richard Joseph Neutra is considered one of modernism's most important architects.- Biography :Neutra was born in Leopoldstadt, the 2nd district of Vienna, Austria Hungary, on April 8, 1892. He was born into both-Jewish wealthy family...

, among others that have contributed to an impressive architectural landscape.

Republican architecture
The so-called "Republican architecture" "style" refers to architecture of the period in Colombia after independence in 1819, wand around 1930, which brings together different styles in the city, including the late baroque and neoclassical Spanish.

Since the beginning of the twentieth century neoclassical buildings were especially welcome in Barranquilla. Among the outstanding examples are Instituto La Salle, Villa Heraldo, la Corporación Autónoma Regional del Atlántico (former home of writer Álvaro Cepeda Samudio
Álvaro Cepeda Samudio
Álvaro Cepeda Samudio was a Colombian journalist, novelist, short story writer, and filmmaker. Within Colombia and the rest of Latin America, he is known in his own right as an important and innovative writer and journalist, largely inspiring much of the artistically-, intellectually- and...

), the residence of Ezequiel Rosado, Funeraria Jardines del Recuerdo, the restored Customs building, the former Banco Comercial de Barranquilla and Banco Dugand y La Perla, among many others, mainly in the neighborhood of El Prado and in the Centro Histórico de Barranquilla. Other noteworthy buildings are the Hotel El Prado (Spanish late Baroque), the Faculty of Fine Arts at the Universidad del Atlántico  and the Intendencia Fluvial.

The transition (1930–1945)
Colombian architectural movement prior to the Modern Movement looks notably different from buildings of the Republicans. Most prominent is art nouveau
Art Nouveau
Art Nouveau is an international philosophy and style of art, architecture and applied art—especially the decorative arts—that were most popular during 1890–1910. The name "Art Nouveau" is French for "new art"...

 and art deco
Art Deco
Art deco , or deco, is an eclectic artistic and design style that began in Paris in the 1920s and flourished internationally throughout the 1930s, into the World War II era. The style influenced all areas of design, including architecture and interior design, industrial design, fashion and...

. In the city there are many buildings with Art Deco style, typical of the 1930s, as the Estadio Romelio Martínez
Estadio Romelio Martínez
The Estadio Romelio Martínez, or Romelio Martínez Stadium, is a sports stadium located at 72 street and 46 Avenue in the Colombian city of Barranquilla. It has a capacity of 20,000 spectators....

 (1935), the Departmental Library of Baranquilla (1945), the Rex Theatre (1935), the late Metro Theatre (1946, former Apollo) Cervecería Águila (1942), the Kico building (1948), the Shaare Sedek Synagogue (1946–1947), the building of the Agricultural Exhibition (1936, later became Industrial School), the Eckardt building (1939 ), the former residence of the Cuban architect Manuel Carrerá in the Bellavista neighborhood, the García building (1938), Teatro Colón (1946), the former building of Avianca
Avianca
Avianca S.A. is the flag carrier airline of Colombia since December 5, 1919 when it was initially registered under the name SCADTA. It is headquartered in Bogotá, D.C. with its hub at the El Dorado International Airport...

 (1934), the last four designed by Manuel Carrerá. The Estadio Romelio Martínez stadium was recognized in 1995 as a national monument by the Ministry of Culture, the first Art Deco building in Barranquilla to obtain this declaration.

Modern movement (1945–1970)

The Modern Architecture
Modernism
Modernism, in its broadest definition, is modern thought, character, or practice. More specifically, the term describes the modernist movement, its set of cultural tendencies and array of associated cultural movements, originally arising from wide-scale and far-reaching changes to Western society...

 is characterized by being free of ornamental designs that identify the buildings of the Republican period, and the trend toward architectural rationalism in concrete. Among the most valuable examples of modern architecture in the city include the National Building (1945), seat of the judicial branch, designed by German architect Leopoldo Rother, Queen Mary's Cathedral (begun in 1955) and the old building of the Agricultural Credit Bank (1964), located on the top of Paseo de Bolívar and designed by architect Fernando Martínez Sanabria. Also, worth mentioning is the Sena buildings, the elegant building of Telecom (with a sculpture by Alejandro Obregón
Alejandro Obregón
Daniel Alberto Alejandro María de la Santísima Trinidad Obregón Roses commonly known as Alejandro Obregón was a Colombian painter, muralist, sculptor and engraver.-Career:...

 in the square of access), the buildings of the Universidad del Atlantico and the Mayor building in the Paseo de Bolívar, a former building of the Bank of the Republic.

(1970–1985)

This is a period in which the system Unidad de Poder Adquisitivo Constante (|UPAC) resulted in the commercialization of architecture at the expense of spatial quality and aesthetics. The search for safer environments brought about the proliferation of housing complexes and shopping centres closed. The Postmodern Movement appears briefly trying to enhance the historical styles left behind by the modern movement. During this recovery period, buildings of important architectural heritage were recognized and protected such as the Centro Histórico. Among the most representative buildings of this period include the Executive Centre I, the Girasol building, the towers of the Banco Popular, Bogotá and Bancolombia, and the Rodrigo Lara Bonilla
Rodrigo Lara Bonilla
Rodrigo Lara Bonilla was a Colombian lawyer and politician, who served as Minister of Justice under President Belisario Betancur, and was assassinated by orders of Pablo Escobar because of his work as Minister in prosecuting cocaine traffickers mainly belonging to the Medellín Cartel.Lara's death...

 building.

Contemporary architecture
Of note are recent buildings such as the World Trade Center of Baranquilla and many apartment towers north of the city and headquarters of Metrotel and Prado Office Center, neoclassical, to be consistent with the architecture of the neighborhood of El Prado, where they are located.

