Army of Northern Virginia
Overview
 
The Army of Northern Virginia was the primary military force of the Confederate States of America
Confederate States of America
The Confederate States of America was a government set up from 1861 to 1865 by 11 Southern slave states of the United States of America that had declared their secession from the U.S...

 in the Eastern Theater
Eastern Theater of the American Civil War
The Eastern Theater of the American Civil War included the states of Virginia, West Virginia, Maryland, and Pennsylvania, the District of Columbia, and the coastal fortifications and seaports of North Carolina...

 of the American Civil War
American Civil War
The American Civil War was a civil war fought in the United States of America. In response to the election of Abraham Lincoln as President of the United States, 11 southern slave states declared their secession from the United States and formed the Confederate States of America ; the other 25...

, as well as the primary command structure of the Department of Northern Virginia. It was most often arrayed against the Union
Union Army
The Union Army was the land force that fought for the Union during the American Civil War. It was also known as the Federal Army, the U.S. Army, the Northern Army and the National Army...

 Army of the Potomac
Army of the Potomac
The Army of the Potomac was the major Union Army in the Eastern Theater of the American Civil War.-History:The Army of the Potomac was created in 1861, but was then only the size of a corps . Its nucleus was called the Army of Northeastern Virginia, under Brig. Gen...

. Three districts were created under the Department of Northern Virginia:
  • Aquia District
    • First commander: Maj. Gen. Theophilus H. Holmes
      Theophilus H. Holmes
      Theophilus Hunter Holmes was a career United States Army officer and a Confederate Lieutenant General in the American Civil War.-Early life and career:...

    • Period of existence: October 22, 1861, to April 18, 1862
  • Potomac District
    • First commander: Gen. P.G.T.
Encyclopedia
The Army of Northern Virginia was the primary military force of the Confederate States of America
Confederate States of America
The Confederate States of America was a government set up from 1861 to 1865 by 11 Southern slave states of the United States of America that had declared their secession from the U.S...

 in the Eastern Theater
Eastern Theater of the American Civil War
The Eastern Theater of the American Civil War included the states of Virginia, West Virginia, Maryland, and Pennsylvania, the District of Columbia, and the coastal fortifications and seaports of North Carolina...

 of the American Civil War
American Civil War
The American Civil War was a civil war fought in the United States of America. In response to the election of Abraham Lincoln as President of the United States, 11 southern slave states declared their secession from the United States and formed the Confederate States of America ; the other 25...

, as well as the primary command structure of the Department of Northern Virginia. It was most often arrayed against the Union
Union Army
The Union Army was the land force that fought for the Union during the American Civil War. It was also known as the Federal Army, the U.S. Army, the Northern Army and the National Army...

 Army of the Potomac
Army of the Potomac
The Army of the Potomac was the major Union Army in the Eastern Theater of the American Civil War.-History:The Army of the Potomac was created in 1861, but was then only the size of a corps . Its nucleus was called the Army of Northeastern Virginia, under Brig. Gen...

. Three districts were created under the Department of Northern Virginia:
  • Aquia District
    • First commander: Maj. Gen. Theophilus H. Holmes
      Theophilus H. Holmes
      Theophilus Hunter Holmes was a career United States Army officer and a Confederate Lieutenant General in the American Civil War.-Early life and career:...

    • Period of existence: October 22, 1861, to April 18, 1862
  • Potomac District
    • First commander: Gen. P.G.T. Beauregard
    • Period of existence: October 22, 1861, to January 29, 1862
  • Valley District
    Valley District
    The Valley District was an organization of the Confederate States Army and subsection of the Department of Northern Virginia during the American Civil War, responsible for operations between the Blue Ridge Mountains and Allegheny Mountains of Virginia. It was created on October 22, 1861, and was...

    • First commander: Maj. Gen. Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson
      Stonewall Jackson
      ຄຽשת״ׇׂׂׂׂ֣|birth_place= Clarksburg, Virginia |death_place=Guinea Station, Virginia|placeofburial=Stonewall Jackson Memorial CemeteryLexington, Virginia|placeofburial_label= Place of burial|image=...

    • Period of existence: October 22, 1861, to April 9, 1865


While the Aquia and Potomac Districts ceased to exist by the spring of 1862, the need remained for military organization in the Valley throughout the remainder of the war, and the Valley District
Valley District
The Valley District was an organization of the Confederate States Army and subsection of the Department of Northern Virginia during the American Civil War, responsible for operations between the Blue Ridge Mountains and Allegheny Mountains of Virginia. It was created on October 22, 1861, and was...

 remained in place for the duration of the war.

Origin

The name Army of Northern Virginia
Northern Virginia
Northern Virginia consists of several counties and independent cities in the Commonwealth of Virginia, in a widespread region generally radiating southerly and westward from Washington, D.C...

 referred to its primary area of operation, as did most Confederate States Army
Confederate States Army
The Confederate States Army was the army of the Confederate States of America while the Confederacy existed during the American Civil War. On February 8, 1861, delegates from the seven Deep South states which had already declared their secession from the United States of America adopted the...

 names at the time. The Army originated as the (Confederate) Army of the Potomac, which was organized on June 20, 1861, from all operational forces in northern Virginia. On July 20 and July 21, the Army of the Shenandoah
Army of the Shenandoah (Confederate)
The Army of the Shenandoah was an army of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War. Major General Kenton Harper of the Virginia Militia organized about two thousand volunteers at Harpers Ferry by April 21, 1861. Brig. General Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson of the Virginia...

 and forces from the District of Harpers Ferry were added. Units from the Army of the Northwest were merged into the Army of the Potomac between March 14 and May 17, 1862. The Army of the Potomac was renamed Army of Northern Virginia on March 14. The Army of the Peninsula
Army of the Peninsula
The Army of the Peninsula or Magruder's Army was a Confederate army early in the American Civil War.In May 1861, Colonel John B. Magruder was assigned to command operations on the lower Virginia Peninsula with Yorktown as headquarters...

 was merged on April 12, 1862.

Robert E. Lee
Robert E. Lee
Robert Edward Lee was a career military officer who is best known for having commanded the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia in the American Civil War....

's biographer, Douglas S. Freeman
Douglas S. Freeman
Douglas Southall Freeman was an American historian, biographer, newspaper editor, and author. He is best known for his multi-volume biographies of Robert E...

