BMP-1
Overview
 
The BMP-1 is a Soviet
Soviet Union
The Soviet Union , officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics , was a constitutionally socialist state that existed in Eurasia between 1922 and 1991....

 amphibious
Amphibious vehicle
An amphibious vehicle , is a vehicle or craft, that is a means of transport, viable on land as well as on water – just like an amphibian....

 tracked infantry fighting vehicle
Infantry fighting vehicle
An infantry fighting vehicle , also known as a mechanized infantry combat vehicle , is a type of armoured fighting vehicle used to carry infantry into battle and provide fire support for them...

. BMP stands for Boyevaya Mashina Pekhoty 1 , meaning "infantry fighting vehicle". The BMP-1 was the world's first mass-produced infantry fighting vehicle (IFV). It was called the M-1967, BMP and BMP-76PB by NATO before its correct designation was known.

It was a revolutionary design combining the properties of an armored personnel carrier (APC) and a light tank
Light tank
A light tank is a tank variant initially designed for rapid movement, and now primarily employed in low-intensity conflict. Early light tanks were generally armed and armored similar to an armored car, but used tracks in order to provide better cross-country mobility.The light tank was a major...

.
Encyclopedia
The BMP-1 is a Soviet
Soviet Union
The Soviet Union , officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics , was a constitutionally socialist state that existed in Eurasia between 1922 and 1991....

 amphibious
Amphibious vehicle
An amphibious vehicle , is a vehicle or craft, that is a means of transport, viable on land as well as on water – just like an amphibian....

 tracked infantry fighting vehicle
Infantry fighting vehicle
An infantry fighting vehicle , also known as a mechanized infantry combat vehicle , is a type of armoured fighting vehicle used to carry infantry into battle and provide fire support for them...

. BMP stands for Boyevaya Mashina Pekhoty 1 , meaning "infantry fighting vehicle". The BMP-1 was the world's first mass-produced infantry fighting vehicle (IFV). It was called the M-1967, BMP and BMP-76PB by NATO before its correct designation was known.

It was a revolutionary design combining the properties of an armored personnel carrier (APC) and a light tank
Light tank
A light tank is a tank variant initially designed for rapid movement, and now primarily employed in low-intensity conflict. Early light tanks were generally armed and armored similar to an armored car, but used tracks in order to provide better cross-country mobility.The light tank was a major...

. The Soviet military leadership saw any future wars as being conducted with nuclear, chemical and biological weapons. A vehicle like the BMP would allow infantry to operate from the relative safety of its armored, radiation-shielded interior in contaminated areas and to fight alongside it in uncontaminated areas. It would increase infantry squad mobility, provide fire support to them, and also be able to fight alongside main battle tank
Main battle tank
A main battle tank , also known as a battle tank or universal tank, is a tank that fills the heavy direct fire role of many modern armies. They were originally conceived to replace the light, medium, heavy and super-heavy tanks. Development was spurred onwards in the Cold War with the development...

s.

The BMP-1 was first tested in combat in the 1973 Yom Kippur War
Yom Kippur War
The Yom Kippur War, Ramadan War or October War , also known as the 1973 Arab-Israeli War and the Fourth Arab-Israeli War, was fought from October 6 to 25, 1973, between Israel and a coalition of Arab states led by Egypt and Syria...

 where it was used by Egyptian and Syrian forces. Based on lessons learned from this conflict and early experiences in the Soviet War in Afghanistan
Soviet war in Afghanistan
The Soviet war in Afghanistan was a nine-year conflict involving the Soviet Union, supporting the Marxist-Leninist government of the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan against the Afghan Mujahideen and foreign "Arab–Afghan" volunteers...

, a version with improved fighting qualities, the BMP-2
BMP-2
The BMP-2 is a second-generation, amphibious infantry fighting vehicle introduced in the 1980s in the Soviet Union, following the BMP-1 of the 1960s....

 was developed. It was accepted into service in August 1980.

In 1987, the BMP-3
BMP-3
The BMP-3 is a Russian amphibious infantry fighting vehicle, successor to the BMP-1 and BMP-2. BMP stands for Boyevaya Mashina Pekhoty .- Production history :...

, a radically redesigned vehicle with a completely new weapon system, entered service in limited numbers with the Soviet Army.

Development

Mechanized infantry
Mechanized infantry
Mechanized infantry are infantry equipped with armored personnel carriers , or infantry fighting vehicles for transport and combat ....

 tactics during the 1950s were similar to World War II methods in which APCs were used as "battle taxis"; they brought their infantry up to the front line where they then dismounted and fought on foot while the APC provided suppressive fire from its on-board armament.

Existing APCs offered little or no protection from either nuclear or chemical weapons as they were either open-topped or could not be sealed sufficiently. Furthermore, the infantry had to disembark to be able to use their weapons.

The requirement for the BMP was first drawn up in the late 1950s. The requirement stressed speed, good armament, and the ability for all squad members to fire from within the vehicle. The armament had to provide direct support for dismounted infantry in the attack and defense and to be able to destroy comparable light armored vehicles. The vehicle needed to protect the crew from .50 cal machinegun fire and 20–23 mm caliber autocannons across the frontal arc, as well as from light shell fragments at distances between 500 m and 800 m.

Firepower consisted of the innovative combination of the 73 mm 2A28 Grom
2A28 Grom
The 2A28 Grom is the main armament of the BMP-1 infantry fighting vehicle. It is a 73 mm low pressure smoothbore semi-automatic gun with wedge breechblock.-Description:...

 gun and anti tank wire guided missile (ATGM) launcher for the 9M14 Malyutka (AT-3A Sagger A) ATGMs. The gun was intended to engage enemy armored vehicles and firing points
Firing points
A firing point is a prepared fighting position from which infantry can defend territory with minimal exposure to return fire. Construction ranges from simple sandbag walls to sophisticated, permanent fortifications...

 at a range of up to 700 metres (765.5 yd), while the missile launcher was intended to be used against targets that were 500 metres (546.8 yd) to 3000 metres (3,280.8 yd) away.

Requirements were issued to the various design bureaus between 1959 and 1960. There was a question as to whether the BMP should be tracked or wheeled, so a number of experimental configurations were explored including hybrid wheeled/tracked designs.

