Audi 100
Overview
 
The restyled C2 Audi 100 was launched in 1976, with an in-line five-cylinder engine (the first gasoline 5 in the world – Mercedes-Benz
Mercedes-Benz
Mercedes-Benz is a German manufacturer of automobiles, buses, coaches, and trucks. Mercedes-Benz is a division of its parent company, Daimler AG...

 had shown the way in 1974 with their three litre diesel 5-cyl in the Mercedes-Benz C111
Mercedes-Benz C111
The C111 was a series of experimental automobiles produced by Mercedes-Benz in the 1960s and 1970s. The company was experimenting with new engine technologies, including Wankel engines, Diesel engines, and turbochargers, and used the basic C111 platform as a testbed...

). It was initially a 100 PS engine offering "6-cylinder power and 4-cylinder economy", and later upgraded to 136 PS.

The Coupé was discontinued, but a five-door hatchback
Hatchback
A Hatchback is a car body style incorporating a shared passenger and cargo volume, with rearmost accessibility via a rear third or fifth door, typically a top-hinged liftgate—and features such as fold-down rear seats to enable flexibility within the shared passenger/cargo volume. As a two-box...

 model, the 100 Avant, was launched in August 1977 as part of this generation.
Encyclopedia
The restyled C2 Audi 100 was launched in 1976, with an in-line five-cylinder engine (the first gasoline 5 in the world – Mercedes-Benz
Mercedes-Benz
Mercedes-Benz is a German manufacturer of automobiles, buses, coaches, and trucks. Mercedes-Benz is a division of its parent company, Daimler AG...

 had shown the way in 1974 with their three litre diesel 5-cyl in the Mercedes-Benz C111
Mercedes-Benz C111
The C111 was a series of experimental automobiles produced by Mercedes-Benz in the 1960s and 1970s. The company was experimenting with new engine technologies, including Wankel engines, Diesel engines, and turbochargers, and used the basic C111 platform as a testbed...

). It was initially a 100 PS engine offering "6-cylinder power and 4-cylinder economy", and later upgraded to 136 PS.

The Coupé was discontinued, but a five-door hatchback
Hatchback
A Hatchback is a car body style incorporating a shared passenger and cargo volume, with rearmost accessibility via a rear third or fifth door, typically a top-hinged liftgate—and features such as fold-down rear seats to enable flexibility within the shared passenger/cargo volume. As a two-box...

 model, the 100 Avant, was launched in August 1977 as part of this generation. The mainstay of the range remained the four-door sedan model. A two-door sedan version was offered, primarily on the domestic market, from 1977, but by now there was little demand, even in Germany, for large two-door sedans: few of these two-door Audi 100 C2s were sold.

At the end of September 1977, the Audi 100 became the manufacturer's first model to reach a production level of 1,000,000 units. The millionth Audi 100 was a hatchback Audi 100 Avant assembled not at the company's main Ingolstadt
Ingolstadt
Ingolstadt is a city in the Free State of Bavaria, in the Federal Republic of Germany. It is located along the banks of the Danube River, in the center of Bavaria. As at 31 March 2011, Ingolstadt had 125.407 residents...

 plant but to the west, at the Neckarsulm
Neckarsulm
Neckarsulm is a city in northern Baden-Württemberg, Germany, near Stuttgart, and part of the district Heilbronn. As of 2004, Neckarsulm had 27,296 inhabitants....

 factory which, since the demise of the mainstream volume models from the NSU
NSU Motorenwerke AG
NSU Motorenwerke AG, normally just NSU, was a German manufacturer of automobiles, motorcycles and pedal cycles, founded in 1873. It was acquired by Volkswagen Group in 1969...

 range, had been concentrating on providing additional production capacity for the fast selling Audi range.

Engines available included:
  • 1.6L I-4
    Straight-4
    The inline-four engine or straight-four engine is an internal combustion engine with all four cylinders mounted in a straight line, or plane along the crankcase. The single bank of cylinders may be oriented in either a vertical or an inclined plane with all the pistons driving a common crankshaft....