, asserts that the army received its final name from Lee when he issued orders assuming command on June 1, 1862. However, Freeman does admit that Lee corresponded with Joseph E. Johnston
Joseph E. Johnston
Joseph Eggleston Johnston was a career U.S. Army officer, serving with distinction in the Mexican-American War and Seminole Wars, and was also one of the most senior general officers in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War...

, his predecessor in army command, prior to that date and referred to Johnston's command as the Army of Northern Virginia. Part of the confusion results from the fact that Johnston commanded the Department of Northern Virginia (as of October 22, 1861) and the name Army of Northern Virginia can be seen as an informal consequence of its parent department's name. Jefferson Davis
Jefferson Davis
Jefferson Finis Davis , also known as Jeff Davis, was an American statesman and leader of the Confederacy during the American Civil War, serving as President for its entire history. He was born in Kentucky to Samuel and Jane Davis...

 and Johnston did not adopt the name, but it is clear that the organization of units as of March 14 was the same organization that Lee received on June 1, and thus it is generally referred to today as the Army of Northern Virginia, even if that is correct only in retrospect.

In addition to Virginians, it included regiment
Regiment
A regiment is a major tactical military unit, composed of variable numbers of batteries, squadrons or battalions, commanded by a colonel or lieutenant colonel...

s from all over the Confederacy, even those as far away as Georgia
Georgia (U.S. state)
Georgia is a state located in the southeastern United States. It was established in 1732, the last of the original Thirteen Colonies. The state is named after King George II of Great Britain. Georgia was the fourth state to ratify the United States Constitution, on January 2, 1788...

, Texas
Texas
Texas is the second largest U.S. state by both area and population, and the largest state by area in the contiguous United States.The name, based on the Caddo word "Tejas" meaning "friends" or "allies", was applied by the Spanish to the Caddo themselves and to the region of their settlement in...

 and Arkansas
Arkansas
Arkansas is a state located in the southern region of the United States. Its name is an Algonquian name of the Quapaw Indians. Arkansas shares borders with six states , and its eastern border is largely defined by the Mississippi River...

. Of those, one of the most well known was the Texas Brigade
Texas Brigade
The Texas Brigade, also often referred to as Hood's Brigade, was an infantry brigade in the Confederate States Army that distinguished itself for its fierce tenacity and fighting capability during the American Civil War.-Organization:...

, made up of the 1st, 4th, and 5th Texas, and the 3rd Arkansas, which distinguished themselves in numerous battles, perhaps most notably during their fight for the Devil's Den
Devil's Den
Devils Den is a boulder-strewn Gettysburg Battlefield hill used by artillery and infantry during the 1863 Battle of Gettysburg, Second Day...

 at the Battle of Gettysburg
Battle of Gettysburg
The Battle of Gettysburg , was fought July 1–3, 1863, in and around the town of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. The battle with the largest number of casualties in the American Civil War, it is often described as the war's turning point. Union Maj. Gen. George Gordon Meade's Army of the Potomac...

. The 50th Georgia Volunteer Infantry
50th Georgia Volunteer Infantry
The 50th Georgia Volunteer Infantry was an infantry regiment raised by the state of Georgia to fight for the Confederacy in the American Civil War....

 are Georgia's most famous contribution to the army. Militia
Militia
The term militia is commonly used today to refer to a military force composed of ordinary citizens to provide defense, emergency law enforcement, or paramilitary service, in times of emergency without being paid a regular salary or committed to a fixed term of service. It is a polyseme with...

men from the New Mexico
New Mexico Territory
thumb|right|240px|Proposed boundaries for State of New Mexico, 1850The Territory of New Mexico was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from September 9, 1850, until January 6, 1912, when the final extent of the territory was admitted to the Union as the State of...

 and Arizona
Arizona Territory
The Territory of Arizona was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from February 24, 1863 until February 14, 1912, when it was admitted to the Union as the 48th state....

 territories also served among its members.

Command under Brigadier General P. G. T. Beauregard

The first commander of the Army of Northern Virginia was General P.G.T. Beauregard (under its previous name, the Confederate Army of the Potomac) from June 20 to July 20, 1861. His forces consisted of six brigades, with various militia and artillery from the former Department of Alexandria. During his command, Gen. Beauregard is noted for creating the battle flag of the army, which came to be the primary battle flag for all corps and forces under the Army of Northern Virginia. The flag was designed due to confusion during battle between the Confederate "Stars and Bars" flag and the flag of the United States. Beauregard continued commanding these troops as the new First Corps under Gen. J. E. Johnston as it was joined by the Army of the Shenandoah on July 20, 1861, when command was relinquished to General J. E. Johnston. The following day this army fought its first major engagement in the First Battle of Manassas.

Command under General J. E. Johnston

With the merging of the Army of the Shenandoah, Gen. Joseph E. Johnston
Joseph E. Johnston
Joseph Eggleston Johnston was a career U.S. Army officer, serving with distinction in the Mexican-American War and Seminole Wars, and was also one of the most senior general officers in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War...

 took command from July 20, 1861, until May 31, 1862.

Corps organization under Johnston

  • First Corps - commanded by Gen. P. G. T. Beauregard
  • Second Corps - commanded by Maj. Gen. G. W. Smith


Under the command of Johnston, the Army immediately entered into the First Battle of Manassas. On October 22, 1861, the Department of Northern Virginia was officially created, officially ending the Army of the Potomac. The Department comprised three districts: Aquia District, Potomac District, and the Valley District
Valley District
The Valley District was an organization of the Confederate States Army and subsection of the Department of Northern Virginia during the American Civil War, responsible for operations between the Blue Ridge Mountains and Allegheny Mountains of Virginia. It was created on October 22, 1861, and was...

. In April 1862 the Department was expanded to include the Departments of Norfolk and the Peninsula (of Virginia). Gen. Johnston was eventually forced into maneuvering the Army southward to the defenses of Richmond during the opening of the Peninsula Campaign, where it conducted delay and defend tactics until Johnston was severely wounded at the Battle of Seven Pines
Battle of Seven Pines
The Battle of Seven Pines, also known as the Battle of Fair Oaks or Fair Oaks Station, took place on May 31 and June 1, 1862, in Henrico County, Virginia, as part of the Peninsula Campaign of the American Civil War. It was the culmination of an offensive up the Virginia Peninsula by Union Maj. Gen....

.

