BAC One-Eleven
Overview
 
The British Aircraft Corporation One-Eleven, also known as the BAC-111, BAC-1-11 or BAC 1-11, was a British short-range jet airliner
Jet airliner
A jet airliner is an airliner that is powered by jet engines. This term is sometimes contracted to jetliner or jet.In contrast to today's relatively fuel-efficient, turbofan-powered air travel, first generation jet airliner travel was noisy and fuel inefficient...

 of the 1960s and 1970s. Conceived by Hunting Aircraft
Hunting Aircraft
Hunting Aircraft was a British aircraft manufacturer, that produced light training aircraft and initially designed the BAC 1-11 jet airliner. The company, based in Luton, merged with other companies to form the British Aircraft Corporation in 1959.-History:...

, it was developed and produced by the British Aircraft Corporation
British Aircraft Corporation
The British Aircraft Corporation was a British aircraft manufacturer formed from the government-pressured merger of English Electric Aviation Ltd., Vickers-Armstrongs , the Bristol Aeroplane Company and Hunting Aircraft in 1960. Bristol, English Electric and Vickers became "parents" of BAC with...

 when Hunting merged into BAC along with other British aircraft makers in 1960.

The One-Eleven was designed to replace the Vickers Viscount
Vickers Viscount
The Vickers Viscount was a British medium-range turboprop airliner first flown in 1948 by Vickers-Armstrongs, making it the first such aircraft to enter service in the world...

 on short-range routes.
Encyclopedia
The British Aircraft Corporation One-Eleven, also known as the BAC-111, BAC-1-11 or BAC 1-11, was a British short-range jet airliner
Jet airliner
A jet airliner is an airliner that is powered by jet engines. This term is sometimes contracted to jetliner or jet.In contrast to today's relatively fuel-efficient, turbofan-powered air travel, first generation jet airliner travel was noisy and fuel inefficient...

 of the 1960s and 1970s. Conceived by Hunting Aircraft
Hunting Aircraft
Hunting Aircraft was a British aircraft manufacturer, that produced light training aircraft and initially designed the BAC 1-11 jet airliner. The company, based in Luton, merged with other companies to form the British Aircraft Corporation in 1959.-History:...

, it was developed and produced by the British Aircraft Corporation
British Aircraft Corporation
The British Aircraft Corporation was a British aircraft manufacturer formed from the government-pressured merger of English Electric Aviation Ltd., Vickers-Armstrongs , the Bristol Aeroplane Company and Hunting Aircraft in 1960. Bristol, English Electric and Vickers became "parents" of BAC with...

 when Hunting merged into BAC along with other British aircraft makers in 1960.

The One-Eleven was designed to replace the Vickers Viscount
Vickers Viscount
The Vickers Viscount was a British medium-range turboprop airliner first flown in 1948 by Vickers-Armstrongs, making it the first such aircraft to enter service in the world...

 on short-range routes. Following the French Sud Aviation Caravelle
Sud Aviation Caravelle
The Sud Aviation SE 210 Caravelle was the first short/medium-range jet airliner produced by the French Sud Aviation firm starting in 1955 . The Caravelle was one of the more successful European first generation jetliners, selling throughout Europe and even penetrating the United States market, with...

, it was the second short-haul
Short haul
The following is a list of commercial short-haul civilian passenger "jet airliners," recent, operating, or proposed. These include early generation turbojet, fanjet, and turbofan powered aircraft designed for none transoceanic intercontinental routes operations or flights.For short haul pertaining...

 jet airliner to enter service. This gave it the advantage of more efficient engines and previous jet-airliner experiences, making it a popular model; over half its sales at launch were to the largest and most lucrative market, the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

. The One-Eleven was one of the most successful British airliner designs and served until its widespread retirement in the 1990s due to noise restrictions.

Early development

In 1956, both Vickers and Hunting started design studies on jet replacements for the Viscount. Vickers offered a 140-seat development of its VC10
Vickers VC10
The Vickers VC10 is a long-range British airliner designed and built by Vickers-Armstrongs Ltd, and first flown in 1962. The airliner was designed to operate on long-distance routes with a high subsonic speed and also be capable of hot and high operations from African airports...

 project: the VC11. Hunting offered the all-new 100-seat Hunting 107. In 1960 Hunting, under British government pressure, merged with Vickers-Armstrongs, Bristol
Bristol Aeroplane Company
The Bristol Aeroplane Company, originally the British and Colonial Aeroplane Company, was both one of the first and one of the most important British aviation companies, designing and manufacturing both airframes and aero engines...

, and English Electric
English Electric
English Electric was a British industrial manufacturer. Founded in 1918, it initially specialised in industrial electric motors and transformers...

 to form BAC.

In 1961, BAC decided to continue work on the Hunting 107 as a private venture. It redesignated it One-Eleven, meaning the first BAC project and the eleventh Vickers civil aircraft. Because of the short delay over the merger, the One-Eleven was able to use the new Rolls-Royce Spey turbofan
Turbofan
The turbofan is a type of airbreathing jet engine that is widely used for aircraft propulsion. A turbofan combines two types of engines, the turbo portion which is a conventional gas turbine engine, and the fan, a propeller-like ducted fan...

, greatly improving its fuel economy. BAC was concerned the aircraft was too large to fit the Viscount role in the original configuration, and reduced its capacity to 80 seats; this version became the One-Eleven 200, the original design having retroactively become the 100.