    , 85 PS, carburetted (1976−1982)
  • 2.0L I-4, 115 PS, carburetted (1976−1978)
  • 1.9L I-5, 100 PS, carburetted (1980−1982)
  • 2.1L I-5, 115 PS, carburetted (1978−1982)
  • 2.1L I-5, 136 PS, fuel injection (1976−1982) (100 and 200)
  • 2.1L I-5
    Straight-5
    The straight-five engine or inline-five engine is an internal combustion engine with five cylinders aligned in one row or plane, sharing a single engine block and crankcase...

    , 170 PS, fuel injection, turbo (1979−1982) (200 only)
  • 2.0L I-5 Diesel, 70 PS, (1978−1982)


North America:
  • 2.1L I-5, 103 hp, fuel injection (MY 1978−1983)
  • 2.1L I-5, 130 hp, fuel injection, turbo (MY 1980−1983)
  • 2.0L I-5 Diesel, 67 hp (MY 1980−1983)
  • 2.0L I-5 Turbodiesel
    Turbodiesel
    Turbodiesel refers to any diesel engine with a turbocharger. Turbocharging is the norm rather than the exception in modern car and truck diesel engines...

    , 84 hp (MY 1983)


About 850.000 Audi 100/200 C2 were built, of which 133.512 were sold in the USA.

Right Hand Drive Audi 200 5E and 5T (type 43)

The RHD Audi 200 5E and 5T were introduced into the UK in 1979, only 500 were imported. The 5T (170 PS) was a higher spec Turbo version of the 5E (136 PS injection) and came with many optional extras as standard. As an attempt to lure British buyers the UK version of the 5T had opening quarter lights, electric wing mirrors, a sun roof, cruise control and heated seats. All Type 43 200's came with Automatic gearboxes, a 5-speed manual was special order only.

Audi 100, 200 & 5000 (C3, 1982–1991)

Edging out the Ford Sierra
Ford Sierra
The Ford Sierra is a large family car that was built by Ford Europe from 1982 until 1993. It was designed by Uwe Bahnsen, Robert Lutz and Patrick le Quément. The code used during development was "Project Toni"....

 as the 1983 European Car of the Year
European Car of the Year
The European Car of the Year award was established in 1964 by a collective of automobile magazines from different countries in Europe. The current organisers of the award are Auto , Autocar , Autopista , Autovisie , L'Automobile Magazine , Stern and Vi Bilägare .The voting jury consists of motoring...

, the 1983 Audi 100 had a remarkable aerodynamic look, achieving a drag coefficient
Drag coefficient
In fluid dynamics, the drag coefficient is a dimensionless quantity that is used to quantify the drag or resistance of an object in a fluid environment such as air or water. It is used in the drag equation, where a lower drag coefficient indicates the object will have less aerodynamic or...

 of 0.30 for its smoothest base model. The increased aerodynamic efficiency resulted in better fuel economy and consumers all over the world were waking up to this fact. This became a great marketing tool for Audi in the 1980s, and marked a huge leap forward from the boxy shape of the C2, as well as the technology it introduced, including the procon-ten
Procon-ten
procon-ten is a proprietary Safety Restraint System , used by German car manufacturer Audi, from 1986 until the mid-1990s....

 safety system.

Audi was able to follow up on the modern smooth look first seen in this segment on the 1967 NSU Ro 80
NSU Ro 80
The NSU Ro 80 was a technologically advanced large sedan-type automobile produced by the German firm of NSU from 1967 until 1977. Most notable was the powertrain; a , 995 cc twin-rotor Wankel engine driving the front wheels through a semi-automatic transmission employing an innovative vacuum system...

 and popularised by the 1974 Citroën CX
Citroën CX
The Citroën CX is an automobile produced by the French automaker Citroën from 1974 to 1991. Citroën sold nearly 1.2 million CXs during its 16 years of production. The CX was voted European Car of the Year in 1975....