Temporary command under Major General G. W. Smith

The army was very briefly commanded by Maj. Gen. Gustavus Woodson Smith
Gustavus Woodson Smith
Gustavus Woodson Smith , more commonly known as G.W. Smith, was a career United States Army officer who fought in the Mexican-American War, a civil engineer, and a major general in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War.-Early life and Mexico:Smith was born in Georgetown,...

 on May 31, 1862, following the wounding of Gen. J. E. Johnston, while President Jefferson Davis drafted orders to place Gen. Robert E. Lee in command the following day.

Command under General R. E. Lee

On June 1, 1862, its most famous, and final, leader, General Robert E. Lee
Robert E. Lee
Robert Edward Lee was a career military officer who is best known for having commanded the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia in the American Civil War....

, took command after Johnston was wounded, and Smith suffered what may have been a nervous breakdown, at the Battle of Seven Pines
Battle of Seven Pines
The Battle of Seven Pines, also known as the Battle of Fair Oaks or Fair Oaks Station, took place on May 31 and June 1, 1862, in Henrico County, Virginia, as part of the Peninsula Campaign of the American Civil War. It was the culmination of an offensive up the Virginia Peninsula by Union Maj. Gen....

. In the first year of his command, Lee had two principal subordinate commanders. The right wing of the army was under the command of Lt. Gen. James Longstreet
James Longstreet
James Longstreet was one of the foremost Confederate generals of the American Civil War and the principal subordinate to General Robert E. Lee, who called him his "Old War Horse." He served under Lee as a corps commander for many of the famous battles fought by the Army of Northern Virginia in the...

 and the left wing under Lt. Gen. Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson
Stonewall Jackson
ຄຽשת״ׇׂׂׂׂ֣|birth_place= Clarksburg, Virginia |death_place=Guinea Station, Virginia|placeofburial=Stonewall Jackson Memorial CemeteryLexington, Virginia|placeofburial_label= Place of burial|image=...

. These wings were redesignated as the First Corps (Longstreet) and Second Corps (Jackson) on November 6, 1862. Following Jackson's death after the Battle of Chancellorsville
Battle of Chancellorsville
The Battle of Chancellorsville was a major battle of the American Civil War, and the principal engagement of the Chancellorsville Campaign. It was fought from April 30 to May 6, 1863, in Spotsylvania County, Virginia, near the village of Chancellorsville. Two related battles were fought nearby on...

, Lee reorganized the army into three corps
Corps
A corps is either a large formation, or an administrative grouping of troops within an armed force with a common function such as Artillery or Signals representing an arm of service...

 on May 30, 1863, under Longstreet, Lt. Gen. Richard S. Ewell
Richard S. Ewell
Richard Stoddert Ewell was a career United States Army officer and a Confederate general during the American Civil War. He achieved fame as a senior commander under Stonewall Jackson and Robert E...

, and Lt. Gen. A.P. Hill. A Fourth Corps, under Lt. Gen. Richard H. Anderson
Richard H. Anderson
Richard Heron Anderson was a career U.S. Army officer, fighting with distinction in the Mexican-American War. He also served as a Confederate general during the American Civil War, fighting in the Eastern Theater of the conflict and most notably during the 1864 Battle of Spotsylvania Court House...

, was organized on October 19, 1864; on April 8, 1865, it was merged into the Second Corps. The commanders of the first three corps changed frequently in 1864 and 1865. The Cavalry Corps was led by Maj. Gen. J.E.B. Stuart
J.E.B. Stuart
James Ewell Brown "Jeb" Stuart was a U.S. Army officer from Virginia and a Confederate States Army general during the American Civil War. He was known to his friends as "Jeb", from the initials of his given names. Stuart was a cavalry commander known for his mastery of reconnaissance and the use...

. It was established on August 17, 1862, and abolished on May 11, 1864 (the day Stuart was mortally wounded), with cavalry units being assigned to the headquarters of the Army. The Reserve Artillery was commanded by Brig. Gen. William N. Pendleton
William N. Pendleton
William Nelson Pendleton was an American teacher, Episcopal priest, and soldier. He served as a Confederate general during the American Civil War, noted for his position as Gen. Robert E. Lee's chief of artillery for most of the conflict...

.

Corps organization under Lee

Although the Army of Northern Virginia swelled and shrank over time, its units of organization consisted primarily of the following corps, sometimes referred to as "wings" or "commands":
  • First Corps
    First Corps, Army of Northern Virginia
    The First Corps, Army of Northern Virginia was a military unit fighting for the Confederate States of America in the American Civil War. It was formed in early 1861 and served until the spring of 1865, mostly in the Eastern Theater. The corps was commanded by James Longstreet for much of its...

  • Second Corps
    Second Corps, Army of Northern Virginia
    The Second Corps of the Army of Northern Virginia was a military organization within the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia during much of the American Civil War. It was officially created and named following the Battle of Sharpsburg in 1862, but comprised units in a corps organization for quite...

  • Third Corps
    Third Corps, Army of Northern Virginia
    The Third Corps of the Army of Northern Virginia was a military organization within the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia during much of the American Civil War. The corps was formed in mid-1863 and served until Lee's surrender April 9, 1865, near the end of the war.-Formation:After the death of...

  • Fourth Corps
    Fourth Corps, Army of Northern Virginia
    The Fourth Corps was a military unit formed in October 1864 within the Army of Northern Virginia of the Confederate Army. It fought for the Confederate States of America during the late stages of the American Civil War. The corps was commanded by Richard H...

    , often styled Anderson
    Richard H. Anderson
    Richard Heron Anderson was a career U.S. Army officer, fighting with distinction in the Mexican-American War. He also served as a Confederate general during the American Civil War, fighting in the Eastern Theater of the conflict and most notably during the 1864 Battle of Spotsylvania Court House...

    's Corps
  • Cavalry Corps
    Cavalry Corps, Army of Northern Virginia
    The Cavalry Corps of the Army of Northern Virginia was the only organized cavalry corps in the Confederate Army during the American Civil War. Prior to the establishment of a formal corps, cavalry organization in the Confederacy consisted mostly of partisan ranger units and some battalions, a few...


Campaigns and battles

The Army fought in a number of campaigns and battles, including:
Campaign Year Army strength at the beginning of campaign Major Battles
Peninsula Campaign
Peninsula Campaign
The Peninsula Campaign of the American Civil War was a major Union operation launched in southeastern Virginia from March through July 1862, the first large-scale offensive in the Eastern Theater. The operation, commanded by Maj. Gen. George B...

1862 55,633 Seven Pines
Battle of Seven Pines
The Battle of Seven Pines, also known as the Battle of Fair Oaks or Fair Oaks Station, took place on May 31 and June 1, 1862, in Henrico County, Virginia, as part of the Peninsula Campaign of the American Civil War. It was the culmination of an offensive up the Virginia Peninsula by Union Maj. Gen....