The tracked Ob'yekt 764 (codename Object 764) was chosen because its front engine design provided a convenient and fast way of mounting and dismounting through two rear doors. The original prototype was built in 1964, followed by improved Ob'yekt 765 in 1965, which was accepted by the Army in 1966, under a designation BMP-1. Small scale production began in 1966.

Models

A large number of variants of the BMP-1 were produced. The most notable IFV variants based on the BMP-1 were: BMP-2
BMP-2
The BMP-2 is a second-generation, amphibious infantry fighting vehicle introduced in the 1980s in the Soviet Union, following the BMP-1 of the 1960s....

, MLI-84
MLI-84
The MLI-84 is a native-made Romanian infantry fighting vehicle currently in service with the Romanian Land Forces. It is basically a stock BMP-1 with a lengthened hull and a 12.7x108mm DShK 1938/46 heavy machine gun mounted on the roof of the troop compartment....

 and Boragh
Boragh
The Boragh is an Iranian-made armoured personnel carrier. Boragh is believed to be a reverse engineered and upgraded model of the Chinese Type 86 . The upgrades include a reduction in weight, a higher road speed, and stronger armor...

.

Table of models

style="font-size:larger; text-align:left;" | Characteristics of the main models of the BMP series
BMP
(ob'yekt 765Sp1)
BMP-1
(ob'yekt 765Sp2)
BMP-1
(ob'yekt 765Sp3)
BMP-1P
(ob'yekt 765Sp4/5)
BMP-1D BMP-2
BMP-2
The BMP-2 is a second-generation, amphibious infantry fighting vehicle introduced in the 1980s in the Soviet Union, following the BMP-1 of the 1960s....

 
BMP-3
BMP-3
The BMP-3 is a Russian amphibious infantry fighting vehicle, successor to the BMP-1 and BMP-2. BMP stands for Boyevaya Mashina Pekhoty .- Production history :...

Weight
(tonnes)
12.6 13.0 13.2 13.4 14.5 14.0 18.7
Crew 3+8 3+7
Main gun 73 mm 2A28 "Grom" low pressure smoothbore semi-automatic gun 30 mm 2A42 autocannon 100 mm 2A70 rifled automatic
gun/missile-launcher
30 mm 2A72 autocannon
Machine gun(s) 7.62 mm PKT coaxial 3 × 7.62 mm PKT 
(1 coaxial, 2 bow mounted)
ATGM
(NATO designation)
9M14 "Malyutka" 
(AT-3 Sagger)
and variants
9M113 "Konkurs" 
(AT-5 Spandrel)
or
9M111 "Fagot" 
(AT-4 Spigot)
and variants
9M14 "Malyutka" or
9M113 "Konkurs" or
removed (on most vehicles)
9M113 "Konkurs" 
(AT-5 Spandrel)
or
9M111 "Fagot" 
(AT-4 Spigot)
and variants
9M117 "Bastion"
9M117 Bastion
The 9M117 Bastion is a Russian laser beam-riding anti-tank missile. It is used in a number of separate weapon systems including the 9K116-1 Bastion missile system , 9K118 Sheksna , Kastet and the 3UBK12 fired from the BMP-3...

 
(AT-10 Stabber)
Engine UTD-20 6-cylinder 4-stroke V-shaped
airless-injection water-cooled diesel
developing 300 hp (224 kW) at 2,600 rpm
UTD-20S1 diesel
developing
300 hp (224 kW)
at 2,600 rpm
UTD-29M 10-cylinder diesel
developing
500 hp (375 kW)
at 2,600 rpm
Power-to-weight ratio
hp/tonne
(kW/tonne)
23.8
(17.8)
23.1
(17.2)
22.7
(17.0)
22.4
(16.7)
20.7
(15.5)
21.4
(16.0)
26.7
(20.0)

Production history

The BMP went into production with the Soviet Army in 1966. The first series (the Ob'yekt 765 Sp1, "specification 1"), was produced until 1969 but was replaced by the improved production model, the BMP-1 (the Ob'yekt 765 Sp2), it was produced from 1969 until 1973. It was replaced by the Ob'yekt 765 Sp3 which was a modernized, 200 kg heavier version. This model was produced from 1973 to 1979. A number of improvements were made to the reliability of the chassis, the engine and transmission during mass production. The last version of the BMP-1 IFV (BMP-1P, Ob'yekt 765 Sp4), was armed with a more powerful ATGM launcher 9P135M-1 for the ATGM "Konkurs"/"Fagot" It was produced from 1979 to 1983. The main manufacturer of the BMP-1 and its different variants was the Kurgan Machine Building Works (Kurganskiy Mashinostroitelyniy Zavod) but PRP-3 artillery reconnaissance vehicles were produced by the Chelyabinsk Tractor Works
Chelyabinsk Tractor Plant
Chelyabinsk Tractor Plant also known as CTZ-Uraltrak is a tractor plant in the Russian city of Chelyabinsk.-History:The plant was founded in 1933; the first product was a 60 hp tracked tractor С-60 fueled by petroleum ether . In 1937 the factory produced its first diesel-powered vehicle C-65...

 (ChTZ) and PRP-4/PRP-4M artillery reconnaissance vehicles were produced by the Rubtsovsk
Rubtsovsk
Rubtsovsk is a city in Altai Krai, Russia, located on the Aley River southwest of Barnaul. Population: 167,000 ; 111,000 ; 38,000 ....

 Engineering Works (RMZ). Upgrades of the BMP-1 were performed by KMZ as well as by tank repair workshops of the Ministry of Defence during scheduled and major overhauls. More than 20,000 BMP-1s and vehicles based on it were built in the USSR.

BMP-1s were produced under license by Czechoslovakia (BVP-1), Romania (MLI-84
MLI-84
The MLI-84 is a native-made Romanian infantry fighting vehicle currently in service with the Romanian Land Forces. It is basically a stock BMP-1 with a lengthened hull and a 12.7x108mm DShK 1938/46 heavy machine gun mounted on the roof of the troop compartment....

) and India. Since 1986 the People's Republic of China has produced its own unlicensed copy called the Type 86 (WZ 501). The number of Type 86 IFVs and vehicles based on it is around 3,000 It is still in service with the People's Liberation Army
People's Liberation Army
The People's Liberation Army is the unified military organization of all land, sea, strategic missile and air forces of the People's Republic of China. The PLA was established on August 1, 1927 — celebrated annually as "PLA Day" — as the military arm of the Communist Party of China...