. This rounded look became the norm by the 1990s. It also set a styling trend of flush wheel covers, a thick black side door moulding and blacked out window frames eventually adopted by a range of cars from the 1984 Honda Accord
Honda Accord
The Honda Accord is a series of compact, mid-size and full-size automobiles manufactured by Honda since 1976, and sold in a majority of automotive markets throughout the world....

 to the Chrysler K cars
Chrysler K platform
The Chrysler Corporation's K-cars were compact-to-midsize cars designed to carry six adults on two bench seats and were aimed not only to replace Chrysler's nominally-compact F-body Aspen and Volaré, but also to compete with intermediates like the Chevrolet Malibu and Ford Fairmont...

. Audi innovated flush windows on the C3, a key area for aerodynamic drag
Drag (physics)
In fluid dynamics, drag refers to forces which act on a solid object in the direction of the relative fluid flow velocity...

 that has been adopted by virtually all manufacturers today.

The two-door models were no longer available, and the Audi 100 Avant was reintroduced as Audi's first attempt at a station wagon
Station wagon
A station wagon is a body style variant of a sedan/saloon with its roof extended rearward over a shared passenger/cargo volume with access at the back via a third or fifth door , instead of a trunk lid...

 based on the 100. The 200 continued as the upmarket variant with several versions of the 2.2 L turbo 5-cylinder available in different markets over its life ranging in power outputs from 165 PS MC engine, through the 200 PS versions to the final 220 PS 20-valve 3B engine available from 1991. The 200 20V was distinguished by its flared front and rounded rear wheel arches instead of the flat type used for the rest of the 100-200 range. The MC turbo engine was available in the 100 as well for some markets.

The 100 also featured a 2.5 L straight-5 direct injection turbo-diesel (TDI) model with 120 PS introduced in 1990 (engine code 1T). A such-engined Audi 100 was the very first model to wear the now ubiquitous and hugely successful TDI label that changed the perception of diesel engines all over the world.

Reported sudden unintended acceleration

During model years 1982–1987, Audi's U.S. sales fell after a series of recalls of Audi 5000 models associated with reported incidents of sudden unintended acceleration
Sudden unintended acceleration
Sudden Unintended Acceleration is the unintended, unexpected, uncontrolled acceleration of a vehicle from a stationary position, low initial speed or at cruising speed, often accompanied by an apparent loss of braking effectiveness...

 linked to six deaths and 700 accidents. At the time, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA)
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration is an agency of the Executive Branch of the U.S. government, part of the Department of Transportation...

 was investigating 50 car models from 20 manufacturers for sudden surges of power.

60 Minutes
60 Minutes
60 Minutes is an American television news magazine, which has run on CBS since 1968. The program was created by producer Don Hewitt who set it apart by using a unique style of reporter-centered investigation....

aired a report titled Out of Control on November 23, 1986, featuring interviews with six people who had sued Audi after reporting unintended acceleration, including footage of an Audi 5000 ostensibly displaying a surge of acceleration while the brake pedal was depressed. Subsequent investigation revealed that 60 Minutes had not disclosed they had engineered the vehicle's behavior – fitting a canister of compressed air on the passenger-side floor, to pump fluid via a hose to a hole drilled into the transmission – the arrangement executed by one of the experts who had testified on behalf of a plaintiff in a then pending lawsuit against Audi's parent company.

Audi initially responded by suggesting that the drivers of the cars involved in the incidents were at fault, because they had stepped on the accelerator pedal rather than the brake. Subsequently, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) concluded that the majority of unintended acceleration cases, including all the ones that prompted the 60 Minutes report, were caused by driver error such as confusion of pedals. CBS did not acknowledge the test results of involved government agencies, but did acknowledge the similar results of another study. However, Audi's assertion that the driver was at fault was a poor public relations strategy. In 2009, when Toyota was involved in similar unintended acceleration problems
2009–2010 Toyota vehicle recalls
Three separate but related recalls of automobiles by Toyota Motor Corporation occurred at the end of 2009 and start of 2010. Toyota initiated the recalls, the first two with the assistance of the U.S. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration , after reports that several vehicles experienced...