Religious buildings
The city has a large number of temples of worship, demonstrating the city's multicultural nature with various architectural styles, beautifying the landscape and offering visitors exquisite interior. The most important are Catedral María Reina, late-modern architecture; Iglesia de San Nicolás de Tolentino, eclectic style; Iglesia San Roque de Montpellier Iglesia Inmaculada Concepción; Iglesia Nuestra Señora del Perpetuo Socorro; Iglesia de San José; Iglesia de Nuestra Señora del Carmen, Iglesia del Sagrado Corazón, Iglesia de Nuestra Señora del Rosario, Iglesia de Nuestra Señora de Chiquinquirá; Iglesia de Nuestra Señora de la Torcoroma, Iglesia de San Francisco, Iglesia de la Sagrada Familia, Iglesia Bautista Central, Capilla del Liceo de Cervantes, Iglesia Nuestra Señora de la Caridad del Cobre, Bet-El Synagogue and many others.

Tourist landmarks

Barranquilla has developed throughout the years an active business and commercial tourist centre especially during times of carnivals and New Year's Eve, when it receives a large influx of visitors.

The northern sector of the city is the most modern and best equipped in terms of infrastructure, with the best neighborhoods, parks, hotels and shopping centers. It is also the axis of cultural and business life of Barranquilla. It is the location of promising new developments in infrastructure and urban architectural projects of great importance in the city.
In terms of hotels, the city has an adequate infrastructure. One can find everything from residences to inns and 5 star national and international hotel chains. The best hotels are located in the north of the city, near important business districts and shopping centres, which are also often used for holding events, conventions, conferences, among others.

Barranquilla offers locals and visitors a variety of venues and shopping malls where domestic and imported goods can be purchased. The main business sectors are the centre and north of the city. Calle 98 is an exclusive area located north of Barranquilla, the axis of the expansion of the city with new shopping centres, sports complexes and residential complexes.
Calle 84 is located north of the city and became fashionable as a place of celebration during qualifying for the 1990 FIFA World Cup
1990 FIFA World Cup
The 1990 FIFA World Cup was the 14th FIFA World Cup, the quadrennial international football world championship tournament. It was held from 8 June to 8 July 1990 in Italy, the second country to host the event twice. Teams representing 116 national football associations from all six populated...

. It was called the "Calle de la Rumba." Calle Murillo is a large area that starts in the central and southern ends of town, near the Estadio Roberto Meléndez. Carrera 53 lies in the exclusive neighborhood of El Country and Alto Prado, centered on Washington Park, where there are fine restaurants, bars and nightclubs.

Among the main tourist sites include:

Bocas de Ceniza and the Magdalena River

Bocas de Ceniza is the mouth of the Magdalena River in the Caribbean Sea. Its importance lies in accessing the port of Barranquilla. Occasionally trips are organized on river barges that depart from Las Flores to Bocas de Ceniza. There are also special excursions made by small boats along the river, enjoying the local restaurants and touring the nearby swamps.

The Port of Puerto Colombia

Built in 1893 by the Barranquilla Railway & Pier Company under the direction of Cuban engineer Francisco Javier Cisneros, the pier in the neighboring municipality of Puerto Colombia was once one of the longest in the world. Thousands of immigrants came into the country in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries at this port. In 2008 it was partially closed due to its progressive degradation. On March 7, 2009 it suffered the collapse of the final 200 meters of its structure because of strong winds, forcing its complete closure and evacuation of the inhabitants of the area. Despite having been declared a National Monument in 1998, no restoration work has ever been given. Because of the latest tragedy, the local government is developing a strategy to rebuild it.

Barranquilla Zoo
Barranquilla Zoo is a wildlife sanctuary which houses colorful native animal species and other continents, with an emphasis on Colombian fauna and the protection of endangered species. It has over 500 animals of 140 species, from chickens to elephants or lions, to many different mammals, fish, birds, reptiles, amphibians and primates.

Around Barranquilla

A maximum one hour by road are several tourist attractions in the surrounding area. Northwest of the department, bordering the Caribbean Sea, there are a number of resorts like Pradomar, Salgar, Sabanilla, Puerto Colombia, Santa Verónica, Caño Dulce, Playa Mendoza, Puerto Velero, Puerto Mocho, Cisne Lake, where visitors can enjoy a variety of water sports, camping, fishing and excursions. Paragliding
Paragliding
Paragliding is the recreational and competitive adventure sport of flying paragliders: lightweight, free-flying, foot-launched glider aircraft with no rigid primary structure...

 is offered at the Cupino hill in the municipality of Puerto Colombia. In Usiacurí
Usiacurí
Usiacurí is a municipality and town in the Colombian department of Atlántico.-External links:...

 tourists can visit the house of the poet Julio Flórez and buy handicrafts. In the municipalities of Luruaco
Luruaco
Luruaco is a municipality and town in the Colombian department of Atlántico.-External links:...

 and Repelón
Repelón
Repelón is a Colombian municipality and town in the department of Atlántico.-External links:...

 people can practice water sports and other recreational activities. In other areas of the Atlántico department are livestock fairs, cultural festivals, gastronomic, folkloric and musical events such as the Festival de la Arepa de Huevo en Luruaco (egg festival), Festival de la Ciruela en Campeche (plum festival), Festival del Guandul en Sibarco, among others. Barranquilla is a little more than 1 hour from Cartagena
Cartagena, Colombia
Cartagena de Indias , is a large Caribbean beach resort city on the northern coast of Colombia in the Caribbean Coast Region and capital of Bolívar Department...

 and Santa Marta
Santa Marta
Santa Marta is the capital city of the Colombian department of Magdalena in the Caribbean Region. It was founded in July 29, 1525 by the Spanish conqueror Rodrigo de Bastidas, which makes it the oldest remaining city in Colombia...

, also major tourist cities and colonies.

Teatro Amira de la Rosa

Housed in a traditional strategic sector of the city at the confluence of the deep-rooted neighborhoods of El Prado, Montecristo and Abajo, this theatre, as well as venues such as the Coliseo Humberto Perea and Casa del Carnaval Colosseum has had an important role in cultural diffusion sinc 1982, with space for gatherings, presentations, meetings, concerts and exhibitions.