. From 1997, Iran produced its own modification of the BMP-1, the Boragh
Boragh
The Boragh is an Iranian-made armoured personnel carrier. Boragh is believed to be a reverse engineered and upgraded model of the Chinese Type 86 . The upgrades include a reduction in weight, a higher road speed, and stronger armor...

, it resembles the Chinese WZ 503.

Czechoslovak BVP-1s were produced by ZTS Dubnica nad Váhom
Dubnica nad Váhom
Dubnica nad Váhom ) is a town in the Ilava District, Trenčín Region in Slovakia.-Geography:It is located on the Váh river, in the Ilava Basin, between the White Carpathians and Strážovské vrchy mountains, at an altitude of 242 metres...

.

Modernization

In the mid 1970s, after analysis of the use of light AFVs during the Yom Kippur
Yom Kippur War
The Yom Kippur War, Ramadan War or October War , also known as the 1973 Arab-Israeli War and the Fourth Arab-Israeli War, was fought from October 6 to 25, 1973, between Israel and a coalition of Arab states led by Egypt and Syria...

, Angolan
Angolan Civil War
The Angolan Civil War was a major civil conflict in the Southern African state of Angola, beginning in 1975 and continuing, with some interludes, until 2002. The war began immediately after Angola became independent from Portugal in November 1975. Prior to this, a decolonisation conflict had taken...

 and Vietnam
Vietnam War
The Vietnam War was a Cold War-era military conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975. This war followed the First Indochina War and was fought between North Vietnam, supported by its communist allies, and the government of...

 wars, a modernization program was begun that resulted in the BMP-1P (Ob'yekt 765 Sp4). The main changes were the replacement of the largely ineffective 9M14M Malyutka ATGM with the more reliable, longer range and more powerful 9P135M or 9P135M-1 ATGM launcher. It was located on a special pintle mount on top of the roof of the turret, that could fire the SACLOS guided 9M113 and 9M113M Konkurs-M ATGMs, which increased armor penetration to 670 mm (26.4 in) and had an extended range of 4000 m (4,374.5 yd). The 9P135M-1 launcher was also capable of firing 9M111 and 9M111-2 Fagot ATGMs. The Malyutka loading hatch was usually welded shut and the mounting bracket was removed. The new missiles were somewhat difficult to use since the gunner had to stand in his open hatch to use the weapon, exposing himself to hostile fire. It is possible to detach the 9P135M(1) ATGM launcher from the turret and use it from the ground. The BMP-1P was equipped with neutron weapon protection covering and a new fire-extinguishing system for protection against napalm
Napalm
Napalm is a thickening/gelling agent generally mixed with gasoline or a similar fuel for use in an incendiary device, primarily as an anti-personnel weapon...

. Later BMP-1Ps were fitted with an array of six 902V "Tucha" 81 millimetres (3.2 in) calibre smoke grenade launchers at the rear of the turret. Some were also equipped with the track-width KMT-10 mine plow. The BMP-1P replaced the BMP-1 in production in 1979 and many BMP-1s were upgraded to the new standard during the 1980s.

The BMP-1PG model added the 30 mm (1.2 in) AGS-17 "Plamya"
AGS-17
The AGS-17 Plamya is a Soviet-designed automatic grenade launcher currently in production in the Russian Federation and in service worldwide.-Description:...

 automatic grenade launcher
Automatic grenade launcher
An automatic grenade launcher or grenade machine gun is a grenade launcher firing rounds in quick succession from an ammunition belt or large-capacity magazine. They can be attached to a tripod. Automatic launchers include the Vektor Y3, AGS-17, and the HK GMG, which all fire at a higher velocity...

 on the left hand side of the top of the turret, for which it carries 290 grenades. Some BMP-1s had the AGS-17 added during major repairs (Ob'yekt 765Sp8).

A non-amphibious BMP-1D (the so-called 'Afghan' variant), was built in 1982 for assault units in Afghanistan. It had 5 mm thick appliqué steel armor plates on the hull sides with holes for side firing ports as well as armor plate under the commander's and driver's seats for added protection against mines. It also had large steel armored skirts fitted to the sides of the hull covering the suspension. Firing ports were added into the top hatches of the troop compartment and a stowage box was placed on the roof at the rear of the hull on some vehicles. The 9S428 ATGM launcher was often removed and replaced by an AGS-17 automatic grenade launcher.

Due to experience in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Afghanistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located in the centre of Asia, forming South Asia, Central Asia and the Middle East. With a population of about 29 million, it has an area of , making it the 42nd most populous and 41st largest nation in the world...

, a new version with enhanced fighting capabilities, the BMP-2
BMP-2
The BMP-2 is a second-generation, amphibious infantry fighting vehicle introduced in the 1980s in the Soviet Union, following the BMP-1 of the 1960s....

, was introduced in 1980. It had a new two-man turret armed with a 30 mm 2A42 multi-purpose autocannon and a 9P135M-1 ATGM launcher capable of firing SACLOS guided 9M113 Konkurs and 9M113M Konkurs-M as well as 9M111 and 9M111-2 Fagot ATGMs.

Later modernization plans included mounting the turret of the BMD-2
BMD-2
The BMD-2 is a Soviet airborne infantry fighting vehicle, which was introduced in 1985. It is a variant of BMD-1 with a new turret and some changes done to the hull. BMD stands for Boyevaya Mashina Desanta...

 IFV on BMP-1s but the vehicle never left the design phase. Recent proposals for the modernization of BMP-1s include mounting new turrets armed with a 25 to 30 mm (0.984251968503937 to 1.2 in) autocannon, or a TKB-799 Kliver one-man weapons station with a computerized fire control system, armed with a missile pod (which can be armed with either four 9M133 Kornet
9M133 Kornet
The Kornet is a Russian anti-tank missile . It is a second generation ATGM intended to deal with main battle tanks and to engage slow and low flying helicopters, but is not intended to fully replace previous systems, due to the cost...

 (AT-14 Spriggan) or 9M133F Kornet ATGMs or 9K38 Igla (SA-18 Grouse) SAMs), a 30 mm 2A72 dual-purpose autocannon and a 7.62 mm (0.3 in) PKTM coaxial machine gun (BMP-1M).