, the company spokesman said “the lesson from Audi is no matter how convinced you are that the driver has made a mistake, it is very sensitive to suggest.” Toyota's press release was carefully crafted such that it "acknowledged rare problems with its accelerators, it was leaving itself room to argue later that sometimes drivers were at fault – while pointedly avoiding saying so directly".

With the series of recall campaigns, Audi made several modifications; the first adjusted the distance between the brake and accelerator pedal on automatic-transmission models. Later repairs, of 250,000 cars dating back to 1978, added a device requiring the driver to press the brake pedal before shifting out of park. As a byproduct of sudden unintended acceleration, vehicles now include gear stick
Gear stick
A gear stick is the lever used to change gear in a vehicle, such as an automobile, with manual transmission or several common forms of automatic transmission.The device is used to change gear; in a manual transmission vehicle this will normally be done whilst depressing...

 patterns and brake interlock mechanisms to prevent inadvertent gear selection.

Audi’s U.S. sales, which had reached 74,061 in 1985, dropped to 12,283 in 1991 and remained level for three years. – with resale values falling dramatically. Audi subsequently offered increased warranty protection and renamed the affected models – with the 5000 becoming the 100 and 200 in 1989. The company only reached the same level of U.S. sales again by model year 2000.

As of early 2010, a class-action lawsuit – dealing with a charge that on account of the sudden acceleration controversy, Audi models had lost resale value – filed in 1987 by about 7,500 Audi Audi 5000-model owners remains unsettled and is currently contested in county court in Chicago after appeals at the Illinois state and U.S. federal levels.

The lawsuits surrounding the reported sudden acceleration episodes were subject of Peter W. Huber
Peter W. Huber
Peter William Huber is a partner at the law firm of Kellogg, Huber, Hansen, Todd, Evans & Figel, and an author and senior fellow at the Manhattan Institute...

's 1993 book, Galileo's Revenge: Junk Science In The Courtroom.

Engines

The engine range comprised the following engines:

Audi 100:
  • 1.8L I-4, 75 PS, carburetted (1982−1987)
  • 1.8L I-4, 90 PS, carburetted, later fuel injected/with catalyst (1983−1990)
  • 1.9L I-5, 100 PS, carburetted (1982−1984)
  • 2.0L I-5, 115 PS, fuel injection, later catalyst (1984−1990)
  • 2.1L I-5, 136 PS, fuel injection (1982−1984)
  • 2.2L I-5, 138 PS, fuel injection (1984−1990)
  • 2.2L I-5, 115 PS, fuel injection, catalyst (1984−1987)
  • 2.3L I-5, 136 PS, fuel injection (1986−1990)
  • 2.2L I-5, 165 PS, fuel injection, turbo (1986−1990)
  • 2.0L I-5 Diesel, 70 PS (1982−1989)
  • 2.0L I-5 Turbodiesel, 87 PS (1983−1988)
  • 2.0L I-5 Turbodiesel, 100 PS (1988−1989)
  • 2.4L I-5 Diesel, 82 PS (1989−1990)
  • 2.5L I-5 TDI, 120 PS (1990)


Audi 200:
  • 2.1L I-5, 136 PS, fuel injection (1983−1984)
  • 2.2L I-5, 138 PS, fuel injection (1984−1985)
  • 2.1L I-5, 141 PS, fuel injection, turbo, catalyst (1984−1985)
  • 2.2L I-5, 165 PS, fuel injection, turbo, catalyst (1985−1991)
  • 2.1L I-5, 182 PS, fuel injection, turbo (1983−1987)
  • 2.2L I-5, 200 PS, fuel injection, turbo (1988−1990); 190 PS with automatic transmission
  • 2.2L I-5, 220 PS, 20-valve turbo for 200 Quattro 20V (1989−1991)