Museums

Museo Romántico (Romantic Museum) is located in a Republican mansion inEl Prado district, showing objects from the history of the city. Costumes can be seen from the Carnival Queens to a replica of the old Abello ridge on the Paseo de Bolívar, through to the typewriter that Gabriel García Márquez
Gabriel García Márquez
Gabriel José de la Concordia García Márquez is a Colombian novelist, short-story writer, screenwriter and journalist, known affectionately as Gabo throughout Latin America. He is considered one of the most significant authors of the 20th century. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in...

 wrote his first novel on, La Hojarasca. There are also letters of Simón Bolívar, photographs, albums, collections of newspapers, and other items that identify the history of the city. Museo del Caribe (Museum of the Caribbean) is located in the Parque Cultural del Caribe. Museo Antropológico y Etnológico (Anthropological and Ethnological Museum.) is housed in the Faculty of Fine Arts at the Universidad del Atlántico. It presents a comprehensive collection of pieces from the indigenous cultures that inhabited the region. It also provides services as a newspaper library, reading room and exhibition hall. Museo de Arte Moderno
Museo de Arte Moderno
The Museo de Arte Moderno or Museum of Modern Art is located in Chapultepec Park, Mexico City, Mexico. The museum is part of the Instituto Nacional de Bellas Artes and prepares exhibitions of national and international contemporary artists...

  (Museum of Modern Art)., established in 1996, brings together an important selection of works by several of the most important artists of the second half of the twentieth century. The collection includes works by renowned authors such as Fernando Botero
Fernando Botero
Fernando Botero Angulo is a Colombian figurative artist. His works feature a figurative style, called by some "Boterismo", which gives them an unmistakable identity...

, Alejandro Obregón
Alejandro Obregón
Daniel Alberto Alejandro María de la Santísima Trinidad Obregón Roses commonly known as Alejandro Obregón was a Colombian painter, muralist, sculptor and engraver.-Career:...

, Enrique Grau
Enrique Grau
Enrique Grau was a Colombian artist, renowned for his depictions of Amerindian and Afro Colombian figures...

 and Luis Caballero. It is planned to be transferred to the Parque Cultural del Caribe.

Museo Aeronáutico (Aeronautical Museum) is located at the Naval Officers' School ARC, founded in 1989 in tribute to the momentum that took place in Barranquilla with commercial aviation in the early twentieth century. Museo del Atlántico (Museum of the Atlantic) is a new regional museum located in the former headquarters of the Government of the Atlántico Department, covering over 4,000 square metres. Museo del Carnaval (Carnival Museum) is another new museum established pm April 7, 2011 by the Fundación Carnaval de Barranquilla in partnership with the Parque Cultural del Caribe and the Museo del Caribe, located in the Casa del Carnaval in the barrio of Abajo.

Cultural complexes

Caribbean Cultural Park

Parque Cultural del Caribe (Caribbean Cultural Park) is ambitious cultural complex, unique in its kind in the Caribbean Region and Colombia. Conceived in the framework of the restoration of the historic center of the city, it promotes the natural, cultural and historical aspects of the Colombian Caribbean. It contains the Museo del Caribe, Biblioteca Infantil Piloto del Caribe, Biblioteca Mediateca Macondo (specializing in the work of Gabriel García Márquez), a Documentation Centre, a Multi-Function Room and a public plaza outdoor theatre. The second phase of the development will be complemented by the Museo de Arte Moderno de Barranquill and Cinemateca del Caribe.
Custom-Elbers cultural park. Plaza of the locomotive.

Former customs
The Republican group of former customs buildings, known as the Complejo Cultural de la Antigua Aduana, were restored during the 1990s to house the Biblioteca Piloto del Caribe, File Histórico del Atlántico, Musical Documentation Centre, Estación Montoya, Parque Cultural Aduana-Elbers (consecrated in memory of Magdalena river transport pioneer Juan Bernardo Elbers), Pllaza de la Locomotora, and Alejandro Obregón
Alejandro Obregón
Daniel Alberto Alejandro María de la Santísima Trinidad Obregón Roses commonly known as Alejandro Obregón was a Colombian painter, muralist, sculptor and engraver.-Career:...

's Simbología de Barranquilla, established in 1956 by the Banco Popular, which donated it to the Government of the Atlántico Department in 1994 for restoration.

Other
The restaurant-bar La Cueva became known for its cultural activity in the twentieth century. Other significant complexes are the Casa del Carnaval, Cinemateca del Caribe and the Planetario de Barranquilla.

Culture

Throughout the year, the city has considerable cultural activity, its best known is the Carnival of Barranquilla, one of the most famous festivals in Colombia. It is a multicultural event highlighting the cultural traditions from the 19th Century. It is held annually during the four days preceding Ash Wednesday
Ash Wednesday
Ash Wednesday, in the calendar of Western Christianity, is the first day of Lent and occurs 46 days before Easter. It is a moveable fast, falling on a different date each year because it is dependent on the date of Easter...

-Saturday, Sunday, Monday and Tuesday, usually in February or early March. In 2001 it was declared the "Cultural Patrimony of the Nation" by the National Congress of Colombia and in 2003 "Masterpiece of Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity" by UNESCO
UNESCO
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations...

. The city is home to varied manifestations as folk dances, songs, games, legends, tales and superstitions, among others, many of which reach their peak during the Carnival.

Barranquilla is home to many cultural events like art shows, exhibitions, literary workshops, talks philosophy, plays, poetry workshops, dances, exhibitions, concerts and festivals like the Festival de Orquestas under the Carnival and Barranquijazz. Since 1957 it conducts the Concert of the Month, for the dissemination of classical music.

The culture is promoted in the city by the Institute of Culture and Tourism of Barranquilla, assigned to the Mayor, and entities such as the Centro Cultural Cayena of the Universidad del Norte, the Faculty of Fine Arts at the Universidad del Atlántico, Centro Cultural de Comfamiliar, Combarranquilla, Fundación Carnaval de Barranquilla, Banco de la República, Alianza Colombo-Francesa, Centro Cultural Colombo-Americano, Salón Cultural de Avianca, Corporación Luis Eduardo Nieto Arteta, Complejo Cultural de la Antigua Aduana, Biblioteca Piloto del Caribe, lBiblioteca Infantil Piloto del Caribe, File Histórico del Atlántico and the Centro de Documentación Musical Hans Federico Neuman; amongst many others.