On 9 May 1961 British United Airways
British United Airways
British United Airways was a private, independentindependent from government-owned corporations British airline formed as a result of the merger of Airwork Services and Hunting-Clan Air Transport in July 1960, making it the largest wholly private airline based in the United Kingdom at the time...

 (BUA) placed the first order for ten One-Eleven 200s. On 23 October Braniff Airways in the United States ordered six. Mohawk Airlines
Mohawk Airlines
Mohawk Airlines was an airline that operated in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, primarily the states of New York and Pennsylvania from the mid-1940s until its acquisition by Allegheny Airlines in 1972...

 sent representatives to Europe seeking out a new aircraft to bring them into the jet era, and on 24 July 1962 concluded an agreement for four One-Elevens. Other orders followed from Kuwait Airways
Kuwait Airways
Kuwait Airways is the national airline of Kuwait, with its head office on the grounds of Kuwait International Airport, Al Farwaniyah Governorate. It operates scheduled international services throughout the Middle East, to the Indian subcontinent, Europe, Southeast Asia and North America, from its...

 for three, and Central African Airways
Central African Airways
Central African Airways was formed in 1946 from the wartime Southern Rhodesian Air Services , which was in turn formed from the pre-war Rhodesia And Nyasaland Airways and Southern Rhodesia Air Force communications squadron...

 for two. Braniff subsequently doubled its order to twelve, while Aer Lingus
Aer Lingus
Aer Lingus Group Plc is the flag carrier of Ireland. It operates a fleet of Airbus aircraft serving Europe and North America. It is Ireland's oldest extant airline, and its second largest after low-cost rival Ryanair...

 ordered four. Western Airlines
Western Airlines
Western Airlines was a large airline based in California, with operations throughout the Western United States, and hubs at Los Angeles International Airport, Salt Lake City International Airport, and the former Stapleton International Airport in Denver...

 ordered ten aircraft but later cancelled. Bonanza Air Lines
Bonanza Air Lines
Bonanza Air Lines was an international and domestic regional airline in operation from 1945 to 1968, with routes in the Western United States and Mexico...

 also wanted to order One-Elevens at a later stage but was stopped by protectionist
Protectionism
Protectionism is the economic policy of restraining trade between states through methods such as tariffs on imported goods, restrictive quotas, and a variety of other government regulations designed to allow "fair competition" between imports and goods and services produced domestically.This...

 action of the United States Department of Transportation
United States Department of Transportation
The United States Department of Transportation is a federal Cabinet department of the United States government concerned with transportation. It was established by an act of Congress on October 15, 1966, and began operation on April 1, 1967...

.

In May 1963, BAC announced the One-Eleven 300 and 400. The new versions used the Mk. 511 version of the Spey with increased power, allowing more fuel upload and hence longer range. The difference between the 300 and 400 lay in their equipment and avionics
Avionics
Avionics are electronic systems used on aircraft, artificial satellites and spacecraft.Avionic systems include communications, navigation, the display and management of multiple systems and the hundreds of systems that are fitted to aircraft to meet individual roles...

, with the 400 intended for sales in the USA and thus equipped with US instruments. On 17 July 1963, American Airlines
American Airlines
American Airlines, Inc. is the world's fourth-largest airline in passenger miles transported and operating revenues. American Airlines is a subsidiary of the AMR Corporation and is headquartered in Fort Worth, Texas adjacent to its largest hub at Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport...

 ordered fifteen aircraft, bringing the order total to sixty, plus options for more. American Airlines eventually bought a total of thirty of the 400-series, making the airline the largest ever customer of One-Elevens.

The prototype (G-ASHG) rolled out of the Hurn
Bournemouth Airport
Bournemouth Airport is an airport located north-northeast of Bournemouth, in southern England...

 assembly hall on 28 July 1963, its first flight following soon on 20 August. This was almost a year ahead of a competing US airliner, the Douglas DC-9. This lead was commercially most important, since — as shown by the Bonanza case — US authorities could refuse to approve sales of foreign aircraft to domestic airlines where an American alternative existed.

The One-Eleven prototype, flown by test pilot
Test pilot
A test pilot is an aviator who flies new and modified aircraft in specific maneuvers, known as flight test techniques or FTTs, allowing the results to be measured and the design to be evaluated....

 Mike Lithgow
Mike Lithgow
Michael John "Mike" Lithgow, OBE was a British aviator and chief test pilot for Vickers Supermarine. He became the holder of the World Absolute Air Speed Record in 1953 flying a Supermarine Swift but died when the prototype BAC One-Eleven airliner crashed in 1963.- Second World War :Joined Fleet...

, crashed
1963 BAC One-Eleven test crash
The accident happened on the 22 October 1963 when a BAC One-Eleven took off from Wisley Airfield. There were seven crew on board the aircraft, the pilot was Mike Lithgow...

 with the loss of all on board on 22 October during stall
Stall (flight)
In fluid dynamics, a stall is a reduction in the lift coefficient generated by a foil as angle of attack increases. This occurs when the critical angle of attack of the foil is exceeded...

 testing. The investigation led to the discovery of what became known as deep stall or superstall, a phenomenon caused by reduced airflow to the tailplane
Tailplane
A tailplane, also known as horizontal stabilizer , is a small lifting surface located on the tail behind the main lifting surfaces of a fixed-wing aircraft as well as other non-fixed wing aircraft such as helicopters and gyroplanes...

 caused by the combined blanking effects of the wing and the aft-mounted engine nacelle
Nacelle
The nacelle is a cover housing that holds engines, fuel, or equipment on an aircraft. In some cases—for instance in the typical "Farman" type "pusher" aircraft, or the World War II-era P-38 Lightning—an aircraft's cockpit may also be housed in a nacelle, which essentially fills the...

s at high angles of attack
Angle of attack
Angle of attack is a term used in fluid dynamics to describe the angle between a reference line on a lifting body and the vector representing the relative motion between the lifting body and the fluid through which it is moving...