Audi 5000/100/200 North America:
  • 2.1L I-5, 100 hp (MY 1984)
  • 2.2L I-5, 115 hp (MY 1985)
  • 2.2L I-5, 110 hp (MY 1986−1987½)
  • 2.3L I-5, 130 hp (MY 1987½−1991)
  • 2.1L I-5 Turbo, 140 hp (MY 1984−1985)
  • 2.2L I-5 Turbo, 158 hp (MY 1986−1987½)
  • 2.2L I-5 Turbo, 162 hp (MY 1987½−1991)
  • 2.2L I-5 Turbo, 220 hp (MY 1991)


As of late 1988, the Audi V8
Audi V8
The Audi V8 is a large luxury four-door, five-seat saloon , built by Audi AG at its Neckarsulm plant in Germany from October 1988 to November 1993, as the company's range-topping flagship model...

was available. Although styling was similar to the 200, the V8 had different chassis and body. The V8 was available as a 3.6 L or a 4.2 L engine. It was the first quattro model to have an automatic gearbox, featuring a ZF 4-speed unit with an electronically controlled multiplate clutch centre differential, combined with a Torsen
Torsen
Torsen is a type of differential used in automobiles. It was invented by American Vernon Gleasman and manufactured by the Gleason Corporation. Torsen is a contraction of Torque-Sensing...

 rear differential. The manual
Manual transmission
A manual transmission, also known as a manual gearbox or standard transmission is a type of transmission used in motor vehicle applications...

 gearbox quattro's across the range continued with a conventional rear differential (lockable at low speeds), and the Torsen centre differential (manual transmission V8 quattros had Torsen differentials in both the centre and the rear).
The 5000 S/Turbo was on Car and Driver
Car and Driver
Car and Driver is an American automotive enthusiast magazine. Its total circulation is 1.31 million. It is owned by Hearst Magazines, who purchased prior owner Hachette Filipacchi Media U.S. in 2011...

's
Ten Best list
Car and Driver Ten Best
Car and Driver magazine annually nominates a list of what it considers the Ten Best cars and Five Best trucks.All production vehicles for sale in that calendar year are considered with these restrictions:# The vehicle must be on sale by January...

 for 1984 and 1985. The CS Turbo quattro was on that list for 1986 through 1988.
Production Figures
100  852,243
100 Avant  122,852
200  97,195
200 Avant  6,153
Total  1,078,443

Audi 100 (C4, 1991–1994)

Audi released the C4 (a heavily revised C3) in 1991. The C3-platform Audi V8 continued to be sold as a separate line. The major change for the C4 was the introduction of a 2.8 L, 90-degree, SOHC 12v, V6 engine. It was later joined by a 2.6 L variant, though this is actually a 60-degree engine. They are essentially the same engines offered in the 1992, B4 Audi 80
Audi 80
The Audi 80 is a compact executive car produced by the German car manufacturer Audi, from 1966 to 1996. It shared its platform with the Volkswagen Passat from 1973 to 1986 and was available as a saloon car/sedan, and an Avant...

. The option of quattro permanent four-wheel drive was an option across the range, and the Audi 100 quattro was available with a ZF 4-speed automatic gearbox.

For the 1995 model year, in conjunction with some styling revisions, Audi dropped the Audi 100 tag, renaming it the A6
Audi A6
The Audi A6 is an executive car marketed by the German automaker Audi AG, now in its fourth generation. As the successor to the Audi 100, the A6 is manufactured in Neckarsulm, Germany – and is available in saloon, and wagon configurations, the latter marketed by Audi as the Avant.All generations...

 instead. In addition, the existing 100-derived Audi S4
Audi S4
The Audi S4 is the high performance variant of Audi's compact executive car A4. The original Audi S4, built from 1991 until 1994, was a performance-oriented version of Audi's 100 saloon/sedan...

 became the S6
Audi S6
The Audi S6 is a high-performance version of the Audi A6, an executive car produced by German automaker Audi. It went on sale in 1994, shortly after the "A6" designation was introduced, replacing the "100" nameplate...