Dialect

In Barranquilla, the people speak a variant of "Español costeño" (“Coastal Spanish”) with well-defined local variants and accents. The dialect of Barranquilla extends to the municipalities of the metropolitan area, although the Sabanalarga dialect also exists with different characteristics.

In its phonetic features, the dialect of Barranquilla is typical of Spanish spoken in Latin America. The linguistic feature known as yeísmo
Yeísmo
Yeísmo is a distinctive feature of many dialects of the Spanish language, which consists of the loss of the traditional palatal lateral approximant phoneme and its merger into the phoneme , usually realized as a palatal fricative or affricate. In other words, ‹ll› and ‹y› represent the same sound...

, the loss of the traditional palatal lateral approximant
Palatal lateral approximant
The palatal lateral approximant is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is , a rotated lowercase letter ⟨y⟩ , and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is L.-Features:Features of the palatal lateral...

 phoneme /ʎ/ (written ‹ll›) and its merger into the phoneme
Phoneme
In a language or dialect, a phoneme is the smallest segmental unit of sound employed to form meaningful contrasts between utterances....

 /ʝ/ (written ‹y›), is present in the Barranquilla dialect. Another feature is the loss of the intervocalic "d" in participles. For example, speakers would pronounce “salado” as [saˈlao].

The pronunciation of “s”, if found at the end of a word, is aspirated. Words like “costa” are pronounced [ˈkohta] and "buscó" is pronounced [buhˈko]. The total loss of “r” and “s” occurs when these sounds are found at the very end of words: "las cosas" is pronounced [lah ˈkosa] y "caminar" [kamiˈna]. Another characteristic of the Barranquilla dialect is the strong nasalization of vowels that precede the consonants “m” and “n” ("campaña" [kãmˈpaɲa] and "anda" [ˈãnda]).

When the “n” sound occurs at the end of a word, it is pronounced as a velar consonant
Velar consonant
Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue against the soft palate, the back part of the roof of the mouth, known also as the velum)....

 (e.g. canción [kanˈsjoŋ].). The “j” occurs as a soft aspirated consonant ([h]), and at times almost disappears completely, which is different from the articulation of the velar consonant of the Spanish “j” ([x]).

It is worth noting that in some ways gemination
Gemination
In phonetics, gemination happens when a spoken consonant is pronounced for an audibly longer period of time than a short consonant. Gemination is distinct from stress and may appear independently of it....

 or twinning of consonants (for example, “d,” “t,” “p,” or “g”) at the end of words occurs between liquid consonants “r” and “l,” and which mutes these liquid consonants: “cad-do” for “caldo,” “at-to” for “alto” (a phenomenon which occurs in the departments of Bolívar, Sucre, and Córdoba, and in the Atlantic from the area of Sabanalarga).

With the exception of localisms and phonetic variants that occur as an expected consequence of the expansion of any language, and thanks to the morphosyntax that is practically identical to standard Spanish, to the ear of someone arriving from other parts of the world whose native language is Spanish, he or she will have no problems communicating with a native of Barranquilla.

Folk music

Cumbia
Cumbia
Cumbia is a music genre popular across Latin America. The cumbia originated in the Caribbean coast of Colombia, where it is associated with an eponymous dance and has since spread as far as Mexico and Argentina...

 is musical rhythm and dance most important and representative of the city, deeply rooted in the entire Caribbean region of Colombia. Other important musical rhythms are pulled, the jalao, puya, garabato, cumbión, chandé, porro, gaita, bullerengue, merecumbé, vallenato
Vallenato
Vallenato, along with cumbia, is currently a popular folk music of Colombia. It primarily comes from the Colombia's Caribbean region. Vallenato literally means "born in the valley". The valley influencing this name is located between the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta and the Serranía de Perijá in...

 and pajarito. Other traditional dances are Congo, Mapalé, Son de Negro, Diablos, Gusano and Farotas. Also represented is the Marimondas, the Monocucos and the Toritos and those associated with the famous Carnaval de Barranquilla.

Events

In addition to the Carnival of Barranquilla and related activities, some of the most important cultural events in the city are:
Barranquijazz, jazz festival which brings together major international figures of jazz, held in September at the Amira de la Rosa Theatre, among other places, Carnaval de las Artes, a cultural event uniting intellectuals, writers, filmmakers, musicians and artists of national and international reputation, Feria Artesanal y Folclórica (Craft and Folk Fair) on the eastern side of the stadium, Feria del Juguete (Toy Fair), a great sale of toys during the month of December in the grounds of the Universal cemetery, Festival Internacional de Cuenteros El Caribe Cuenta'' with humor and stories which is held annually in August, Plataforma K. Evento, an annual fashion event organized by the Chamber of Commerce of Barranquilla held in March at the Universidad del Norte, Salón de Artistas Costeños, an art festival organised annually by the Chamber of Commerce of Barranquilla, and the Miche Rock Festival, supported by the District Department of Culture of Barranquilla and the Departmental Secretariat of Culture.

Gastronomy

Barranquilla serves a wide variety of cuisine to match its cosmopolitan population and tourists. Restaurants can be enjoyed from Creole cuisine to some of the most important international cuisines, such as Syrian-Lebanese (due to the significant presence of descendants of immigrants from the Middle East), Chinese, Japanese, Brazilian, Peruvian, French, Italian, Thai, Spanish etc. The typical dish of the city is plain rice, which is served with cassava
Cassava
Cassava , also called yuca or manioc, a woody shrub of the Euphorbiaceae native to South America, is extensively cultivated as an annual crop in tropical and subtropical regions for its edible starchy tuberous root, a major source of carbohydrates...

 buns. Very characteristic of the local cuisine is a pigeon pea stew with salted meat (which even has its own annual festival), sausage
Sausage
A sausage is a food usually made from ground meat , mixed with salt, herbs, and other spices, although vegetarian sausages are available. The word sausage is derived from Old French saussiche, from the Latin word salsus, meaning salted.Typically, a sausage is formed in a casing traditionally made...