, which prevents recovery of normal (nose-down) flight. To preclude such stalls, BAC designed and added devices known as stick shaker
Stick shaker
A stick shaker is a mechanical device to rapidly and noisily vibrate the control yoke of an aircraft to warn the pilot of an imminent stall...

s and stick pushers to the One-Eleven's control system. It also redesigned the wing's leading edge
Airfoil
An airfoil or aerofoil is the shape of a wing or blade or sail as seen in cross-section....

 to smooth airflow into the engines and over the tailplane. The specially modified aircraft used for testing this problem is located at Brooklands Museum, Weybridge, Surrey, UK.

Despite the crash, testing continued and customer confidence remained high. American Airlines and Braniff took up their optional orders and placed further ones in February 1964. Further orders came from Mohawk, Philippine Airlines
Philippine Airlines
Philippine Airlines, Inc. operating as Philippine Airlines, is a flag carrier of the Philippines. Headquartered in the Philippine National Bank Financial Center in Pasay City, the airline was founded in 1941 and is the first and oldest commercial airline in Asia operating under its original name...

 and Helmut Horten
Helmut Horten
Helmut Horten was a German entrepreneur who built up and owned the fourth-largest chain of department stores in Germany - the Horten AG....

 who ordered the first Executive modification of the aircraft. By the end of 1964, thirteen aircraft had rolled off the production line.

The One-Eleven was certified
Type certificate
A Type Certificate, is awarded by aviation regulating bodies to aerospace manufacturers after it has been established that the particular design of a civil aircraft, engine, or propeller has fulfilled the regulating bodies' current prevailing airworthiness requirements for the safe conduct of...

 and the first handover, of G-ASJI to BUA, was on 22 January 1965. After several weeks of route-proving flights, the first revenue service flew on 9 April from Gatwick to Genoa
Genoa
Genoa |Ligurian]] Zena ; Latin and, archaically, English Genua) is a city and an important seaport in northern Italy, the capital of the Province of Genoa and of the region of Liguria....

. Braniff took delivery of their first aircraft on 11 March, while Mohawk received their first on 15 May. Deliveries continued, and by the end of 1965 airlines had received 34 aircraft. Demand continued to be buoyant, with a second production line set up at Weybridge
Weybridge
Weybridge is a town in the Elmbridge district of Surrey in South East England. It is bounded to the north by the River Thames at the mouth of the River Wey, from which it gets its name...

.

The One-Eleven 500, 510ED and 475

In 1967 a larger 119-seat version was introduced as the One-Eleven 500 (also known as Super One-Eleven). This "stretched" version was delayed for at least a year while its launch customer BEA assessed its requirements. This gave competing US aircraft (the DC-9 and Boeing 737
Boeing 737
The Boeing 737 is a short- to medium-range, twin-engine narrow-body jet airliner. Originally developed as a shorter, lower-cost twin-engine airliner derived from Boeing's 707 and 727, the 737 has developed into a family of nine passenger models with a capacity of 85 to 215 passengers...

) the chance to make up for the One-Eleven's early penetration of their domestic market. The British aircraft's initial one-year advantage now turned into a one-year delay and the 500 failed to sell in the USA. Compared with earlier versions, the One-Eleven 500 was longer by 8 ft 4in (2.54 m) ahead of the wing and 5 ft 2in (1.57 m) behind it. The wing span was increased by 5 ft (1.5 m), and the latest Mk. 512 version of the Spey was used. The new version sold reasonably well across the world, particularly to European charter airlines. In 1971 it received an incremental upgrade to reduce drag
Drag (physics)
In fluid dynamics, drag refers to forces which act on a solid object in the direction of the relative fluid flow velocity...

 and reduce runway
Runway
According to ICAO a runway is a "defined rectangular area on a land aerodrome prepared for the landing and take-off of aircraft." Runways may be a man-made surface or a natural surface .- Orientation and dimensions :Runways are named by a number between 01 and 36, which is generally one tenth...

 requirements.

BEA/British Airways 500 series aircraft (denoted 1-11 510ED) varied significantly from other 1-11s, at BEA's request. The One-Eleven 510ED had a modified cockpit
Cockpit
A cockpit or flight deck is the area, usually near the front of an aircraft, from which a pilot controls the aircraft. Most modern cockpits are enclosed, except on some small aircraft, and cockpits on large airliners are also physically separated from the cabin...

 which incorporated instrumentation and avionics from or similar to that of the Hawker Siddeley HS.121 Trident
Hawker Siddeley Trident
The Hawker Siddeley HS 121 Trident was a British short/medium-range three-engined jet airliner designed by de Havilland and built by Hawker Siddeley in the 1960s and 1970s...