 (Fair Oaks)
Seven Days Battles
Seven Days Battles
The Seven Days Battles was a series of six major battles over the seven days from June 25 to July 1, 1862, near Richmond, Virginia during the American Civil War. Confederate General Robert E. Lee drove the invading Union Army of the Potomac, commanded by Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan, away from...

1862 approx. 92,000 Gaines' Mill
Battle of Gaines' Mill
The Battle of Gaines's Mill, sometimes known as the First Battle of Cold Harbor or the Battle of Chickahominy River, took place on June 27, 1862, in Hanover County, Virginia, as the third of the Seven Days Battles of the American Civil War...

, Malvern Hill
Battle of Malvern Hill
The Battle of Malvern Hill, also known as the Battle of Poindexter's Farm, took place on July 1, 1862, in Henrico County, Virginia, on the seventh and last day of the Seven Days Battles of the American Civil War. Gen. Robert E. Lee launched a series of disjointed assaults on the nearly impregnable...

Northern Virginia Campaign
Northern Virginia Campaign
The Northern Virginia Campaign, also known as the Second Bull Run Campaign or Second Manassas Campaign, was a series of battles fought in Virginia during August and September 1862 in the Eastern Theater of the American Civil War. Confederate General Robert E...

1862 approx. 54,000 Second Bull Run (Second Manassas)
Maryland Campaign
Maryland Campaign
The Maryland Campaign, or the Antietam Campaign is widely considered one of the major turning points of the American Civil War. Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee's first invasion of the North was repulsed by Maj. Gen. George B...

1862 approx. 60,000 Antietam
Battle of Antietam
The Battle of Antietam , fought on September 17, 1862, near Sharpsburg, Maryland, and Antietam Creek, as part of the Maryland Campaign, was the first major battle in the American Civil War to take place on Northern soil. It was the bloodiest single-day battle in American history, with about 23,000...

 (Sharpsburg)
Fredericksburg Campaign 1862 approx. 75,000 Fredericksburg
Battle of Fredericksburg
The Battle of Fredericksburg was fought December 11–15, 1862, in and around Fredericksburg, Virginia, between General Robert E. Lee's Confederate Army of Northern Virginia and the Union Army of the Potomac, commanded by Maj. Gen. Ambrose E. Burnside...

Chancellorsville Campaign 1863 approx. 75,000 Chancellorsville
Battle of Chancellorsville
The Battle of Chancellorsville was a major battle of the American Civil War, and the principal engagement of the Chancellorsville Campaign. It was fought from April 30 to May 6, 1863, in Spotsylvania County, Virginia, near the village of Chancellorsville. Two related battles were fought nearby on...

Gettysburg Campaign
Gettysburg Campaign
The Gettysburg Campaign was a series of battles fought in June and July 1863, during the American Civil War. After his victory in the Battle of Chancellorsville, Confederate General Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia moved north for offensive operations in Maryland and Pennsylvania. The...

1863 75,054 Gettysburg
Battle of Gettysburg
The Battle of Gettysburg , was fought July 1–3, 1863, in and around the town of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. The battle with the largest number of casualties in the American Civil War, it is often described as the war's turning point. Union Maj. Gen. George Gordon Meade's Army of the Potomac...

Bristoe Campaign
Bristoe Campaign
The Bristoe Campaign was a series of minor battles fought in Virginia during October and November 1863, in the American Civil War. Maj. Gen. George G. Meade, commanding the Union Army of the Potomac, began to maneuver in an unsuccessful attempt to defeat Gen. Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern...

1863 55,221  
Mine Run Campaign 1863 approx. 50,000  
Overland Campaign
Overland Campaign
The Overland Campaign, also known as Grant's Overland Campaign and the Wilderness Campaign, was a series of battles fought in Virginia during May and June 1864, in the American Civil War. Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant, general-in-chief of all Union armies, directed the actions of the Army of the...

1864 62,230 Wilderness
Battle of the Wilderness
The Battle of the Wilderness, fought May 5–7, 1864, was the first battle of Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant's 1864 Virginia Overland Campaign against Gen. Robert E. Lee and the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia. Both armies suffered heavy casualties, a harbinger of a bloody war of attrition by...

, Spotsylvania Court House
Battle of Spotsylvania Court House
The Battle of Spotsylvania Court House, sometimes simply referred to as the Battle of Spotsylvania , was the second major battle in Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant's 1864 Overland Campaign of the American Civil War. Following the bloody but inconclusive Battle of the Wilderness, Grant's army disengaged...

, Cold Harbor
Battle of Cold Harbor
The Battle of Cold Harbor was fought from May 31 to June 12, 1864 . It was one of the final battles of Union Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant's Overland Campaign during the American Civil War, and is remembered as one of American history's bloodiest, most lopsided battles...

Richmond–Petersburg Campaign 1864–65 82,633 Siege of Petersburg
Siege of Petersburg
The Richmond–Petersburg Campaign was a series of battles around Petersburg, Virginia, fought from June 9, 1864, to March 25, 1865, during the American Civil War...

, including the Battle of the Crater
Battle of the Crater
The Battle of the Crater was a battle of the American Civil War, part of the Siege of Petersburg. It took place on July 30, 1864, between the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia, commanded by General Robert E. Lee and the Union Army of the Potomac, commanded by Major General George G. Meade The...

Appomattox Campaign
Appomattox Campaign
The Appomattox Campaign was a series of battles fought March 29 – April 9, 1865, in Virginia that culminated in the surrender of Confederate General Robert E...

1865 around 50,000 Five Forks
Battle of Five Forks
The Battle of Five Forks was fought on April 1, 1865, southwest of Petersburg, Virginia, in Dinwiddie County, during the Appomattox Campaign of the American Civil War. The battle, sometimes referred to as the "Waterloo of the Confederacy," pitted Union Maj. Gen. Philip H. Sheridan against...

, Battle of Appomattox Court House


On April 9, 1865, the Army of Northern Virginia surrendered to the Army of the Potomac
Army of the Potomac
The Army of the Potomac was the major Union Army in the Eastern Theater of the American Civil War.-History:The Army of the Potomac was created in 1861, but was then only the size of a corps . Its nucleus was called the Army of Northeastern Virginia, under Brig. Gen...

 at Appomattox Court House
Appomattox Court House National Historical Park
The Appomattox Court House National Historical Park is a National Historical Park of original and reconstructed nineteenth century buildings. It was signed into law August 3, 1935. The village was made a national monument in 1940 and a national historical park in 1954...