See BMP-1 variants
BMP-1 variants
This is a complete list of variants and designations of the BMP-1 infantry fighting vehicle . It is sorted by country of origin.-Infantry fighting vehicles:...

 article for complete list of BMP-1 modifications and variants based on it.

Description

The BMP-1 is a fully amphibious tracked vehicle, with a front-engined chassis developed especially for it, a welded steel hull with a sharp, sloping front with a conspicuously ridged surface, a centrally located, flat, truncated cone turret and a troop compartment at the rear.

Driver's station

The driver sits in the front on the left side of the hull. He has three TNPO-170 periscope vision-blocks to provide vision when his hatch is closed. The driver's center vision block can be replaced with a TVNO-2 active night binocular vision device for use in night and poor visibility conditions or with a TNPO-350B extended periscope when swimming with the trim vane erected. The BMP was the first Soviet armored vehicle to use a simple yoke steering system.

Commander's station

The commander's station is located behind the driver's station and is provided with a removable OU-3GA2 or OU-3GK infrared
Infrared
Infrared light is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength longer than that of visible light, measured from the nominal edge of visible red light at 0.74 micrometres , and extending conventionally to 300 µm...

 searchlight with an effective range of about 400 metres (437.4 yd). A dual mode (day/night) TKN-3B 5x/4.2x magnification binocular vision device is coupled to the infrared searchlight. Two periscope vision blocks are also fitted with a heating and cleaning system. The commander's station is equipped with a R-123M radio set.

Turret

The BMP-1 has a conical turret equipped with a fume extraction system and an electric traverse drive with a manual backup system. The main gun has a dead-zone over the commander's hatch (between the 10:00 and 11:00 o'clock positions), where the gun must be elevated over the infra-red searchlight to avoid crushing it. When the gun is facing backwards it prevents hatches on top of the troop compartment from opening. The low profile of the turret means that the barrel of the gun is less than six feet off the ground, so it cannot be fired over the heads of advancing infantry. On the other hand, the low profile of the turret makes it a difficult target. The same turret is used in the BMD-1
BMD-1
The BMD-1 is a Soviet airborne amphibious tracked infantry fighting vehicle, which was introduced in 1969 and first seen by the West in 1970. BMD stands for Boyevaya Mashina Desanta . It can be dropped by parachute and although it resembles the BMP-1 it is in fact much smaller...

.

Gunner's station

The gunner's station is located to the left of the main gun. The gunner has a dual mode (day/night) 1PN22M1 6x/6.7x magnification image intensifying
Image intensifier
An image intensifier tube is a vacuum tube device for increasing the intensity of available light in an optical system to allow use under low light conditions such as at night, to facilitate visual imaging of low-light processes such as fluorescence of materials to X-rays or gamma rays, or for...

 monocular periscope sight, four day-use periscope vision blocks, an optical rangefinder and a OU-3GK removable infrared
Infrared
Infrared light is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength longer than that of visible light, measured from the nominal edge of visible red light at 0.74 micrometres , and extending conventionally to 300 µm...

 or white-light searchlight. The 1PN22M1 sight has a maximum range of 400 metres (437.4 yd) at night, 900 metres (984.3 yd) with the use of the infra-red searchlight. The sight is marked stadiametricly with the apparent size of a 2.7 metres (8.9 ft) tall tank at various ranges.

The original sight was replaced with the 1PN22M2, which has an additional scale for the OG-15V HE-Frag rounds used by the Ob'yekt 765Sp3, produced from July 1974. The new sight has two day scales for the two projectiles – one from 200 to 1600 m (218.7 to 1,749.8 yd) and the other from 400 to 1300 m (437.4 to 1,421.7 yd).

Armament

Gun
Main armament is the 73 mm 2A28 "Grom" low pressure smoothbore semi-automatic gun. It is fed from a forty round magazine located around the turret ring. Cyclic rate of fire
Rate of fire
Rate of fire is the frequency at which a specific weapon can fire or launch its projectiles. It is usually measured in rounds per minute , or per second .-Overview:...

 is 8 to 10 rounds per minute, with the gun returning to an elevation of +3° 30' to reload after each shot if the autoloader is used. The gun can be reloaded by hand if necessary. The autoloader is unreliable and can be dangerous to the crew. Some units removed the autoloader altogether when new vehicles were delivered, but the mechanized ammunition conveyor magazine was kept. High explosive ammunition, introduced in 1974, can only be loaded manually, from a conveyor.

The 2A28 'Grom' smoothbore gun fires the same PG-15V projectiles as the SPG-9
SPG-9
The SPG-9 Kopye is a Russian tripod-mounted man-portable, 73 millimetre calibre recoilless gun developed by the Soviet Union. It fires fin-stabilised, rocket-assisted HE and HEAT projectiles similar to those fired by the 73 mm 2A28 Grom low pressure gun of the BMP-1 vehicle...

 infantry light recoilless gun but with a smaller propellant charge. The PG-15V HEAT warhead can penetrate 280 to 350 mm (11 to 13.8 in) of steel armor – more than enough to penetrate the frontal armor of NATO MBTs of the 1970s, such as the US M60A1
M60 Patton
The 105 mm Gun Full Tracked Combat Tank, M60, also known unofficially as the M60 Patton, is a first-generation main battle tank introduced in December 1960. It was widely used by the U.S. and its Cold War allies, especially those in NATO, and remains in service throughout the world today...

, the British Chieftain
Chieftain tank
The FV 4201 Chieftain was the main battle tank of the United Kingdom during the 1960s and 1970s. It was one of the most advanced tanks of its era, and at the time of its introduction in 1966 had the most powerful main gun and heaviest armour of any tank in the world...

 or the German Leopard 1
Leopard tank
The Leopard is a main battle tank designed and produced in West Germany that first entered service in 1965. Developed in an era when HEAT warheads were thought to make conventional heavy armour of limited value, the Leopard focussed on firepower in the form of the German-built version of the...

. The modernized PG-9 shell is able to penetrate up to 400 mm (15.7 in) of steel armor. This gun is unable to penetrate the front armor of modern NATO MBTs such as the US M1A1 Abrams
M1 Abrams
The M1 Abrams is a third-generation main battle tank produced in the United States. It is named after General Creighton Abrams, former Army Chief of Staff and Commander of US military forces in Vietnam from 1968 to 1972. The M1 is a well armed, heavily armored, and highly mobile tank designed for...