, for better commonality with the type. Their additional equipment included a more sophisticated autoflight system
Autopilot
An autopilot is a mechanical, electrical, or hydraulic system used to guide a vehicle without assistance from a human being. An autopilot can refer specifically to aircraft, self-steering gear for boats, or auto guidance of space craft and missiles...

, which allowed CAT II
Instrument Landing System
An instrument landing system is a ground-based instrument approach system that provides precision guidance to an aircraft approaching and landing on a runway, using a combination of radio signals and, in many cases, high-intensity lighting arrays to enable a safe landing during instrument...

 autoland
Autoland
In aviation, autoland describes a system that fully automates the landing phase of an aircraft's flight, with the human crew merely supervising the process.-Description:...

ings and included an autothrottle. The modifications went as far as reversing the "on" position of most switches to match that of the Trident; indeed, the 510ED was so different from other One-Elevens and 500 series aircraft that a different type rating
Pilot licensing in the United Kingdom
Pilot licensing in the United Kingdom is regulated by the Civil Aviation Authority under the auspices of the Joint Aviation Authorities and European Aviation Safety Agency. Each member nation in the EU has responsibility for regulating their own pilot licensing...

 was required to fly it.

Having faced competition from US aircraft by 1966, by 1970 the One-Eleven also faced competition from newer, smaller aircraft such as the Fokker F28
Fokker F28
The Fokker F28 Fellowship is a short range jet airliner designed and built by defunct Dutch aircraft manufacturer Fokker.-Design and development:...

. The F28 was lighter, less complex, and cheaper. The One-Eleven 475 of 1970 was launched to compete with the F28. It combined the 400 fuselage with the higher power and larger wing of the 500 and was intended for hot and high
Hot and high
In aviation, hot and high is a condition of low air density due to high ambient temperature and high airport elevation. Air density decreases with increasing temperature and altitude. Lower air density reduces the amount of lift generated by the wings or the rotors of an aircraft, which may hamper...

 operations, however only ten One-Eleven Mk 475 were sold. In 1977, the One-Eleven 670, a quiet and updated 475, was offered to the Japanese domestic market, also failing to sell.

Proposed developments

Total deliveries for 1966 stood at 46 aircraft, and another 120 were delivered by 1971. At this point orders slowed to a trickle. British production continued until 1982. There were two reasons why the production line was kept open for just 35 aircraft delivered over 11 years: first, BAC hoped that Rolls-Royce would develop a quieter and more powerful version of the Spey engine, making possible further One-Eleven developments; second, throughout the early part of the period Romania
Romania
Romania is a country located at the crossroads of Central and Southeastern Europe, on the Lower Danube, within and outside the Carpathian arch, bordering on the Black Sea...

 was negotiating to buy the entire One-Eleven programme and transfer production of the type to Bucharest
Bucharest
Bucharest is the capital municipality, cultural, industrial, and financial centre of Romania. It is the largest city in Romania, located in the southeast of the country, at , and lies on the banks of the Dâmbovița River....

.

By 1974, BAC invested significant effort into launching the One-Eleven 700. This had a longer body
Fuselage
The fuselage is an aircraft's main body section that holds crew and passengers or cargo. In single-engine aircraft it will usually contain an engine, although in some amphibious aircraft the single engine is mounted on a pylon attached to the fuselage which in turn is used as a floating hull...

 with a 134-seat interior and the projected Spey 67 engine producing greater power. It was approximately the same size as the latest DC-9s and 737s and would have been available in time to prevent large-scale defections by One-Eleven clients to McDonnell-Douglas and Boeing. Rolls-Royce was still recovering from bankruptcy, however, and the uprated Spey failed to materialise. An altogether less ambitious 700 made a reappearance in 1978 as a 500 with specially "hush-kitted" Speys which would be replaced by the proposed RB432 in the mid-1980s. This was offered to British Airways
British Airways
British Airways is the flag carrier airline of the United Kingdom, based in Waterside, near its main hub at London Heathrow Airport. British Airways is the largest airline in the UK based on fleet size, international flights and international destinations...

 in competition with Boeing 737-200s, but was ultimately rejected.

In 1977, BAC merged with Hawker Siddeley to form British Aerospace
British Aerospace
British Aerospace plc was a UK aircraft, munitions and defence-systems manufacturer. Its head office was in the Warwick House in the Farnborough Aerospace Centre in Farnborough, Hampshire...

 (BAe) and the One-Eleven 800 was proposed with CFM-56 engines. It would have accommodated some 150 passengers in a mixed class layout. The One-Eleven 800's fate was involved with the development of a European competitor to ubiquitous U.S. short/medium range airliners and it did not progress to the design stage.

The BAC Two-Eleven and Three-Eleven were British airliner studies proposed by the British Aircraft Corporation in the late 1960s which never made it to production.

Rombac production

On 9 June 1979, Romanian president Nicolae Ceauşescu
Nicolae Ceausescu
Nicolae Ceaușescu was a Romanian Communist politician. He was General Secretary of the Romanian Communist Party from 1965 to 1989, and as such was the country's second and last Communist leader...

 signed the contract for One-Eleven licence production in Romania. This was to involve the delivery of three complete One-Elevens plus the construction of at least 22 in Bucharest, with reducing British content. It also involved Romanian production of Spey engines and certification of the aircraft to British and US standards. A market for up to 60 or even 80 cheap Romanian-built aircraft was mooted at the time, largely in China, the Third World
Third World
The term Third World arose during the Cold War to define countries that remained non-aligned with either capitalism and NATO , or communism and the Soviet Union...

 and possibly Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe is the eastern part of Europe. The term has widely disparate geopolitical, geographical, cultural and socioeconomic readings, which makes it highly context-dependent and even volatile, and there are "almost as many definitions of Eastern Europe as there are scholars of the region"...