, effectively ending the Civil War, with General Lee signing the papers of surrender to General Ulysses S. Grant
Ulysses S. Grant
Ulysses S. Grant was the 18th President of the United States as well as military commander during the Civil War and post-war Reconstruction periods. Under Grant's command, the Union Army defeated the Confederate military and ended the Confederate States of America...

. The day after his surrender, Lee issued his Farewell Address to the Army of Northern Virginia.

Organization October 22, 1861

The Military district of Northern Virginia was embattled on October 22, 1861. The commander was General Joseph E. Johnston. The military district consisted of three defence districts.
>
Defence district Division Brigade Commander/Officers in charge
Potomac General P.G.T. Beauregard
1. Division Major General Earl Van Dorn
Earl Van Dorn
Earl Van Dorn was a career United States Army officer, fighting with distinction during the Mexican-American War and against several tribes of Native Americans...

2. Division Major General Gustavus W. Smith
Gustavus Woodson Smith
Gustavus Woodson Smith , more commonly known as G.W. Smith, was a career United States Army officer who fought in the Mexican-American War, a civil engineer, and a major general in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War.-Early life and Mexico:Smith was born in Georgetown,...

3. Division Major General James Longstreet
James Longstreet
James Longstreet was one of the foremost Confederate generals of the American Civil War and the principal subordinate to General Robert E. Lee, who called him his "Old War Horse." He served under Lee as a corps commander for many of the famous battles fought by the Army of Northern Virginia in the...

4. Division Major General Edmund Kirby Smith
Edmund Kirby Smith
Edmund Kirby Smith was a career United States Army officer and educator. He served as a general in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War, notable for his command of the Trans-Mississippi Department of the Confederacy after the fall of Vicksburg.After the conflict ended Smith...

Aquia Major General Theophilus H. Holmes
Theophilus H. Holmes
Theophilus Hunter Holmes was a career United States Army officer and a Confederate Lieutenant General in the American Civil War.-Early life and career:...

French's Brigade Brigadier General Samuel Gibbs French
Samuel Gibbs French
History of Salem County by Joseph S. Sickler, pub 1937 pp-243, 276-277...

2. Brigade Brigadier General John G. Walker
John George Walker
John George Walker was a Confederate general in the American Civil War.-Early life and military career:Walker was born in Jefferson City, Missouri...

Valley Major General Thomas J. Jackson
Garnett's Brigade Brigadier General Richard B. Garnett
Richard B. Garnett
Richard Brooke Garnett was a career United States Army officer and a Confederate general in the American Civil War. He was killed during Pickett's Charge at the Battle of Gettysburg.-Early life:...

Ashby's Cavalry Colonel Turner Ashby
Turner Ashby
Turner Ashby, Jr. was a Confederate cavalry commander in the American Civil War. He had achieved prominence as Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson's cavalry commander, in the grade of colonel, in the Shenandoah Valley before he was killed in battle in 1862...


On February 28, 1862, there were 47,617 soldiers present for duty to the military district. The Cavalry Brigade was provided from the Potomac's Military District and under direct control from the Defense District. The artillery formed an Artillery Corps with 109 cannons.

Organization April 30, 1862

The Military District of Northern Virginia was never renamed into The Army of Northern Virginia during the District's existence. This designation was forced through General Lee taking supreme command. The name was mentioned for the first time in the order for the Defence Districts of Virginia Peninsula and Norfolk on April 12, 1862 about the diversification of command. On April 30, 1862 the army was structured as follows:
>
Wing of the Army Division Brigade Commander/Officers in charge
Left wing Major General John B. Magruder
McLaws' Division Brigade General Lafayette McLaws
Lafayette McLaws
Lafayette McLaws was a United States Army officer and a Confederate general in the American Civil War.-Early life:...

Toombs' Division Brigadier General Robert A. Toombs
Ewell's Brigade Colonel B. S. Ewell
Center Major General James Longstreet
A.P. Hill's Brigade Brigadier General Ambrose P. Hill
Anderson's Brigade Brigadier General Richard H. Anderson
Colston's Brigade Brigadier General Raleigh E. Colston
Pickett's Brigade Brigadier General George E. Pickett
Wilcox's Brigade Brigadier General Cadmus M. Wilcox
Cadmus M. Wilcox
Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox was a career United States Army officer who served in the Mexican–American War and also was a Confederate general during the American Civil War.-Early life and career:...

Pryor's Brigade Colonel G. A. Winston
Left Emplacement Major General Daniel H. Hill
Daniel Harvey Hill
On July 22, 1862, Hill and Union Maj. Gen. John A. Dix concluded an agreement for the general exchange of prisoners between the Union and Confederate armies. This agreement became known as the Dix-Hill Cartel....

Early's Division Brigadier General Jubal A. Early
Jubal Anderson Early
Jubal Anderson Early was a lawyer and Confederate general in the American Civil War. He served under Stonewall Jackson and then Robert E. Lee for almost the entire war, rising from regimental command to lieutenant general and the command of an infantry corps in the Army of Northern Virginia...

Early's Brigade Brigadier General Jubal A. Early
Rode's Brigade Brigadier General Robert E. Rodes
Robert E. Rodes
Robert Emmett Rodes was a railroad civil engineer and a promising young Confederate general in the American Civil War, killed in battle in the Shenandoah Valley.-Education, antebellum career:...

Rain's Division Brigadier General Gabriel J. Rains
Rain's Brigade Brigadier General Gabriel J. Rains
Featherston's Brigade Brigadier General Winfield S. Featherston
Gloucester Point Colonel Crump
Reserve Major General Gustavus W. Smith
Whiting's Brigade Brigadier General W. H. C. Whiting
Hood's Brigade Brigadier General John B. Hood
John Bell Hood
John Bell Hood was a Confederate general during the American Civil War. Hood had a reputation for bravery and aggressiveness that sometimes bordered on recklessness...

Colston's Brigade Brigadier General Raleigh E. Colston
Hampton's Brigade Colonel Wade Hampton
Wade Hampton III
Wade Hampton III was a Confederate cavalry leader during the American Civil War and afterward a politician from South Carolina, serving as its 77th Governor and as a U.S...