, cheese, fried arepa
Arepa
An arepa is a dish made of ground corn dough or cooked flour, popular in Colombia, Venezuela and other Spanish-speaking countries. It is similar in shape to the Salvadoran pupusa...

s, caribañolas, pie
Pie
A pie is a baked dish which is usually made of a pastry dough casing that covers or completely contains a filling of various sweet or savoury ingredients....

s, cupcake
Cupcake
A cupcake is a small cake designed to serve one person, frequently baked in a small, thin paper or aluminum cup...

s, Patacón, black bean rice, chipichipi
Coquina
Coquina is a sedimentary rock that is composed either wholly or almost entirely of the transported, abraded, and mechanically sorted fragments of the shells of either molluscs, trilobites, brachiopods, or other invertebrates. For a sediment to be considered to be a coquina, the average size of the...

 and Cucayo; noodles, drinks like raspao, boli, sugar water, tamarindo, zapote and níspero
Sapodilla
Manilkara zapota, commonly known as the sapodilla, is a long-lived, evergreen tree native to southern Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean. An example natural occurrence is in coastal Yucatan in the Petenes mangroves ecoregion, where it is a subdominant plant species...

, coconut candies and Easter candy, cake, fish, shrimp and oysters, beef, chicken, pork and chicken dishes and pork rinds.

Education

Education in the city is regulated by the Ministry of Education and the District Mayor. The city offers the national education system in their levels of primary and secondary education and university, and multiple technical and technological institutions. In recent decades, Barranquilla received a number of students, who could not pursue higher education studies in the absence of institutions in their places of origin. This had tended to decrease in recent years due to increased educational opportunities has been achieved in these regions. Some of the personalities who have contributed to the educational development of the city have been Manuel María Salgado, a pioneer of high school in Barranquilla, founder of the Instituto de Barranquilla in 1849, the German educator Karl Meisel, founder of the Colegio Ribón in 1881 which became the Colegio de Barranquilla in 1908, Julio Enrique Blanco, founder of Universidad del Atlántico, Ramón Renowitzky, Secretary of Education in the mid-twentieth century and Turkish educator and translator Alberto Assa.

According to the census conducted by DANE in 2005, 66.5% of the population of 3 to 5 years, 89.2% of the population aged 6 to 10 years and 83.7% of the population aged 11 to 17 years attend a formal educational institution. 12.8% have reached the professional level and 1.4% have specialized degrees, master or doctorate. The resident population without any education is 6.2%. 94.1% of the population 5 years and over are literate.

Universities

Universities have the function of educating undergraduate and postgraduate (specialization, masters and doctoral) and to carry out research in science and technology.

Barranquilla is home to several universities with high academic standards and research, among which include Universidad del Atlántico, Universidad del Norte
Universidad del Norte, Colombia
The Universidad del Norte is the main academic center for higher education in northern Colombia. It was founded in 1966 by a group of businessmen led by Karl C. Parrish in the city of Barranquilla...

, Universidad Autónoma del Caribe, Universidad Libre Seccional Barranquilla, Universidad Simón Bolívar, Universidad Metropolitana, Corporación Universitaria de la Costa, Universidad Antonio Nariño, Fundación Universitaria San Martín, among others.

At the undergraduate level, courses offered by different universities include Engineering (Systems, Civil, Mechanical, Electronic, Industrial, Chemical, Electrical and Environmental), the Health Sciences (Medicine, Nursing, Physiotherapy, Bacteriology, Nutrition, Optometry, Dentistry, Social Work, Occupational Therapy, Speech Therapy, Surgical Instrumentation and microbiology), Economic and Administrative Sciences (Business Administration, Economics, Accounting, Finance, International Business), Basic Sciences (Mathematics, Physics, Microbiology, Chemistry, Biology), Science Education (Social, Natural, Physical Education, Preschool, Math, Spanish, Foreign Languages), the Human Sciences (Philosophy, History, Sociology, Psychology, Social Communication, International Relations) Fine Arts (Music, Visual Arts, Performing Arts, Architecture), and Legal Sciences (Law, Political Science), among others.

In terms of postgraduate studies, Universidad del Norte has only four PhD subjects: Social Science, Industrial Engineering, Mechanical Engineering and Psychology, and the Universidad del Atlántico offers a doctorate in Science Education. The Universidad del Norte offers a significant number of master's degrees in various branches of learning such as Engineering, Health Sciences, Education, Environment, Administration, among others. Other universities offering Masters studies are the Atlántico, Simón Bolívar and the Universidad Autónoma del Caribe.

Secondary and technical

The city also has secondary education institutions, public and private high school, several of which rate high in the country, according to studies conducted by ICFES
ICFES
ICFES is an acronym for Instituto Colombiano para el Fomento de la Educación Superior . It is a Colombian organization that manages and evaluates the education and Institutes in Colombia...

.

The State National Training Service has an important work in the technical and technological training. In Barranquilla there are 4 SENA centres: the Centre for Trade and Services, Aviation and Industry, the Colombo-German National Centre and the Cedagro Centre for Agroecology Development and Agribusiness. Since 2009, the city has Instituto Tecnológico de Soledad Atlántico (ITSA) which offers courses in technical subjects such as electromechanical maintenance,electronics, telecommunications, computing, industrial processes, agro-industrial production, foreign trade and international business, business management etc. ITSA has around 9,600 students from low income strata 1 and 2.

Educational expansion

Since 2008, the city has embarked upon an ambitious plan to reduce the deficit in school places by building educational parks in the neighborhoods of Las Américas, Lipaya, 7 de abril and Rebolo through property integration. These parks will have community services such as library, auditorium, computer rooms, sports facilities and classrooms. Similarly, for 2010 is 4 modern colleges with a total capacity for 5,760 students, two in Las Cayenas, one in Ciudadela Veinte de Julio and one in Lipaya, each with a capacity of 1440 students. In February 2009, the college Pies Descalzos was opened in La Playa, built by Shakira
Shakira
Shakira Isabel Mebarak Ripoll , known professionally as Shakira , is a Colombian singer who emerged in the music scene of Colombia and Latin America in the early 1990s...

, and endowed by the District through community resources, with a capacity for 1,800 students.