. The aircraft was redesignated ROMBAC 1-11.

The first Rombac One-Eleven, (YR-BRA cn 401) a series 561RC was rolled out at Romaero Băneasa
Baneasa
Băneasa is a borough in the north side of Bucharest, near the Băneasa Lake . Like all north-side districts of Bucharest, it is relatively sparsely populated, with large areas of parkland...

 factory on 27 August 1982, and flew for the first time on 18 September 1982. Production continued until 1989 at a much slower pace than foreseen in the contract: nine aircraft were delivered. The first aircraft was delivered to TAROM
TAROM
S.C. Compania Națională de Transporturi Aeriene Române TAROM S.A., doing business as TAROM Romanian Air Transport, is the flag carrier and oldest currently operating airline of Romania. The brand name is an acronym for...

 on 29 December 1982. The Romanian carrier took delivery of all but two of the aircraft produced, with the remaining two going to Romavia, the last of which (YR-BRI cn 409) was delivered on 1 January 1993.

There were three reasons why the Rombac initiative failed: Romania's economy and international position deteriorated to the point where supplies for One-Eleven manufacture slowed to a trickle; the market foreseen by the Romanians failed to show an interest, though some Rombac machines were leased out to European operators; the One-Eleven's noise level and fuel economy had failed to keep pace with US and West European competition. Adopting a new engine would have resolved noise and fuel economy issues, however Rolls-Royce repeatedly refused to allow its Tay engine to be used on Romanian One-Elevens. This reluctance is assumed be based upon fears that the Fokker 100, the Tay's launch airframe, would suffer from the Romanian competition.

Operational history

The BAC-One Eleven found itself in a role, airlines saw the aircraft as superior to the Boeing 727
Boeing 727
The Boeing 727 is a mid-size, narrow-body, three-engine, T-tailed commercial jet airliner, manufactured by Boeing. The Boeing 727 first flew in 1963, and for over a decade more were built per year than any other jet airliner. When production ended in 1984 a total of 1,832 aircraft had been produced...

, to be in direct competition with the Douglas DC-9, and the aircraft was on the market more than a year before the arrival of the newer Boeing 737
Boeing 737
The Boeing 737 is a short- to medium-range, twin-engine narrow-body jet airliner. Originally developed as a shorter, lower-cost twin-engine airliner derived from Boeing's 707 and 727, the 737 has developed into a family of nine passenger models with a capacity of 85 to 215 passengers...

. Advantages over the DC-9 included a cheaper unit cost, however the DC-9 offered more seating and its engines were interchangeable with those used on the Boeing 727, these factors encouraged Trans Australia Airlines
Trans Australia Airlines
Trans Australia Airlines or TAA, was one of the two major Australian domestic airlines between its inception in 1946 and its sale to Qantas in May 1996. During that period TAA played a major part in the development of the Australian air transport industry...

 to purchase the DC-9 instead.

Mohawk Airline's first One-Eleven, christened Ohio, went into service on 25 June 1965. By the end of the decade, the airline operated a fleet of twenty BAC One-Elevens. This significant investment later directly led to the demise of the company, a gamble that didn't pay off due to an economic downturn and strike action. Perhaps one of the most notable incidents of a single aircraft in North America; a Philippine Airlines
Philippine Airlines
Philippine Airlines, Inc. operating as Philippine Airlines, is a flag carrier of the Philippines. Headquartered in the Philippine National Bank Financial Center in Pasay City, the airline was founded in 1941 and is the first and oldest commercial airline in Asia operating under its original name...

' One-Eleven was involved in a ground hijacking incident in 21 May 1982. The lone hijacker, John Clearno, was overpowered by the cockpit crew following hours of negotiation, no passengers or crew were injured.

In Europe One-Elevens were common, continuing in widespread use until the mid-1980s and into the 1990s. Many One-Elevens then moved to smaller airlines, notably in the Far East
Far East
The Far East is an English term mostly describing East Asia and Southeast Asia, with South Asia sometimes also included for economic and cultural reasons.The term came into use in European geopolitical discourse in the 19th century,...

 and Africa. The last major operations were in Nigeria
Nigeria
Nigeria , officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria, is a federal constitutional republic comprising 36 states and its Federal Capital Territory, Abuja. The country is located in West Africa and shares land borders with the Republic of Benin in the west, Chad and Cameroon in the east, and Niger in...

, where they were grounded after a crash in 2002. Today only a handful are still operating, mainly in Africa, though corporate versions survive in the USA and Europe. A further nail in the coffin for the One-Eleven in Europe was the Stage III noise abatement regulations
Joint Aviation Authorities
The Joint Aviation Authorities, or JAA, was an associated body of the ECAC representing the civil aviation regulatory authorities of a number of European States who had agreed to co-operate in developing and implementing common safety regulatory standards and procedures...

 which took effect from March 2003. The costs of bringing the Rolls-Royce Spey engines into compliance with this, by developing a hush kit
Hush kit
A hush kit is a device for reducing noise from an engine; most commonly the term refers to devices which reduce noise emissions from low-bypass turbofan engines, as fitted to older commercial aircraft ....