Anderson's Brigade Brigadier General Samuel R. Anderson
Samuel Read Anderson
Samuel Read Anderson was an American businessman and military officer in two wars. He was the Postmaster of Nashville, Tennessee, from 1853 until 1861 and then was a Confederate brigadier general during the American Civil War...

Pettigrew's Brigade Brigadier General James J. Pettigrew
Cavalry Brigade Brigadier General J. E. B. Stuart


At the outset of the Peninsula Campaign
Peninsula Campaign
The Peninsula Campaign of the American Civil War was a major Union operation launched in southeastern Virginia from March through July 1862, the first large-scale offensive in the Eastern Theater. The operation, commanded by Maj. Gen. George B...

 the Army of Northern Virginia had more than 55,633 soldiers. The cannon was assigned to the brigades, as well as the Reserve's artillery. Nominally, Jackson's Corps
Corps
A corps is either a large formation, or an administrative grouping of troops within an armed force with a common function such as Artillery or Signals representing an arm of service...

 in the Shenandoah Valley, was subordinate to the Army. Since Jackson led his own campaign at the time of the Peninsula Campaign and was not under Lee's direct command this overview does not include his three divisions.

The Army's organization soon proved inept in the course of the Peninsula Campaign. The corps-like structure was rearranged before the Seven Days Battle to converge with the requirements of actual command. In the course of this battle the Army featured two Corps; Jackson's and Magruder's, with four and three divisions respectively, and three actual divisions with five to six brigades. Also the Defense District of North Carolina answered directly to the Army as well as the Reserve Artillery with six battalions and the cavalry with six regiments. The army's complete strength was about 90,000 soldiers. The exact strength cannot be determined, because only a few notes for actual provisionings survived. The estimated strength results, if not explicitly noted, from in-battle dispatches.

Organization at the setout of the Northern Virginia Campaign

The Seven Days Battle showed the Army still suffered from insufficient organization in army command. General Lee subdivided the army again, but this time only with single commands. He introduced a corps-like structure of command, and as an intermediate army management he named the left and right wing. The Army was organized on August 28, 1862 as follows. >
Wing of the Army/Army troops Division Brigade/Combat support Commander/Officers in charge
Right Wing 3 Artillery Battalions Major General James Longstreet
Anderson's Division 3 Brigades Major General Richard H. Anderson
Jones's Division 3 Brigades Brigadier General David Rumph Jones
Wilcox's Division 3 Brigades / 2 Artillery Batteries Brigadier General Cadmus M. Wilcox
Hood's Division 2 Brigades / 1 Artillery Battalion Brigadier General John B. Hood
Kemper's Division 3 Brigades Brigadier General James L. Kemper
Evan's Brigade / 1 Artillery Battery Brigadier General Nathan George Evans
Nathan George Evans
Nathan George "Shanks" Evans was a captain in the 2nd U.S. Cavalry who became a brigadier general in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War.-Biography:...

Left Wing Major General Thomas J. Jackson
Jackson's Division 4 Brigades / 1 Artillery Regiment Brigadier General William B. Taliaferro
William B. Taliaferro
William Booth Taliaferro , was a United States Army officer, a lawyer, legislator, and Confederate general in the American Civil War.-Early life:...

Hill's Light Division 6 Brigades / 1 Artillery Regiment Major General Ambrose P. Hill
Ewell's Division 4 Brigades / 1 Artillery Regiment Major General Richard S. Ewell
Cavalry Division 3 Brigades / 1 Artillery Battery Major General J. E. B. Stuart


The Army's Reserve Artillery consisted of one regiment and two battalions. They stayed in the area of Richmond in the course of the whole Northern Virginia Campaign
Northern Virginia Campaign
The Northern Virginia Campaign, also known as the Second Bull Run Campaign or Second Manassas Campaign, was a series of battles fought in Virginia during August and September 1862 in the Eastern Theater of the American Civil War. Confederate General Robert E...

 and only returned on September 3, 1862 to the Army. Major General Hill's Division also remained in the eastern parts of Richmond with the order to bind McClellan's
George B. McClellan
George Brinton McClellan was a major general during the American Civil War. He organized the famous Army of the Potomac and served briefly as the general-in-chief of the Union Army. Early in the war, McClellan played an important role in raising a well-trained and organized army for the Union...

 attention as long as possible. As it became predictable that the Army of the Potomac would soon be transferred to support Pope, Lee ordered the Division north. Hill never entered battle in the campaign. A total of about 54,000 soldiers saw action throughout the campaign.

Organization at the Beginning of the Maryland Campaign

The Army's losses before and following the Battle of Second Manassas
Second Battle of Bull Run
The Second Battle of Bull Run or Second Manassas was fought August 28–30, 1862, as part of the American Civil War. It was the culmination of an offensive campaign waged by Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia against Union Maj. Gen...

 needed to be replaced before the Maryland Campaign
Maryland Campaign
The Maryland Campaign, or the Antietam Campaign is widely considered one of the major turning points of the American Civil War. Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee's first invasion of the North was repulsed by Maj. Gen. George B...

 could commence. While fundamental changes in the Army's command structure were not necessary, General Lee exchanged divisions and brigades or added additional strength to some. The wings of the Army were now officially called 'Corps'. In the Maryland Campaign the Army was subdivided as follows. >
Corps / Army group Division Brigade/Combat support Commander/Officers in charge
Longstreet's Corps 2 Artillery Battalions Major General James Longstreet
Anderson's Division 6 Brigades / 1 Artillery Battalion Major General Richard H. Anderson
Jones's Division 6 Brigades / 4 Artillery Batteries Brigadier General David Rumph Jones
McLaws's Division 4 Brigades / 1 Artillery Battalion Major General Lafayette McLaws
Hood's Division 2 Brigades / 1 Artillery Battalion Brigadier General John B. Hood
Walker's Division 2 Brigades / 2 Batteries Brigadier General John G. Walker
Evans's Brigade / 1 Artillery Battery Brigadier General Nathan George Evans
Jackson's Corps Major General Thomas J. Jackson
Jackson's Division 4 Brigades / 1 Artillery Regiment Brigadier General John R. Jones
John Robert Jones
John Robert Jones , was a Welsh philosopher.He was born in Pwllheli, and went to school there before going on to study philosophy at University of Wales, Aberystwyth. He went on to take his D.Phil. at Balliol College, Oxford...