Science and research

Science and research are mainly in the universities at the request of state policies defined by the National Science and Technology, the National Innovation System and Colciencias. Universidad del Atlántico is the institution with research groups such as Colciencias which recognized and registered with the International Network for Information and Knowledge Sources for Sciences, Technology and Innovation. The universities are engaged in scientific research in various fields such as medicine, chemistry, geophysics, biology, physics, microbiology, law, history, philosophy, Caribbean culture, telecommunications and the various branches of engineering.

Among the public libraries in the city include the Barranquilla Departmental Library, the Biblioteca Piloto del Caribe and Julio Hoenigsberg. Also notable are the libraries of universities, especially Atlántico and Norte universities.

Transport

Ernesto Cortissoz International Airport
Ernesto Cortissoz International Airport
Ernesto Cortissoz International Airport is located in the municipality of Soledad from Barranquilla, the capital of the Atlántico department in Colombia. The airport owes its name to one of the pioneers of Colombian aviation, Ernesto Cortissoz....

, was built in Barranquilla in 1919, becoming the first airport in South America. The city is served by domestic and international flights.

Pumarejo Bridge
Pumarejo bridge
The Pumarejo bridge is a bridge in Colombia built over the Magdalena River to connect the Island of Salamanca and the city of Barranquilla. The bridge was named after its promoter Alfonso López Pumarejo. Its construction finalized in 1974. The bridge is 1500 m long and 12.50 m wide, and is built...

 over the Magdalena River is one of the most prominent civil engineering works in the city, and the longest in Colombia at just over 1.5 km. The traffic in the city and its metropolitan area is governed from 2009 by the Ministry for Mobility.

In 2001, the district administration started developing TransMetro
Barranquilla's Transmetro
Transmetro is a massive transport system that operates in the city of Barranquilla, Colombia, since April 7 , 2010.-External links:* * *...

 metropolitan mass transit system. The system operates with articulated buses traveling on set lanes and stop at fixed stops.

In 2010, the taxis operate a minimum charge of COP 4300 (USD $ 2.17) for a distance of up to 3.5 km. To cover distance races over the minimum, the fee is negotiated directly with the driver and can reach up to COP 20,000 (USD $ 11.4) depending on the distance covered. Taxi service can also be contracted by the hour, COP 15,000 (USD $ 7.58). Several private companies provide taxi service in the city, which can be ordered by telephone for safety.

In the city a network of buses and minibuses routes are where fares vary depending on model (old) and amenities like air conditioning. These prices are visible in the windshield of the vehicle and range from COP 1,300 (USD $ 0.60) and COP 1,500 (USD $ 0.75). The bus transportation is the most used by the population.

In the municipality of Soledad, south of the city, is the Metropolitan Transportation Terminal in Barranquilla, from which one can travel by land to major domestic destinations and Venezuela.

Barranquilla has a major sea and river port, third largest by cargo volume in the country. The waterborne terminal is managed, operated and marketed by the private Sociedad Portuaria Regional de Barranquilla. Traffic through the port of Barranquilla is regulated by the Captain of the Port of Barranquilla,which is responsible for the direction, coordination and control of maritime activities such as arrivals, departures, status of ships, safety, licensing, advertisements, among others.

Sports

Sports in Barranquilla are promoted at the governmental level by the Ministry of Sports and Deportes de la Alcaldía Distrital. Since the early twentieth century, the most important sports have been football, baseball and boxing
Boxing
Boxing, also called pugilism, is a combat sport in which two people fight each other using their fists. Boxing is supervised by a referee over a series of between one to three minute intervals called rounds...

. Also practiced are basketball, athletics, swimming, chess
Chess
Chess is a two-player board game played on a chessboard, a square-checkered board with 64 squares arranged in an eight-by-eight grid. It is one of the world's most popular games, played by millions of people worldwide at home, in clubs, online, by correspondence, and in tournaments.Each player...

, cycling, skating, tennis, golf, shooting, karate
Karate
is a martial art developed in the Ryukyu Islands in what is now Okinawa, Japan. It was developed from indigenous fighting methods called and Chinese kenpō. Karate is a striking art using punching, kicking, knee and elbow strikes, and open-handed techniques such as knife-hands. Grappling, locks,...

, taekwondo
Taekwondo
Taekwondo is a Korean martial art and the national sport of South Korea. In Korean, tae means "to strike or break with foot"; kwon means "to strike or break with fist"; and do means "way", "method", or "path"...

, paragliding
Paragliding
Paragliding is the recreational and competitive adventure sport of flying paragliders: lightweight, free-flying, foot-launched glider aircraft with no rigid primary structure...

, BMX
BMX
Bicycle motocross or BMX refers to the sport in which the main goal is extreme racing on bicycles in motocross style on tracks with inline start and expressive obstacles, and it is also the term that refers to the bicycle itself that is designed for dirt and motocross cycling.- History :BMX started...

, go-karts, motor sports, fishing, squash
Squash (sport)
Squash is a high-speed racquet sport played by two players in a four-walled court with a small, hollow rubber ball...

, surfing
Surfing
Surfing' is a surface water sport in which the surfer rides a surfboard on the crest and face of a wave which is carrying the surfer towards the shore...

, weightlifting
Powerlifting
Powerlifting is a strength sport. It resembles the sport of Olympic weightlifting, as both disciplines involve lifting weights in three attempts. Powerlifting evolved from a sport known as 'odd lifts' which followed the same three attempt format but used a wide variety of events akin to Strongman...

, softball
Softball
Softball is a bat-and-ball sport played between two teams of 10 to 14 players. It is a direct descendant of baseball although there are some key differences: softballs are larger than baseballs, and the pitches are thrown underhand rather than overhand...

 and bowling
Bowling
Bowling Bowling Bowling (1375–1425; late Middle English bowle, variant of boule Bowling (1375–1425; late Middle English bowle, variant of boule...

.