, proved an expensive prospect for the smaller operators still using this aircraft type. Therefore very few 1-11s were fitted with hush kits, and most European operators disposed of the type from their fleet.

Total production of the One-Eleven in British and Romanian factories was 244, with two airframes left incomplete in Romania. A major initiative to re-engine corporate One-Elevens with Tay engines gathered pace in the USA in the late 1980s and early 1990s but came to nought after several successful test flights. Passive opposition from the engine maker among other factors is claimed to have sabotaged its chances of success.

British Airways retired its last One-Eleven in 1998. In 2010, the European Aviation Safety Agency
European Aviation Safety Agency
The European Aviation Safety Agency is an agency of the European Union with offices in Cologne, Germany, which has been given regulatory and executive tasks in the field of civilian aviation safety. It was created on 15 July 2002, and it reached full functionality in 2008, taking over functions...

 accepted an Airbus
Airbus
Airbus SAS is an aircraft manufacturing subsidiary of EADS, a European aerospace company. Based in Blagnac, France, surburb of Toulouse, and with significant activity across Europe, the company produces around half of the world's jet airliners....

 request to revoke the Type Certificate for the BAC One Eleven. As a result BAC 1-11 aircraft registered in any EU Member State are no longer eligible for a Normal Certificate of Airworthiness.

Variants

BAC One-Eleven 200 :Initial production version, widely sold; individual customer designations within this series. 56 built.
BAC One-Eleven 300 :Uprated engines, more fuel for longer range; individual customer designations within this series. 9 built.
BAC One-Eleven 400 :Series 300 with American instrumentation and equipment; the definitive short-body version; individual customer designations within this series. 69 built.
BAC One-Eleven 475 :Series 400 body with Series 500 wing and powerplant plus rough-airfield landing gear and body protection. 9 built, including 3 for Oman
Oman
Oman , officially called the Sultanate of Oman , is an Arab state in southwest Asia on the southeast coast of the Arabian Peninsula. It is bordered by the United Arab Emirates to the northwest, Saudi Arabia to the west, and Yemen to the southwest. The coast is formed by the Arabian Sea on the...

.
Rombac 111-495 :Romanian-built version of the Series 475
BAC One-Eleven 500 :Extended body version with up to 119 seats; new engines; individual customer designations within this series. 87 built.
BAC One-Eleven 510ED :Variant of the 500 series built for BEA/British Airways. Size and engines same as other 500s, cockpit modified to provide more commonality with HS.121 Trident
Hawker Siddeley Trident
The Hawker Siddeley HS 121 Trident was a British short/medium-range three-engined jet airliner designed by de Havilland and built by Hawker Siddeley in the 1960s and 1970s...

 and required a different type rating from all other 500 series One-Elevens.
Rombac 111-560 :Romanian-built version of the Series 500
BAC One-Eleven 670 :Series 475 with improved aerodynamics and reduced noise; one converted from Series 475

Operators

The BAC One-Eleven was widely used by civil and military operators.

As of July 2010 a total of 12 BAC One-Eleven aircraft (all variants) remain in airline service with International Trans Air Business.

Northrop Grumman
Northrop Grumman
Northrop Grumman Corporation is an American global aerospace and defense technology company formed by the 1994 purchase of Grumman by Northrop. The company was the fourth-largest defense contractor in the world as of 2010, and the largest builder of naval vessels. Northrop Grumman employs over...

 continues to operate three BAC One-Eleven 401/AK aircraft as airborne testbeds. The aircraft are operated from the Baltimore/Washington International Thurgood Marshall Airport.

Notable incidents

  • On 6 August 1966, Braniff Airways Flight 250 disintegrated in mid-air after flying into a severe thunderstorm near Falls City, Nebraska
    Falls City, Nebraska
    Falls City is a city in Richardson County, Nebraska, United States. The population was 4,671 at the 2000 census. It is the county seat of Richardson County.-Geography:Falls City is located at ....

    . It was en route to Omaha, Nebraska
    Omaha, Nebraska
    Omaha is the largest city in the state of Nebraska, United States, and is the county seat of Douglas County. It is located in the Midwestern United States on the Missouri River, about 20 miles north of the mouth of the Platte River...

    , from Kansas City, Missouri
    Kansas City, Missouri
    Kansas City, Missouri is the largest city in the U.S. state of Missouri and is the anchor city of the Kansas City Metropolitan Area, the second largest metropolitan area in Missouri. It encompasses in parts of Jackson, Clay, Cass, and Platte counties...

    . Thirty-eight passengers and four crew members were killed in the crash. The plane was a BAC One-Eleven-203AE.

  • On 23 June 1967, Mohawk Airlines
    Mohawk Airlines
    Mohawk Airlines was an airline that operated in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, primarily the states of New York and Pennsylvania from the mid-1940s until its acquisition by Allegheny Airlines in 1972...