, the British Challenger 2
Challenger 2 tank
FV4034 Challenger 2 is a British main battle tank currently in service with the armies of the United Kingdom and Oman. It was designed and built by the British company Vickers Defence Systems . The manufacturer advertises it as the world's most reliable main battle tank...

, or the German Leopard 2
Leopard 2
The Leopard 2 is a main battle tank developed by Krauss-Maffei in the early 1970s for the West German Army. The tank first entered service in 1979 and succeeded the earlier Leopard 1 as the main battle tank of the German Army. Various versions have served in the armed forces of Germany and twelve...

, but it has been claimed that it can penetrate the side armor of these tanks in some areas. Under battlefield conditions it has a maximum effective range of 500 m (546.8 yd).

OG-15V high explosive ammunition was made available only from 1974. The warhead has twice the weight of explosives as the anti-armor PG-15V; it is intended for use against troops or soft target
Soft target
Soft target is a military term referring to unarmored/undefended targets needing to be destroyed. For example, a soft target would be an automobile, a house, or assembly of people while a hard target could be a main battle tank or a well defended installation...

s.

A coaxial 7.62 mm PKT machine gun is mounted to the right of the main armament for which the BMP-1 carries 2,000 rounds.

The 2A28 'Grom' gun and PKT coaxial machine gun cannot be accurately fired while the vehicle is on the move over rough ground as the turret is unstabilised.

Missile

Mounted on the gun mantlet, the ATGM launcher is capable of firing the 9M14 Malyutka, (NATO: AT-3A Sagger A); the 9M14M Malyutka-M (NATO: AT-3B Sagger B) and the 9M14P Malyutka-P (NATO: AT-3C Sagger C), all of which are intended to be used against enemy MBTs and other AFVs at distances from 500 to 3000 m (546.8 to 3,280.8 yd). These ATGMs can penetrate up to 400 mm (15.7 in) of steel armor (NATO standard at the time). 9M14P missile can be used in manual mode only, like older missiles, without advantages of semi-automatic guidance.

The BMP-1 carries 4 ATGMs with their launching rails as a standard (two inside the turret and two inside the hull). In theory, the fifth missile can be carried upon the launcher. The missiles are loaded onto a rail launcher through a small rectangular hatch in a turret's roof behind the launcher. Each 9M14M weighs 10.9 kg (24 lb), a 9M14P is 11.4 kg (25.1 lb). These missiles can only be fired in daylight because it lacks a night sight. A guidance device used in BMP-1 has symbol 9S428. Besides such advantages as interference immunity and simple control equipment, wire-guided ATGMs are hampered by significant disadvantages such as: a relatively low flight speed, response delay, the inability to load a new missile until the previous one has reached its target and a very long minimum range (500 m (546.8 yd)). Successful operation of the ATGM while the vehicle is on the move requires a very skilled gunner.

BMP-1s that were not modernized to BMP-1P standard now in Russian service can use 9M14-2 Malyutka-2 (NATO: AT-3D Sagger D) ATGMs (developed in 1995), which have either a tandem shaped-charge or high-explosive thermobaric warhead.

The BMP-1 was a threat to NATO APCs, light AFVs, and even MBTs of its time, by use of its main gun or ATGM. Nevertheless, the strong anti-tank focus of its armament didn't provide sufficient firepower against enemy unarmored vehicles, infantry and light fortified positions, especially during mountain battles, (mostly due to the low elevation angle of the main gun). The appearance of the more successful BMP-2
BMP-2
The BMP-2 is a second-generation, amphibious infantry fighting vehicle introduced in the 1980s in the Soviet Union, following the BMP-1 of the 1960s....

 armed with the 30 mm 2A42 dual-purpose autocannon solved this serious problem.

Troop compartment

The troop compartment located at the rear of the vehicle can carry up to eight soldiers. There are four firing ports on each side of the vehicle and a single firing port in the left rear door; a combination fume extractor hose and cartridge deflector is provided to clip on to weapons at each station.
Soldiers sit on two padded benches along the center line of the vehicle and face the sides. Vehicle batteries, electric equipment and the main 330 l (697.4 US pt) fuel tank are located between the benches, with tool stowage beneath. There are four large D-shaped hatches in the roof of the hull which can be opened from the troop compartment. The airtight rear doors of the troop compartment also contain fuel tanks.

Space inside the troop compartment is limited. There is little room for personal equipment, which leads to it being stowed outside while on operation, sometimes limiting rearward traverse of the turret. The seating is also cramped, especially for troops in full battle dress, leading to some armies reducing troop capacity to seven.

Maneuverability

The 300 horsepower
Horsepower
Horsepower is the name of several units of measurement of power. The most common definitions equal between 735.5 and 750 watts.Horsepower was originally defined to compare the output of steam engines with the power of draft horses in continuous operation. The unit was widely adopted to measure the...

 (224 kW) UTD-20 six-cylinder four-stroke diesel engine
Diesel engine
A diesel engine is an internal combustion engine that uses the heat of compression to initiate ignition to burn the fuel, which is injected into the combustion chamber...

 is located in the centre of the front hull, behind the transmission, with the cooling system to the right and radiator above. The engine drives a manual gearbox with five forward and one reverse gear. The fuel tanks have a maximum capacity of 462 liters. The diesel engine is of a multifuel design and can use DL (summer) or DZ (winter). It can also use TS-1 kerosene.

The BMP-1 has a maximum road speed of 65 kilometres per hour (40.4 mph), which is reduced to around 45 kilometres per hour (28 mph) off-road.

The BMP-1 can climb 0.7 metres (2.3 ft) high vertical obstacles, and cross 2.5 metres (2.7 yd) wide trenches. It can be driven on 25° side slopes and can climb 35° gradients.

Drive sprockets are at the front with six road wheels, using torsion bar suspension. The BMP-1 has a ground pressure of (0.6 kg/cm²) and is able to cross snow-covered and boggy terrain. It has the range, off-road speed and cross-country ability necessary to keep up with fast-moving MBTs.

Amphibious capability

The BMP-1 is amphibious
Amphibious warfare
Amphibious warfare is the use of naval firepower, logistics and strategy to project military power ashore. In previous eras it stood as the primary method of delivering troops to non-contiguous enemy-held terrain...