Barranquilla has hosted the Colombia national football team
Colombia national football team
The Colombian national football team represents Colombia in international football competitions and is controlled by the Colombian Football Federation. It is a member of the CONMEBOL...

 during World Cup
FIFA World Cup
The FIFA World Cup, often simply the World Cup, is an international association football competition contested by the senior men's national teams of the members of Fédération Internationale de Football Association , the sport's global governing body...

 qualifiers in Italy (1990), USA (1994), France (1998) and Germany (2006). It was home of the XIV National Games in 1992, co-host of the Central American and Caribbean Games
Central American and Caribbean Games
The Central American and Caribbean Games are a multi-sport regional championships event, held quadrennial , typically in the middle year between Summer Olympics...

 in 2006; host of the 5th Central American and Caribbean Games in 1946, home of the Bolivarian Games IV in 1961 and hosted the games in Group A in the Copa América 2001
Copa América 2001
The Copa América 2001 was held in Colombia, from July 11 to July 29, 2001. It was organised by CONMEBOL, South America's football governing body....

. In 2011 it host the opening match of the U20 World Cup to be held in Colombia from July 29 to August 20.

Stadiums and venues

The city has a developed sports infrastructure, which has enabled it to host events of national and regional importance, such as the Central American and Caribbean Games in 1946 and the Bolivarian Games of 1961, among others.

Estadio Metropolitano Roberto Meléndez opened on May 11, 1986, with capacity for 49,612 spectators. It has a soccer field, running track for distance running, long jump and javelin and hammer. It was the headquarters of the Colombia national football team during World Cup qualifiers for 1990, 1994, 1998 and 2006. Estadio Romelio Martínez
Estadio Romelio Martínez
The Estadio Romelio Martínez, or Romelio Martínez Stadium, is a sports stadium located at 72 street and 46 Avenue in the Colombian city of Barranquilla. It has a capacity of 20,000 spectators....

 was built in 1935 for the National Olympic III, capacity for 20,000 people. Estadio Tomás Arrieta
Estadio Tomás Arrieta
Estadio Tomás Arrieta is a baseball park in Barranquilla, Colombia. It currently serves as the home of the Caimanes de Barranquilla. The stadium holds 8,000 people.- References :...

  was built in 1946 for the V Central American and Caribbean Games, and ishome of Major League Baseball side Edgar Rentería
Edgar Rentería
Edgar Enrique Rentería Herazo , nicknamed "The Barranquilla Baby," is a Colombian professional baseball shortstop. He throws and bats right-handed. Previously, he has played for the Florida Marlins, the St...

. It has a capacity for 8,000 attendees. Estadio de Baloncesto Elías Chegwin opened in 1992, with a capacity for 4,000 spectators. Velódromo Metropolitano Rafael Vásquez also opened in 1992 as part of the XIV National Games.

Barranquilla also has an Olympic swimming pool (replica of Berlin's Olympic swimming pool), a shooting and skating rink, "Rafael Naranjo Pertuz" (1992) which has inside a roller hockey court, tennis courts, a BMX track, bowling alley, and sports centres in the neighborhoods Lipaya, La Magdalena and San Felipe, among others.

Teams

The city has hosted several teams that have played professional football in Colombia, Corporación Popular Deportiva Junior competes in the first division, and Barranquilla FC and Universidad Autónoma del Caribe Fútbol Club in the second division. Universidad Autónoma del Caribe Fútbol Club has its administrative headquarters in Barranquilla, playing at the Marcos Henríquez de Sabanalarga Other professional teams that were based Barranquilla was the Juventud Junior (promoted to the first category in 1929 and renamed Atlético Junior in 1936), Deportivo Barranquilla (f. 1949), Sporting (f. 1950), Libertad (f. 1956) and Unicosta  (f. 1995). As for baseball, Caimanes de Barranquilla
Caimanes de Barranquilla
The Caimanes de Barranquilla are a baseball team in the Colombian Professional Baseball League. They have participated in the league since the 1984-1985 season, playing in the Estadio Tomás Arrieta in Barranquilla.- History :...

 is the city team in the Colombian Professional Baseball League
Colombian Professional Baseball League
The Colombian Professional Baseball League, also known as the Colombian Winter League, is a professional baseball league based in Colombia...

. Barranquilla had the basketball team Caimanes, Colombian professional tournament champion three times, 1995, 1997 and 1998.
Active sports teams in Barranquilla
Team League Sport Stadium Founded Champions
Atlético Junior Primera A del FPC. Football Estadio Metropolitano Roberto Meléndez 1924 6
Caimanes BBC
Caimanes de Barranquilla
The Caimanes de Barranquilla are a baseball team in the Colombian Professional Baseball League. They have participated in the league since the 1984-1985 season, playing in the Estadio Tomás Arrieta in Barranquilla.- History :...

LCBP
Colombian Professional Baseball League
The Colombian Professional Baseball League, also known as the Colombian Winter League, is a professional baseball league based in Colombia...

Baseball Estadio Tomás Arrieta
Estadio Tomás Arrieta
Estadio Tomás Arrieta is a baseball park in Barranquilla, Colombia. It currently serves as the home of the Caimanes de Barranquilla. The stadium holds 8,000 people.- References :...

1984 7
Barranquilla FC Primera B
Categoría Primera B
Categoría Primera B, also known as Torneo Postobón for sponsorship reasons, is the second division football league in Colombia. The league is divided into two six-month seasons and into two regional divisions of nine teams where each team plays the region's other eight teams both home and away...

 del FPC.
Football Estadio Romelio Martínez
Estadio Romelio Martínez
The Estadio Romelio Martínez, or Romelio Martínez Stadium, is a sports stadium located at 72 street and 46 Avenue in the Colombian city of Barranquilla. It has a capacity of 20,000 spectators....

2005 0
Uniautónoma FC Primera B
Categoría Primera B
Categoría Primera B, also known as Torneo Postobón for sponsorship reasons, is the second division football league in Colombia. The league is divided into two six-month seasons and into two regional divisions of nine teams where each team plays the region's other eight teams both home and away...

 del FPC.
Football Estadio Marcos Henríquez de Sabanalarga 2010 0

Healthcare

Health in Colombia
Health in Colombia
Health care in Colombia refers to the prevention, treatment, and management of illness and the preservation of mental and physical well being through the services offered by the medical, nursing, and allied health professions in the Republic of Colombia....

 is governed by legislation (Act 100 of 1993) and is regulated by the Ministry of Social Protection. At the local level, it is in charge of two state institutions, the Ministry of Health and the State Social Enterprise Caprecom as administrator of the hospital administrative units (four hospitals, 6 Maternal Units and Child Health Centres) to replace the Public Hospital Network (Redehospital ), in liquidation. Other institutions include the Colombian Red Cross, the Colombian Civil Defense, in charge of emergencies, calamities and natural disasters, and the Colombian Family Welfare Institute (ICBF), responsible for the comprehensive protection of the family and children.