     Flight 40
    Mohawk Airlines Flight 40
    Mohawk Airlines Flight 40 was a scheduled passenger flight between Elmira, New York and Washington, DC. On June 23, 1967 it suffered a loss of control and crashed, killing all 30 passengers and 4 crew on board. It was the deadliest disaster in the airline's history.-Aircraft:This particular BAC...

     suffered a loss of pitch control following an on-board fire that caused heavy damage to the tail of the aircraft. Flight 40 was a regularly scheduled passenger flight between Elmira, New York
    Elmira, New York
    Elmira is a city in Chemung County, New York, USA. It is the principal city of the 'Elmira, New York Metropolitan Statistical Area' which encompasses Chemung County, New York. The population was 29,200 at the 2010 census. It is the county seat of Chemung County.The City of Elmira is located in...

     and Washington, DC. It crashed outside Blossburg, Pennsylvania
    Blossburg, Pennsylvania
    Blossburg is a borough in Tioga County, Pennsylvania, in the United States. The population was 1,480 at the 2000 census.-History:In 1792 a party of immigrants who were building the Williamson Road from Williamsport, in Lycoming County, to Painted Post in New York under the leadership of Robert and...

     with a loss of all 34 passengers and crew. The aircraft was a BAC One-Eleven-204AF.

  • On 6 September 1971, a One-Eleven 515FB operating as Paninternational Flight 112
    Paninternational Flight 112
    Paninternational Flight 112 was a BAC One-Eleven that crashed in Germany on 6 September 1971 while attempting to land on an Autobahn following the failure of both engines...

     collided with a bridge during an emergency landing on the A7 Autobahn, shearing off both wings after a double engine failure during takeoff. The water-injection system was inadvertently filled with jet fuel instead of water; 22 of the 121 people aboard died.

  • On 18 April 1974, Court Line
    Court Line
    Court Line was a prominent British holiday charter airline during the early 1970s based at Luton Airport in Bedfordshire. It also provided bus services in Luton and surrounding areas....

     Flight 95
    Court Line Flight 95
    Court Line Flight 95 was an international charter flight from London Luton Airport, Bedfordshire, United Kingdom, to Munich-Riem Airport, West Germany, operated on 18 April 1974 by Court Line Ltd BAC One-Eleven 518 G-AXMJ. During its take-off run, Piper PA-23 Aztec G-AYDE of McAlpine Aviation...

    , operated by One-Eleven 528 G-AXMJ was involved in a ground collision with Piper PA-23 Aztec
    Piper Aztec
    -Accidents and incidents:*On 18 April 1974, Aztec G-AYDE was involved in a ground collision with BAC One-Eleven G-AXMJ at London Luton Airport after the pilot of the Aztec entered the active runway without clearance. He was killed and his passenger was injured...

     G-AYDE at London Luton Airport
    London Luton Airport
    London Luton Airport is an international airport located east of the town centre in the Borough of Luton in Bedfordshire, England and is north of Central London. The airport is from Junction 10a of the M1 motorway...

     due to the Aztec entering the active runway without clearance. The pilot of the Aztec was killed and his passenger was injured. All 91 on board the One-Eleven successfully evacuated after take-off was aborted.

  • On 21 November 1977, Austral Líneas Aéreas
    Austral Líneas Aéreas
    Austral Líneas Aéreas , more commonly known by its shortened name Austral, is a domestic airline of Argentina, the sister company of Aerolíneas Argentinas. It is the second largest domestic scheduled airline in the country, after Aerolíneas Argentinas itself...

     Flight 9 flying from Buenos Aires
    Buenos Aires
    Buenos Aires is the capital and largest city of Argentina, and the second-largest metropolitan area in South America, after São Paulo. It is located on the western shore of the estuary of the Río de la Plata, on the southeastern coast of the South American continent...

     to San Carlos de Bariloche
    San Carlos de Bariloche
    San Carlos de Bariloche, usually known as Bariloche, is a city in the , situated in the foothills of the Andes on the southern shores of Nahuel Huapi Lake and is located inside Nahuel Huapi National Park...

    , suffered pressurization problems whilst climbing to 35,000 ft. Later on approach into San Carlos de Bariloche International Airport, the plane struck terrain and crashed. All 5 crew and 41 of 74 passengers were killed.

  • On 7 May 1981, Austral Líneas Aéreas
    Austral Líneas Aéreas
    Austral Líneas Aéreas , more commonly known by its shortened name Austral, is a domestic airline of Argentina, the sister company of Aerolíneas Argentinas. It is the second largest domestic scheduled airline in the country, after Aerolíneas Argentinas itself...

     Flight 901 crashed on approach into Jorge Newbery Airport, Buenos Aires
    Buenos Aires
    Buenos Aires is the capital and largest city of Argentina, and the second-largest metropolitan area in South America, after São Paulo. It is located on the western shore of the estuary of the Río de la Plata, on the southeastern coast of the South American continent...

     after a flight from San Miguel de Tucumán. The likely cause was the weather and pilot error
    Pilot error
    Pilot error is a term used to describe the cause of an accident involving an airworthy aircraft where the pilot is considered to be principally or partially responsible...

    . All 31 passengers and crew - 5 crew and 26 passengers were killed.

  • On 4 August 1984, a Philippine Airlines
    Philippine Airlines
    Philippine Airlines, Inc. operating as Philippine Airlines, is a flag carrier of the Philippines. Headquartered in the Philippine National Bank Financial Center in Pasay City, the airline was founded in 1941 and is the first and oldest commercial airline in Asia operating under its original name...

     flight overshot runway 36 and landed in the sea when attempting a landing at Daniel Z. Romualdez Airport
    Daniel Z. Romualdez Airport
    -Facilities:Daniel Z. Romualdez Airport's facilities include a single-storey terminal building, a communications tower and administrative building. Small cafes surround outside the terminal across the parking area.* Terminal...