Hill's Light Division 6 Brigades / 1 Artillery Regiment Major General Ambrose P. Hill
Hill's Division 5 Brigades / 1 Artillery Battalion Major General Daniel H. Hill
Ewell's Division 4 Brigades / 1 Artillery Regiment Brigadier General Alexander R. Lawton
Cavalry Division 3 Brigades / 3 Artillery Batteries Major General J. E. B. Stuart
Reserve Artillery 4 Battalions / 5 Batteries Brigadier General William N. Pendleton

While organization of the corps was found to be generally reliable, the corps' subdivision into four or five divisions hampered overall ease of command. General Lee had already considered before the Battle of Antietam
Battle of Antietam
The Battle of Antietam , fought on September 17, 1862, near Sharpsburg, Maryland, and Antietam Creek, as part of the Maryland Campaign, was the first major battle in the American Civil War to take place on Northern soil. It was the bloodiest single-day battle in American history, with about 23,000...

 to slim down the overall structure, but intended there be no changes in leadership. The Confederate Congress authorized the establishment of the Corps, and President Davis affirmed the assignment of the commanders and promoted Major Generals Longstreet and Jackson to Lieutenant Generals. General Lee announced this in Special Order 234 on November 6, 1862. About 60,000 soldiers served at the Maryland Campaign.

Organization from May 30, 1863 until April 9, 1865

Lee took Jackson's death as an opportunity to subdivide the North Virginia Corps again. President Jefferson Davis agreed to the subdivision and ordered Lee in his Special Order Nr. 146 to reorganize the Army. >
Corps/Army group Division Brigade/Combat support Commander/Officers in charge
I Corps Lieutenant General James Longstreet
Pickett's Division 3 Brigades / 1 Artillery Battalion Major General George E. Pickett
McLaws's Division 4 Brigades / 1 Artillery Battalion Major General Lafayette McLaws
Hood's Division 4 Brigades / 1 Artillery Battalion Major General John B. Hood
II Corps Lieutenant General Richard S. Ewell
Early's Division 4 Brigades / 1 Artillery Battalion Major General Jubal A. Early
Johnson's Division 4 Brigades / 1 Artillery Battalion Major General Edward Johnson
Rode's Division 5 Brigades / 1 Artillery Battalion Major General Robert E. Rodes
III Corps Lieutenant General A.P. Hill
Anderson's Division 5 Brigades / 1 Artillery Battalion Major General Richard H. Anderson
Heth's Division 4 Brigades / 1 Artillery Battalion Major General Henry Heth
Henry Heth
Henry "Harry" Heth was a career United States Army officer and a Confederate general in the American Civil War. He is best remembered for inadvertently precipitating the Battle of Gettysburg, when he sent some of his troops of the Army of Northern Virginia to the small Pennsylvania village,...

Pender's Division 4 Brigades / 1 Artillery Battalion Major General W. Dorsey Pender
Cavalry Division 6 Brigades / 1 Artillery Battalion Major General J. E. B. Stuart
Reserve Artillery 6 Battalions Brig. General William N. Pendleton
Imboden's Command gem. Brigade / 1 Artillery Battery Brigadier General John D. Imboden

Lee ordered the artillery battalions of the Reserve Artillery to serve directly with the Corps for the duration of the Gettysburg Campaign
Gettysburg Campaign
The Gettysburg Campaign was a series of battles fought in June and July 1863, during the American Civil War. After his victory in the Battle of Chancellorsville, Confederate General Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia moved north for offensive operations in Maryland and Pennsylvania. The...

. The Army of Northern Virginia now comprised a total of 75,054 soldiers at the Battle of Gettysburg
Battle of Gettysburg
The Battle of Gettysburg , was fought July 1–3, 1863, in and around the town of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. The battle with the largest number of casualties in the American Civil War, it is often described as the war's turning point. Union Maj. Gen. George Gordon Meade's Army of the Potomac...

.

The army fielded more than 241 cannons following the Battle of Gettysburg. The artillery battalions were merged into the Artillery Reserve again following the end of the campaign.

On September 9, General Lee had to dispatch the First Corps to Braxton Bragg
Braxton Bragg
Braxton Bragg was a career United States Army officer, and then a general in the Confederate States Army—a principal commander in the Western Theater of the American Civil War and later the military adviser to Confederate President Jefferson Davis.Bragg, a native of North Carolina, was...

's Army of Tennessee
Army of Tennessee
The Army of Tennessee was the principal Confederate army operating between the Appalachian Mountains and the Mississippi River during the American Civil War. It was formed in late 1862 and fought until the end of the war in 1865, participating in most of the significant battles in the Western Theater...

. Following this the army was resubordinated again. Changes were not significant; only the cavalry saw important reorganization. >
Corps / Army group Division Brigade/Combat support Commander/Officers in charge
II Corps 5 Artillery Battalions Lieutenant General Richard S. Ewell
Early's Division 4 Brigades Major General Jubal A. Early
Johnson's Division 4 Brigades Major General Edward Johnson
Rode's Division 5 Brigades Major General Robert E. Rodes
III Corps 5 Artillery Battalions Lieutenant General A.P. Hill
Anderson's Division 5 Brigades Major General Richard H. Anderson
Heth's Division 4 Brigades Major General Henry Heth
Wilcox's Division 4 Brigades Major General Cadmus M. Wilcox
Cavalry Corps 1 Artillery Battalion Major General J. E. B. Stuart
Hampton's Division 2 Brigades Major General Wade Hampton
Wade Hampton III
Wade Hampton III was a Confederate cavalry leader during the American Civil War and afterward a politician from South Carolina, serving as its 77th Governor and as a U.S...

Lee's Division 3 Brigades Major General Fitzhugh Lee
Fitzhugh Lee
Fitzhugh Lee , nephew of Robert E. Lee, was a Confederate cavalry general in the American Civil War, the 40th Governor of Virginia, diplomat, and United States Army general in the Spanish-American War.-Early life:...

Reserve Artillery 2 Battalions Major General William N. Pendleton
Defense District of Shenandoah Valley gem. Brigade / 1 Artillery Battery Brigadier General John D. Imboden
Cooke's Brigade Brigadier General John R. Cooke
John Rogers Cooke
John Rogers Cooke was a Confederate general during the American Civil War. He was the son of Union general Philip St. George Cooke and the brother-in-law of Confederate cavalry leader Jeb Stuart.-Biography:...


The Army's strength was then 55,221 soldiers. The changes in command until December 31, 1863 were only minor. Cooke's Brigade was assigned to serve with Heth's Division, Hampton's Division grew by a cavalry brigade and the Third Corps gained an additional artillery battalion. Imboden's Command remained at Shenandoah Valley and was taken over by Major General Early as the Defense District of Shenandoah Valley. The strength of the army was 54,715 men on December 31.