Some of the notable public hospitals of the city are Hospital General de Barranquilla, Hospital Pediátrico de Barranquilla, Hospital Nazareth, Hospital La Manga, Hospital Universitario Metropolitano. Hospital Universitario Cari E.S.E, Hospital de la Universidad del Norte, Hospital Niño Jesús and Hospital del Seguro Social and the 6 maternal-child units of Santa María, La Playa, La Chinita, Las Flores, La Alboraya and Juan Mina. The city also contains 19 health centres and 28 health posts. At each location of the city, a center or health post. These institutions can provide services to primary and secondary care, with the exception of the Pediatric Hospital, which serves partial third level. In addition, the city operates a large number of private clinics that serve high levels of complexity (3 and 4) and multiple medical specialities.

Television

From 1986, the Colombian Caribbean Coast has the Telecaribe
Telecaribe
Telecaribe is a regional television network for the Caribbean region of Colombia.-History:The station was set up in the early 1980s in Valledupar, Colombia and was created by a local entrepreneur named Jose Jorge Dangond...

 regional television, which has its operational headquarters in the city. In addition, Barranquilla operate local television channels TB3 (cable) Channel 23 at the Autonomous University of the Caribbean (open signal) and the five national television channels (RCN TV
RCN TV
RCN Televisión , is a Colombian private television network. It started as a production company in 1967...

, Caracol TV
Caracol TV
Caracol Televisión is a Colombian private national television network, owned by Julio Mario Santo Domingo.- History :Caracol Televisión started in 1954 when Organización de Radiodifusora Caracol offered to afford national television costs, then state-run, through commercial spots...

, Canal Uno
Canal Uno
Canal Uno is the first Colombian national television channel. It started 13 June 1954 on Channel 8 in Bogotá. It is state-owned, operated by Radio Televisión Nacional de Colombia, and privately-run, with programming companies known as programadoras bidding for time slots with the Colombian...

, Señal Colombia
Señal Colombia
Señal Colombia is a Colombian national television channel established and funded by the government, launched in 1970 as Canal 11. It uses its current name since 1995....

 and Institutional) . The Canal Universitario Nacional Jerusalem TV (Channel LUZ) is also transmitted from Barranquilla.

Radio

Barranquilla transmits various AM and FM stations, both local and national, which keep the public informed and provide a varied musical program. Of particular note is Radio Libertad.

Press

The city's two main newspapers are El Heraldo and La Libertad. Other dailies include newspapers of nationwide distribution, such as Bogotá
Bogotá
Bogotá, Distrito Capital , from 1991 to 2000 called Santa Fé de Bogotá, is the capital, and largest city, of Colombia. It is also designated by the national constitution as the capital of the department of Cundinamarca, even though the city of Bogotá now comprises an independent Capital district...

's El Tiempo.

Notable people

  • Pacho Galan
    Pacho Galan
    Pacho Galan was a Colombian composer and band leader of several Colombian music forms, including porro, cumbia, gaita and merercumbe...

  • Shakira
    Shakira
    Shakira Isabel Mebarak Ripoll , known professionally as Shakira , is a Colombian singer who emerged in the music scene of Colombia and Latin America in the early 1990s...

  • Sofía Vergara
    Sofía Vergara
    Sofía Margarita Vergara Vergara is a Colombian actress, comedian, television hostess and model.Vergara had been widely known for co-hosting two TV shows for Univisión in the late 1990s. Her TV career opened up for her a window of exposure to North American audiences prior to her first notable...

  • Edgar Rentería
    Edgar Rentería
    Edgar Enrique Rentería Herazo , nicknamed "The Barranquilla Baby," is a Colombian professional baseball shortstop. He throws and bats right-handed. Previously, he has played for the Florida Marlins, the St...

  • Nina Garcia
    Nina Garcia
    Nina García, is a Colombian fashion journalist and critic who has held the post of Fashion Director at Elle and Marie Claire magazines, and is currently a judge on the Lifetime reality television program Project Runway....

  • Natasha Klauss
    Natasha Klauss
    Natasha Alexandra Rastapkavicius Arrondo , professionally known as Natasha Klauss, is a Colombian actress of Colombian and Lithuanian descent, best known for her roles in Telemundo telenovelas La Venganza, Pasión de Gavilanes and Zorro: La Espada y la Rosa.- Early life :Natasha Klauss was...

  • Silvia Tcherassi
    Silvia Tcherassi
    Silvia Tcherassi is a Colombian fashion designer from Barranquilla. She is also the designer and owner of the Tcherassi Hotel in Cartagena de Indias, a renovated 250 year old colonial mansion, containing over 3000 plants....

  • Maía
    Maía
    Mónica Andrea Vives Orozco, more commonly known as Maía is a Colombian singer-songwriter.-History:Mónica Vives Orozco is the only child of Rafael Vives and Mónica Orozco...


Sister cities

Sister cities of Barranquilla include: Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires is the capital and largest city of Argentina, and the second-largest metropolitan area in South America, after São Paulo. It is located on the western shore of the estuary of the Río de la Plata, on the southeastern coast of the South American continent...

, Argentina Tampa, Florida
Tampa, Florida
Tampa is a city in the U.S. state of Florida. It serves as the county seat for Hillsborough County. Tampa is located on the west coast of Florida. The population of Tampa in 2010 was 335,709....

 Nanjing
Nanjing
' is the capital of Jiangsu province in China and has a prominent place in Chinese history and culture, having been the capital of China on several occasions...

, People's Republic of China Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung is a city located in southwestern Taiwan, facing the Taiwan Strait on the west. Kaohsiung, officially named Kaohsiung City, is divided into thirty-eight districts. The city is one of five special municipalities of the Republic of China...

, Taiwan

External links

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