Arusha Declaration
The Arusha
Arusha is a city in northern Tanzania. It is the capital of the Arusha Region, which claims a population of 1,288,088, including 281,608 for the Arusha District . Arusha is surrounded by some of Africa's most famous landscapes and national parks...

was made by Tanzania
The United Republic of Tanzania is a country in East Africa bordered by Kenya and Uganda to the north, Rwanda, Burundi, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the west, and Zambia, Malawi, and Mozambique to the south. The country's eastern borders lie on the Indian Ocean.Tanzania is a state...

n President Julius Nyerere
Julius Nyerere
Julius Kambarage Nyerere was a Tanzanian politician who served as the first President of Tanzania and previously Tanganyika, from the country's founding in 1961 until his retirement in 1985....

 on 5 February 1967, outlining the principles of Ujamaa
Ujamaa was the concept that formed the basis of Julius Nyerere's social and economic development policies in Tanzania just after it gained independence from Britain in 1961...

 (Nyerere's vision of socialism) to develop the nation's economy. The declaration called for an overhaul of the economic system, through African socialism
African socialism
African socialism is a belief in sharing economic resources in a "traditional" African way, as distinct from classical socialism. Many African politicians of the 1950s and 1960s professed their support for African socialism, although definitions and interpretations of this term varied...

 and self-reliance in locally administered villages through a villagization
Villagization is the resettlement of people into designated villages by government or military authorities....


The villagization
Villagization is the resettlement of people into designated villages by government or military authorities....

 program, implemented in 1973-76, sought to transform the pattern of rural settlement by congregating the rural population-which previously had been resident predominantly on dispersed family smallholdings-in nucleated villages of sufficient size to be efficient (in bureaucratic terms) units for the delivery of services. Involved in this plan was the idea that the new villages could also become the basis for a socialist system of production.

One important element in the evaluation of the Arusha vision depends on interpretation of the degree of consistency between policies implemented and the intentions for their implementation, as stated in the declaration. Particularly in the period beginning in 1972, policies were implemented that Aimed to make Tanzania self-sufficient.

Though, arguably inconsistent with the positions developed in the Arusha Declaration, the formulation of the Basic Industrial Strategy involved a definite shift from the priority given to rural development in the declaration. There was increasing centralization of economic authority and urgency in the implementation of programs. The attempt to enforce the villagization ("Ujamaa Villages") program over two years, the abolition of cooperatives and local government, and the commitment to achieve universal primary education in two years all reflected an impatience to achieve political goals swiftly, even if it meant the loss of the principle of decentralized
participatory rural development associated with the Arusha Declaration rhetoric and downplaying realism in the implementation of policies. At the same time, the emphasis on the ascendancy of politics-and politicians-over the bureaucracy and workers' participation in the management of state enterprise seemed to incorporate a heightened political radicalism, although at the expense of weakening the self-confidence and role of technocrats.

It is ironic that the regional commissioners charged with collectivization of the farms, for "egalitarian" purposes, following the Arusha Declaration enriched themselves at the farmers expense.

Politically and socially the declaration was hugely unpopular. In 1974 Operation Dodoma forced collectivization of farming with the use of the military. Following the murder of Klerru, a regional commission who sezied all of a Mr's Mwanwindi's land in 1975 and the public attention to the trial the collectivism of the Arusho Declaration finally ended. It was a complete failure and only plunged Tanzania into further debt, a crisis in its balance of payments deficits and worsened relations with international donors.

Excerpt From the Arusha Declaration

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