, propelling itself in the water using its tracks, assisted by hydrodynamic fairings on the track upper side covers. Top swimming speed is 8 kilometres per hour (5 mph). The shape of the hull and some features (hollow road wheels and road wheel arms with air chambers) aid flotation. The BMP-1 can overcome water barriers with a current speed up to 1.2 metres (1.3 yd) per second and waves up to 0.25 metre (0.820209973753281 ft) high. More challenging conditions require engineer support.

Before entering the water the trim vane at the front of the hull should be erected to prevent water from flooding over the bow. While in its traveling position it serves as additional frontal armor. The rear doors of the troop compartment must be closed tightly before entering the water.

The BMP-1 can cross water obstacles such as rivers and lakes but it is not intended for sea landing operations.

Armor protection

The vehicle's armor is welded rolled steel varying in thickness between 6 millimetre (0.236220472440945 in) thick on the top of the hull and 33 millimetres (1.3 in) on the mantlet of the main gun. The original requirements called for protection against 23 millimeter armor-piercing rounds across the frontal arc fired from 500 metres (546.8 yd) and for protection against 7.62 millimeter armor-piercing rounds across the side and rear arcs from 75 metres (82 yd).

The BMP-1's steeply sloped frontal armor can withstand artillery shell fragments, small arms fire and existing .50 caliber (12.7 mm) heavy machine gun AP and API rounds over 60° of the frontal arc from all distances. The very high angle of the hull frontal armor increases the probability of ricochets, and the trim vane in the traveling position adds little additional protection. On most examples the front armor is immune to 20 millimeter Oerlikon
Oerlikon 20 mm cannon
The Oerlikon 20 mm cannon is a series of autocannons, based on an original design by Reinhold Becker of Germany, very early in World War I, and widely produced by Oerlikon Contraves and others...

 KAD or HS820 auto-cannon fire from ranges greater than 100 meters, but armor quality varies quite significantly with the nationality of a factory.

The side, rear and top armor protect the BMP-1 from 7.62 mm small arms fire from most distances as well as smaller artillery shell fragments but do not protect the vehicle against 12.7 mm heavy machine gun fire from close distances or larger artillery shell fragments. Nevertheless, ground tests demonstrated that rear doors with fuel tanks filled with sand withstood hits from standard 12.7 mm rounds. In Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Afghanistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located in the centre of Asia, forming South Asia, Central Asia and the Middle East. With a population of about 29 million, it has an area of , making it the 42nd most populous and 41st largest nation in the world...

 and Chechnya
Chechnya
The Chechen Republic , commonly referred to as Chechnya , also spelled Chechnia or Chechenia, sometimes referred to as Ichkeria , is a federal subject of Russia . It is located in the southeastern part of Europe in the Northern Caucasus mountains. The capital of the republic is the city of Grozny...

 armor-piercing 7.62 mm rounds fired from general-purpose machine guns at ranges of around 30 – 50 m sometimes penetrated the rear doors and hatches. During the First Persian Gulf War the armor protection of the BMP-1 proved vulnerable to the armor-piercing rounds of the US M2/M3 Bradley's 25 millimetre (0.984251968503937 in) M242 Bushmaster
M242 Bushmaster
The M242 Bushmaster is a 25 mm chain-fed autocannon. It is used extensively by the US armed forces, as well as by NATO's and some other nations' forces in ground combat vehicles and watercraft...

 autocannon. During the intense fighting in Chechnya
Chechnya
The Chechen Republic , commonly referred to as Chechnya , also spelled Chechnia or Chechenia, sometimes referred to as Ichkeria , is a federal subject of Russia . It is located in the southeastern part of Europe in the Northern Caucasus mountains. The capital of the republic is the city of Grozny...

, no penetration of the BMP-1/BMD-1 turret front armor were noticed because the turret made for a small target and had relatively thick frontal armor compared to other parts of the vehicle.

Armor

26–33 mm gun mantlet
23 mm at 42° turret front
19 mm at 36° turret side
13 mm at 30° turret rear
6 mm turret top

7 mm at 80° upper hull front
19 mm at 57° hull lower front
16 mm at 14° hull upper side
18 mm at 0° hull lower side
16 mm at 19° hull rear

6 mm hull top
7 mm hull belly rear


Protection issues

The BMP-1 had significant shortcomings in its protection scheme, which only became obvious during the Soviet War in Afghanistan
Soviet war in Afghanistan
The Soviet war in Afghanistan was a nine-year conflict involving the Soviet Union, supporting the Marxist-Leninist government of the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan against the Afghan Mujahideen and foreign "Arab–Afghan" volunteers...

. It seats its driver and commander in a tandem layout, on the left hand side of the front of the hull alongside the diesel engine. When an antitank mine hits the BMP-1's left track, the explosion usually destroyed one to three left hand side roadwheels, penetrated the bottom and killed or seriously wounded the driver and the commander which caused painful losses of specialist personnel in the Soviet Army
Soviet Army
The Soviet Army is the name given to the main part of the Armed Forces of the Soviet Union between 1946 and 1992. Previously, it had been known as the Red Army. Informally, Армия referred to all the MOD armed forces, except, in some cases, the Soviet Navy.This article covers the Soviet Ground...

. Drivers laid sandbags on the bottom of their compartment in an effort to protect themselves against possible mine attack. The same kind of explosion under the right track were much less dramatic for the driver and the commander who remained relatively safe. If the vehicle hit a tilt-rod antitank mine, its steeply sloped lower front glacis plate allowed the mine's arming rod to tilt with little resistance until the mine was well under the chassis. When it eventually detonated, the blast was usually sufficient to kill or badly wound the driver and the commander. The Soviet 40th Army in Afghanistan began to receive improved BMP-1Ds (the so-called "Afghan" variant) from 1982 onward which, among other improvements, included an additional armored plate under the driver's and commander's stations. This situation was addressed in the later BMP-2 design, where the commander shares the two-man turret with the gunner. The driver's and engine compartments could be equipped with additional bottom armor for improved protection against landmines filled with up to 2.5 kilograms (5.5 lb) of explosives.

There is also a protection issue concerning the reloading of the 9M14 "Malyutka" and 9M14M "Malyutka-M" ATGMs in NBC conditions because doing it through the small hatch from inside the vehicle would destroy whatever protection the fighting compartment's NBC protection suite gave.