. The S4 name was later re-used for the high-performance derivative of the Audi A4
Audi A4
The first generation Audi A4 debuted in 1994, with production starting November 1994. It was built on the Volkswagen Group B5 platform, which it shared with the fourth generation Volkswagen Passat . It had a front-mounted longitudinal engine and front-wheel drive...

. The Audi V8 had been replaced by the A8
Audi A8
The Audi A8 is a four-door, full-size, luxury sedan car manufactured and marketed by the German automaker Audi since 1994. Succeeding the Audi V8, the A8 has been offered with front wheel drive or permanent four-wheel drive, with multitronic or tiptronic automatic transmissions — and in short- and...

 in 1994.

The C4-based A6 continued until early 1997, when it was replaced by an all-new A6
Audi A6
The Audi A6 is an executive car marketed by the German automaker Audi AG, now in its fourth generation. As the successor to the Audi 100, the A6 is manufactured in Neckarsulm, Germany – and is available in saloon, and wagon configurations, the latter marketed by Audi as the Avant.All generations...

.

Type numbers

In addition to the C platform codes, Audi assigned type numbers to their models:
  • F104: C1; Audi 100 (1968–1976)
  • Type 43: C2; Audi 100 (1976–1982); Audi 200 (1979–1982)
  • Type 44: C3; Audi 100 (1983–1991); Audi 200 (1983–1992)
  • Type 4A: C4; Audi 100 (1991–1994); Audi S4 (1992–1994); Audi A6 (1995–1997); Audi S6 (1995–1997)

Chinese production

The C3-platform Audi 100 was also produced in Changchun
Changchun
Changchun is the capital and largest city of Jilin province, located in the northeast of the People's Republic of China, in the center of the Songliao Plain. It is administered as a sub-provincial city with a population of 7,677,089 at the 2010 census under its jurisdiction, including counties and...

, China
China
Chinese civilization may refer to:* China for more general discussion of the country.* Chinese culture* Greater China, the transnational community of ethnic Chinese.* History of China* Sinosphere, the area historically affected by Chinese culture...

, by FAW
First Automobile Works
FAW Group Corporation is a state-owned enterprise with publicly traded subsidiaries: FAW Car Company , Tianjin FAW Xiali Automobile Co Ltd , Changchun FAWAY Automobile Components Co Ltd ....

 (First Automobile Works, a Chinese automotive manufacturer), for many years during the 1990s. Since most products are for governmental usage, all of China-made 100s are front-wheel drive sedans with a 2.0 L 4-cylinder engine or a 2.3 L 5-cylinder one.

In 1990, Political Bureau of the Central Committee of the CPC approved a resolution to circumscribe car import and the engine displacement
Engine displacement
Engine displacement is the volume swept by all the pistons inside the cylinders of an internal combustion engine in a single movement from top dead centre to bottom dead centre . It is commonly specified in cubic centimeters , litres , or cubic inches...

 of cars equipped to officials. Furthermore, the resolution also prescribed that all cars of central departments of both Party and government must be homemade ones. As the most luxurious and advanced cars made in China in early-1990s, FAW-Audi 100 and 200 have possessed a considerable percentage in Chinese high-class market of executive cars for nearly one decade, until the C3-platform cars was replaced by Audi A6
Audi A6
The Audi A6 is an executive car marketed by the German automaker Audi AG, now in its fourth generation. As the successor to the Audi 100, the A6 is manufactured in Neckarsulm, Germany – and is available in saloon, and wagon configurations, the latter marketed by Audi as the Avant.All generations...

 in 1999.

During the negotiation between FAW and Volkswagen in late-1980s, Volkswagen acceded to FAW's suggestion of combining the C3 platform with previously introduced Chrysler
Chrysler
Chrysler Group LLC is a multinational automaker headquartered in Auburn Hills, Michigan, USA. Chrysler was first organized as the Chrysler Corporation in 1925....

 engines in the new generation Hongqi
Hongqi
Hongqi may refer to:*Hongqi , a magazine published by the Chinese Communist Party until 1988*Hongqi , luxury car series of First Automobile Works in Changchun- Places in the PR of China:*Hongqi District, Xinxiang, Henan...