    , Tacloban City
    Tacloban City
    The City of Tacloban is a port city approximately 360 miles southeast of Manila. It is the first in Eastern Visayas to be classified as a Highly Urbanized City. It is the capital of the Philippine province of Leyte and is the largest city in terms of population in Eastern Visayas...

     Philippines. All 70 passengers and five crew survived.

  • On 21 July 1989, a Philippine Airlines flight overran the runway when attempting a landing at Ninoy Aquino International Airport
    Ninoy Aquino International Airport
    The Ninoy Aquino International Airport or NAIA , also known as Manila International Airport , is the airport serving the general area of Manila and its surrounding metropolitan area...

    , Manila
    Manila
    Manila is the capital of the Philippines. It is one of the sixteen cities forming Metro Manila.Manila is located on the eastern shores of Manila Bay and is bordered by Navotas and Caloocan to the north, Quezon City to the northeast, San Juan and Mandaluyong to the east, Makati on the southeast,...

    , Philippines. None of the 98 passengers on board were killed. Eight people died on the ground due to the aircraft coming to a stop on an adjacent highway.

  • On 10 June 1990, British Airways
    British Airways
    British Airways is the flag carrier airline of the United Kingdom, based in Waterside, near its main hub at London Heathrow Airport. British Airways is the largest airline in the UK based on fleet size, international flights and international destinations...

     Flight 5390
    British Airways Flight 5390
    British Airways Flight 5390 was a British Airways flight between Birmingham Airport in England and Málaga, Spain. On 10 June 1990 an improperly installed panel of the windscreen failed, blowing the plane's captain, Tim Lancaster, halfway out of the aircraft, with his body firmly pressed against the...

    's cockpit window blew out at altitude after the wrong bolts had been used to secure it. Captain Tim Lancaster was blown half out of the cockpit by the pressure differential; members of the cabin crew clung to his legs to keep him from being blown out of the aircraft. The plane made an emergency landing at Southampton Airport
    Southampton Airport
    Southampton Airport is the 20th largest airport in the UK, located north north-east of Southampton, in the Borough of Eastleigh within Hampshire, England....

    . The pilot survived, as did all the crew and passengers.

  • On 4 May 2002, an EAS Airlines
    EAS Airlines
    EAS Airlines was an airline based in Lagos, Nigeria. It operated passenger services within Nigeria and charters to neighbouring countries. It also provided executive jet services under the name Executive Airline Services...

     Flight 4226
    EAS Airlines Flight 4226
    EAS Airlines Flight 4226 was a scheduled flight between the Nigerian cities of Kano and Lagos . At about 14:35 local time on 4 May 2002, Flight 4226 from Kano crash-landed in a residential area of the city called Gwammaja...

     BAC 1-11-500 crashed in a suburb of Kano
    Kano
    Kano is a city in Nigeria and the capital of Kano State in Northern Nigeria. Its metropolitan population is the second largest in Nigeria after Lagos. The Kano Urban area covers 137 sq.km and comprises six Local Government Area - Kano Municipal, Fagge, Dala, Gwale, Tarauni and Nassarawa - with a...

    , Nigeria shortly after takeoff killing more than 148 people.

Specifications

Measurement 200 300/400 475 500
Cockpit crew 2
Seating capacity 89 to 119
Length 28.5 metre 32.61 metre
Wingspan 26.98 metre 28.5 metre
Wing area 91.04 sqm 95.78 sqm
Height 7.47 metre
Cabin Width 3.16 metre
Fuselage Width 3.4 metre
Typical empty weight 21049 kilograms (46,405.1 lb) 23050 kilograms (50,816.6 lb) 23464 kilograms (51,729.3 lb) 24758 kilograms (54,582 lb)
Maximum take-off weight 35833 kilograms (78,998.2 lb) 40142 kilograms (88,498 lb) 44678 kilograms (98,498.1 lb) 47400 kilograms (104,499.1 lb)
Maximum landing weight 32204 kilograms (70,997.7 lb) 35380 kilograms (77,999.5 lb) 39462 kilograms (86,998.8 lb)
Maximum payload 7981 kilograms (17,595.1 lb) 9083 kilograms (20,024.6 lb) 9647 kilograms (21,268 lb) 11983 kilograms (26,418 lb)
Takeoff run at MTOW 1981 metres (6,499.3 ft) 2270 metres (7,447.5 ft) 1676 metres (5,498.7 ft) 1981 metres (6,499.3 ft)
Service ceiling 10670 metres (35,006.6 ft) 11285 metres (37,024.3 ft)
Maximum cruising speed 882 km/h (548 mph) 871 km/h (541 mph)
Range fully loaded 1140 kilometres (708.4 mi) 2300 kilometres (1,429.2 mi) 3000 kilometres (1,864.1 mi) 2744 kilometres (1,705 mi)
Engine (x 2) Rolls-Royce
RB.163 Spey Mk 506-14
 
Rolls-Royce
RB.163 Spey Mk 511-14
 
Rolls-Royce
RB.163 Spey Mk 512-14DW
Max. thrust (x 2) 4,720 Kgf
10,410 lbf (46.3 kN)
5,200 Kgf
11,400 lbf (51.0 kN)
5,690 Kgf
12,550 lbf (55.8 kN)

See also

External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
x
OK