The compactness and low silhouette of the vehicle are generally advantages on a battlefield. Critical areas such as the engine compartment and ammunition storage area, fuel cells and the troop compartment are located in such a manner that became the standard for many IFVs and APCs. Penetration anywhere in these areas will often result in mobility and/or firepower damage and/or disabling of the personnel.

BMP-1 and BMP-2 series vehicles share a major drawback with many Soviet tanks. Ammunition is stored near or even inside the fighting compartment which makes them more vulnerable to a hit from an anti-tank round or a missile across the side arc. If that happens, the ammunition often explodes, killing everyone and completely destroying the vehicle. During the fighting in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Afghanistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located in the centre of Asia, forming South Asia, Central Asia and the Middle East. With a population of about 29 million, it has an area of , making it the 42nd most populous and 41st largest nation in the world...

 and Chechnya
Chechnya
The Chechen Republic , commonly referred to as Chechnya , also spelled Chechnia or Chechenia, sometimes referred to as Ichkeria , is a federal subject of Russia . It is located in the southeastern part of Europe in the Northern Caucasus mountains. The capital of the republic is the city of Grozny...

, hits by rocket-propelled grenades (RPGs) penetrated the BMP-1's armor in 95% of cases. This often resulted in the vehicle burning until the ammunition exploded. Due to these limitations, Soviet/Russian soldiers customarily rode on the outside of the BMP-1, sitting on top of the hull while in combat zones. This tactic had also been adopted by their American counterparts during the Vietnam war, when they found their own M113 APCs were vulnerable to RPG attack. It has an obvious downside on the likelihood of passenger survivability in a war-zone. The armor of BMP-1 IFVs is also insufficient to deal with AP cannon rounds – sufficiently thick armor would increase the weight of the BMP-1 considerably and jeopardize its amphibious ability. Some military analysts support the idea of returning to the concept of open-topped APCs as the armor of light AFVs cannot protect the crew from anti-tank weapons. Modern APCs are mostly used in local conflicts instead of hypothetical large-scale wars with NBC weapons.
The problem most often cited by western analysts is the design of the main fuel tank. Due to the low profile of the vehicle the designers have had to place the fuel tank between the two rows of outward-facing seats, meaning that the infantrymen sit very close to the bulk of the vehicle's fuel storage, extra fuel is carried in the hollow armored rear doors. Therefore a hit by an armor-piercing incendiary round would set the fuel contained there (especially, if kerosene is used instead of diesel), on fire. The burning fuel would move into the crew compartment, resulting in the death or injury to the infantrymen (if they are unable to leave the vehicle via the roof hatches), and a possible explosion. However, the rear door tanks are almost always empty when the BMP goes into combat as they are only meant to increase the road travel range of the vehicle. In intense war areas where the BMP sees action often and it is relatively near to its base of operations, instructions highly recommend detaching the rear door tanks from the fuel system, filling them with sand as additional protection of the troop compartment and adding fuel to the internal main fuel tank from other sources when the need arises. This was not practiced by some crews of BMP-1s during a number of local conflicts, e.g., in Chechnya, which resulted in frequent attempts by the enemy to hit the rear doors of the BMP-1s. The inner fuel tank is more vulnerable than that of many modern IFVs – the thin side armor means that penetration is likely to occur to the inner fuel tank as well.

Another potential flaw in the BMP-1 is its troop seating layout. In order to allow the infantrymen to use their assault rifles and machine guns while on the move, firing ports were installed in the sides of the hull and in the left rear door. Soldiers are seated on two back-to-back benches, mounted along the center line of the troop compartment. If hit by a more advanced type of magnetic anti-tank mine, the resulting explosion could kill the entire complement of infantrymen. In many other troop carriers, soldiers are seated on separate benches against the hull sides. This layout might prohibit the use of infantry weapons from inside the troop compartment, but in most cases the loss of life from a mine would be significantly less, although the loss of lower limbs would still be frequent. It should also be noted that most conscript soldiers do not receive much training in firing from inside the vehicle while it's moving. Even for professional soldiers, the unstabilized firing port periscope
Periscope
A periscope is an instrument for observation from a concealed position. In its simplest form it consists of a tube with mirrors at each end set parallel to each other at a 45-degree angle....

s makes it very difficult to conduct aimed fire while on the move. Nevertheless, the ability of soldiers to use their weapons from inside the vehicle is of extreme importance during urban warfare
Urban warfare
Urban warfare is combat conducted in urban areas such as towns and cities. Urban combat is very different from combat in the open at both the operational and tactical level...

, especially, when repulsing enemy ambushes.

The BMP-1 has no air conditioning or air cooling system, its crew members and passengers suffer heavily in hot climates as its air filtration system and exhaust-ventilation fans cannot provide any comfort at high temperatures. During the Yom Kippur War
Yom Kippur War
The Yom Kippur War, Ramadan War or October War , also known as the 1973 Arab-Israeli War and the Fourth Arab-Israeli War, was fought from October 6 to 25, 1973, between Israel and a coalition of Arab states led by Egypt and Syria...

 crews kept some of the roof hatches open. This meant that they were vulnerable to machine gun fire from higher ground. Only a few examples of the BMP-1 were intended for export – mainly to countries with a hot climate (for example, the Slovak-Belorussian "Cobra-S"), they are equipped with an air conditioning system. The cooling system for the engine is improved, as is the additional forced air cooling system of the engine compartment and radiator. The exhaust system helps to eject gases together with hot air from the engine compartment through the grille located on the right-hand side of the hull roof in front of the turret.

Equipment

The BMP-1 can make its own smoke screen by injecting vaporized diesel fuel into the exhaust manifold using the TDA engine thermal smoke generating system. Later models also have an array of 902V Tucha smoke grenade launchers which can form a screen 80 m (87.5 yd) wide, 200 to 300 m (218.7 to 328.1 yd) in front of the vehicle.

A number of BMP-1s were fitted with mountings for the KMT-10 plow-type of mine-clearing system in the early 1980s. It is installed on the front of the hull in line with the tracks. The plow weighs 450 kg (992.1 lb) and can be attached in 30 minutes, emergency detaching takes around 10 minutes. The KMT-10 is intended for clearing anti-tank mines under different ground conditions. It is pneumatically driven and takes 4 seconds to switch from the traveling position to the digging position. The mine-clearing plows are very narrow, with just two digging tines, each 300 mm (11.8 in) wide, (the same as each track), which limits them to clearing surface-laid mines, in particular scatterable anti-tank mines. A chain mounted between the plows can detonate tilt-rod mines. Maximum mine-clearing speed is 15 km/h (9.3 mph).