 (Red Flag). Hongqi CA7200 series with the technology of C3 were launched in mid-1990s, while most of C3 Audi 100 parts could be made in China. CA7200 were initially equipped with Chrysler 2.0 L or 2.2 L 4-cylinder 488 engines, whose product line was introduced into China in 1987. In 2000s, new Nissan VQ20 engines
Nissan VQ engine
The VQ is a V6 piston engine produced by Nissan with displacements varying from 2.0 L to 4.0 L. It is an aluminum block DOHC 4-valve design with aluminum heads. It is fitted with Nissan's EGI/ECCS sequential multi-point fuel injection system...

 replaced the original 4-cylinder petrol engine. http://www.chinacartimes.com/2006/11/23/the-faw-is-over-for-red-flag/

A small number of C3 200s (with 1.8T or 2.6 V6 engine) and some early C4 100s (largely in Europe
Europe
Europe is, by convention, one of the world's seven continents. Comprising the westernmost peninsula of Eurasia, Europe is generally 'divided' from Asia to its east by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways connecting...

an style but with tail lights in American
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 style) were also assembled in Changchun.

Audi Duo

At the Geneva Motor Show in March 1990 Audi presented its first iteration of the Audi Duo (or Audi 100 Avant Duo) experimental vehicle, a plug-in parallel hybrid based on the Audi 100 Avant quattro. This car had a 12.6 bhp Siemens
Siemens
Siemens may refer toSiemens, a German family name carried by generations of telecommunications industrialists, including:* Werner von Siemens , inventor, founder of Siemens AG...

 electric motor
Electric motor
An electric motor converts electrical energy into mechanical energy.Most electric motors operate through the interaction of magnetic fields and current-carrying conductors to generate force...

 which drove the rear wheels. A trunk
Trunk (automobile)
The trunk or boot of an automobile or car is the vehicle's main storage, luggage, or cargo compartment. Trunk is used in North American English and Jamaican English; boot is used elsewhere in the English speaking world. Trunk is also primarily used in many non-English speaking regions, such as...

-mounted nickel-cadmium battery
Nickel-cadmium battery
The nickel–cadmium battery ' is a type of rechargeable battery using nickel oxide hydroxide and metallic cadmium as electrodes....

 supplied energy
Energy
In physics, energy is an indirectly observed quantity. It is often understood as the ability a physical system has to do work on other physical systems...

 to the motor that drove the rear wheels. The vehicle's front wheels were powered by a 2.3-litre five-cylinder engine with an output of 136 PS. The intent was to produce a vehicle which could operate on the engine in the country and electric mode in the city. Mode of operation could be selected by the driver. Just ten vehicles are believed to have been made; one drawback
Drawback
Drawback, in law in commerce, paying back a duty previously paid on exporting excisable articles or on re-exporting foreign goods. The object of a drawback is to let commodities which are subject to taxation be exported and sold in a foreign country on the same terms as goods from countries where...

 was that due to the extra weight of the electric drive, the vehicles were less efficient when running on their engines alone than standard Audi 100s with the same engine.

In late 1991, Audi unveiled the second Duo generation – likewise based on the Audi 100 Avant quattro. Once again this featured an electric motor, a 28.6 PS three-phase machine, driving the rear wheels. This time, however, the rear wheels were additionally powered via the Torsen
Torsen
Torsen is a type of differential used in automobiles. It was invented by American Vernon Gleasman and manufactured by the Gleason Corporation. Torsen is a contraction of Torque-Sensing...

 differential from the main engine compartment, which housed a 2.0-litre four-cylinder engine.

Sources

  • Covello, Mike, updated by, Standard Catalog of Imported Cars: 1946–2002, Krause Publications, Iola, Wisconsin, U.S.A., 2002.
  • Werner Oswald: Deutsche Autos 1945–1990, vol. 4. Motorbuch Verlag, Stuttgart 2001, ISBN 3-613-02131-5 (German).


External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
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