When the NBC protection system is configured and operating, the crew and passengers are protected from chemical weapons, biological agents and nuclear fallout
Nuclear fallout
Fallout is the residual radioactive material propelled into the upper atmosphere following a nuclear blast, so called because it "falls out" of the sky after the explosion and shock wave have passed. It commonly refers to the radioactive dust and ash created when a nuclear weapon explodes...

 by an air filtration and overpressure system which consists of the NBC filter element and the blower/dust separator.

BMP-1s were equipped with one RPG-7
RPG-7
The RPG-7 is a widely-produced, portable, unguided, shoulder-launched, anti-tank rocket-propelled grenade launcher. Originally the RPG-7 and its predecessor, the RPG-2, were designed by the Soviet Union, and now manufactured by the Bazalt company...

/RPG-7V shoulder-launched anti-tank rocket-propelled grenade (RPG) and five PG-7 rounds or one 9K32 Strela-2/9K38 Igla man-portable anti-aircraft missile launcher and two replacement missiles. It carries 1600 rounds for two PK
PK
- Gaming :* Pk, or Probability of kill * Disney's PK: Out of the Shadows, a video game* Player killing, player versus player conflict in MMORPGs and MUDs- Geography :* Pakistan * Park...

 general-purpose machine guns.

Soviet Union and Russia

The BMP-1 entered service with the Soviet Army in 1966. The BMP-1 was first seen by westerners during the 7 November 1967 military parade in Moscow. Its appearance created a stir in the West where lightly armed APCs were still the norm for transportation and infantry support on the battlefield.

In the Soviet Army, BMP-1s were typically issued to motorized rifle divisions and the motorized rifle regiments of tank divisions, where they replaced the BTR-152
BTR-152
The BTR-152 was a non-amphibious Soviet wheeled armored personnel carrier that entered Soviet service in 1950. By the early 1970s it had been replaced in the infantry vehicle role by the BTR-60...

, BTR-50P and some BTR-60P APCs.

Currently, BMP-1s and vehicles based on it are used by the Russian Army and internal security troops of the Russian Ministry of Internal Affairs
Russian Ministry of Internal Affairs
The Ministerstvo Vnutrennikh Del is the interior ministry of Russia. Its predecessor was founded in 1802 by Alexander I in Imperial Russia...

 (MVD).

Afghanistan

BMP-1s were widely used in Afghanistan
Soviet war in Afghanistan
The Soviet war in Afghanistan was a nine-year conflict involving the Soviet Union, supporting the Marxist-Leninist government of the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan against the Afghan Mujahideen and foreign "Arab–Afghan" volunteers...

 by motorized rifle and tank units. They were also operated by some special forces. Due to its lackluster performance, a new up-armored variant, designated the BMP-1D (the so-called 'Afghan' variant), was rushed into service in 1982. Many field modifications were made to their BMP-1s by various units.

Others

Other BMP operators have included Poland
Poland
Poland , officially the Republic of Poland , is a country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west; the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south; Ukraine, Belarus and Lithuania to the east; and the Baltic Sea and Kaliningrad Oblast, a Russian exclave, to the north...

, Egypt, Syria
Syria
Syria , officially the Syrian Arab Republic , is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the West, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest....

, the People's Republic of China, Afghanistan, India
India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

, Iraq, Germany, Greece, and Sweden
Sweden
Sweden , officially the Kingdom of Sweden , is a Nordic country on the Scandinavian Peninsula in Northern Europe. Sweden borders with Norway and Finland and is connected to Denmark by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund....

.

See also

Comparable vehicles
  • BMD-1
    BMD-1
    The BMD-1 is a Soviet airborne amphibious tracked infantry fighting vehicle, which was introduced in 1969 and first seen by the West in 1970. BMD stands for Boyevaya Mashina Desanta . It can be dropped by parachute and although it resembles the BMP-1 it is in fact much smaller...

     – related family of Soviet airborne
    Airborne forces
    Airborne forces are military units, usually light infantry, set up to be moved by aircraft and 'dropped' into battle. Thus they can be placed behind enemy lines, and have an ability to deploy almost anywhere with little warning...

     fighting vehicles.
  • BMP-2
    BMP-2
    The BMP-2 is a second-generation, amphibious infantry fighting vehicle introduced in the 1980s in the Soviet Union, following the BMP-1 of the 1960s....

  • BMP-3
    BMP-3
    The BMP-3 is a Russian amphibious infantry fighting vehicle, successor to the BMP-1 and BMP-2. BMP stands for Boyevaya Mashina Pekhoty .- Production history :...

  • MLI-84
    MLI-84
    The MLI-84 is a native-made Romanian infantry fighting vehicle currently in service with the Romanian Land Forces. It is basically a stock BMP-1 with a lengthened hull and a 12.7x108mm DShK 1938/46 heavy machine gun mounted on the roof of the troop compartment....

     – a Romanian IFV based on a modified BMP chassis.
  • Marder (IFV)
    Marder (IFV)
    The Marder is a German infantry fighting vehicle operated by the German Army as the main weapon of the Panzergrenadiere from the 1970s through the present day. Developed as part of the rebuilding of Germany's armoured fighting vehicle industry, the Marder has proven to be a successful and solid...

    , (German) .
  • M2 Bradley
    M2 Bradley
    The Bradley Fighting Vehicle is an American fighting vehicle platform manufactured by BAE Systems Land and Armaments, formerly United Defense.As with other infantry fighting vehicles, the Bradley is designed to transport infantry with armor protection while providing covering fire to suppress enemy...

     (US)
  • Combat Vehicle 90
    Combat Vehicle 90
    The Combat Vehicle 90 or Stridsfordon 90 is a Swedish infantry fighting vehicle designed by Hägglunds where the first generation was fitted with a Bofors turret. It is currently produced by BAE Systems Hägglunds.-Background:...

  • Warrior IFV
    Warrior Tracked Armoured Vehicle
    The Warrior tracked vehicle family is a series of British armoured vehicles, originally developed to replace the older FV430 series of armoured vehicles. The Warrior started life as the MCV-80 project that was first broached in the 1970s, GKN Sankey/Defence winning the production contract in 1980....

    (UK)

External links

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