The organization of the Army of Northern Virginia did not change until the end of the war. The Army featured several corps, the corps featured several divisions, and the artillery was divided between the corps. The strength of the Army grew in the first six months from about 46,380 to 62,230 soldiers. The army was assigned in July to the Defense District of North Carolina and Richmond. In the course of the Richmond-Petersburg Campaign
Siege of Petersburg
The Richmond–Petersburg Campaign was a series of battles around Petersburg, Virginia, fought from June 9, 1864, to March 25, 1865, during the American Civil War...

 the number of soldiers temporarily grew to 82,633 while parts of the Army were under the command by Lieutenant General Early in Shenandoah Valley.

In 1864 the Army of Northern Virginia fought against the more than twice as strong Potomac-, James- and Shenandoah Army in Grant's Overland Campaign
Overland Campaign
The Overland Campaign, also known as Grant's Overland Campaign and the Wilderness Campaign, was a series of battles fought in Virginia during May and June 1864, in the American Civil War. Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant, general-in-chief of all Union armies, directed the actions of the Army of the...

, Early's Raid against the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad
Baltimore and Ohio Railroad
The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad was one of the oldest railroads in the United States and the first common carrier railroad. It came into being mostly because the city of Baltimore wanted to compete with the newly constructed Erie Canal and another canal being proposed by Pennsylvania, which...

, the Richmond-Petersburg Campaign, and Shenandoah Campaign in the Shenandoah Valley. The Army's organization for January 31, 1865 because 69,659 soldiers were fit for battle, but a minimum of 4,500 had no rifles. >
Corps / Army group Division Brigade/Combat support Commander/Officers in charge
I Corps 6 Artillery Battalions Lieutenant General James Longstreet
Pickett's Division 4 Brigades Major General George E. Pickett
Field's Division 5 Brigades Major General Charles W. Field
Kershaw's Division 4 Brigades Major General Joseph B. Kershaw
II Corps 4 Artillery Battalions Major General John B. Gordon
Early's Division 3 Brigades Brigadier General John Pegram
Gordon's Division 3 Brigades Brigadier General Clement A. Evans
Rode's Division 4 Brigades Brigadier General Bryan Grimes
III Corps 7 Artillery Battalions Lieutenant General A.P. Hill
Mahone's Division 5 Brigades Major General William Mahone
Heth's Division 4 Brigades Major General Henry Heth
Wilcox's Division 4 Brigades Major General Cadmus M. Wilcox
Anderson's Corps 4 Artillery Battalions Lieutenant General Richard H. Anderson
Johnson's Division 4 Brigades Major General Bushrod Rust Johnson
Defense District of Shenandoah Valley 6 Artillery Battalions Lieutenant General Jubal A. Early
Wharton's Division 3 Infantry / 1 Cavalry Brigades Brigadier General John A. Wharton
Cavalry Corps 3 Artillery Battalions Major General Wade Hampton
Lee's Division 3 Brig Major general William H. F. Lee
William Henry Fitzhugh Lee
William Henry Fitzhugh Lee , known as Rooney Lee or W.H.F. Lee, was the second son of Robert E. Lee and Mary Anna Randolph Custis. He was a planter, a Confederate cavalry General in the American Civil War, and later a member of the U.S. Congress.-Early life:Lee was born at Arlington House in...


Following Lieutenant General A.P. Hill's death on April 2, 1865 the Third Corps was dissolved and assigned to the First Corps. On April 9, 1865, General Lee surrendered. One day later he thanked his men and his officers for their bravery and sturdiness and announced the dismissal of all troops on their word of honor in General Order No. 9. The listings of the Army of Northern Virginia say that 28,231 soldiers were dismissed on their word of honor on April 10, 1865.

Legacy

The Army of Northern Virginia is one of the most respected military formations in American history. Although usually outnumbered, it won victories in the American Civil War at Fredericksburg
Battle of Fredericksburg
The Battle of Fredericksburg was fought December 11–15, 1862, in and around Fredericksburg, Virginia, between General Robert E. Lee's Confederate Army of Northern Virginia and the Union Army of the Potomac, commanded by Maj. Gen. Ambrose E. Burnside...

, Second Manassas
Second Battle of Bull Run
The Second Battle of Bull Run or Second Manassas was fought August 28–30, 1862, as part of the American Civil War. It was the culmination of an offensive campaign waged by Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia against Union Maj. Gen...

, Chancellorsville
Battle of Chancellorsville
The Battle of Chancellorsville was a major battle of the American Civil War, and the principal engagement of the Chancellorsville Campaign. It was fought from April 30 to May 6, 1863, in Spotsylvania County, Virginia, near the village of Chancellorsville. Two related battles were fought nearby on...

, and Cold Harbor
Battle of Cold Harbor
The Battle of Cold Harbor was fought from May 31 to June 12, 1864 . It was one of the final battles of Union Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant's Overland Campaign during the American Civil War, and is remembered as one of American history's bloodiest, most lopsided battles...

. Additionally, it successfully drove the Army of the Potomac away from the "gates" of Richmond in the Seven Days Battles
Seven Days Battles
The Seven Days Battles was a series of six major battles over the seven days from June 25 to July 1, 1862, near Richmond, Virginia during the American Civil War. Confederate General Robert E. Lee drove the invading Union Army of the Potomac, commanded by Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan, away from...

, effectively ending McClellan's Peninsula Campaign
Peninsula Campaign
The Peninsula Campaign of the American Civil War was a major Union operation launched in southeastern Virginia from March through July 1862, the first large-scale offensive in the Eastern Theater. The operation, commanded by Maj. Gen. George B...

 in 1862. The army held out against long odds in the 1864 Overland Campaign
Overland Campaign
The Overland Campaign, also known as Grant's Overland Campaign and the Wilderness Campaign, was a series of battles fought in Virginia during May and June 1864, in the American Civil War. Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant, general-in-chief of all Union armies, directed the actions of the Army of the...

 and the Siege of Petersburg
Siege of Petersburg
The Richmond–Petersburg Campaign was a series of battles around Petersburg, Virginia, fought from June 9, 1864, to March 25, 1865, during the American Civil War...

, inflicting grievous casualties on the opposing forces of Grant. These successes sometimes gave the army a psychological advantage over its enemies. However, the army was most defined by its beloved commander, Robert E. Lee
Robert E. Lee
Robert Edward Lee was a career military officer who is best known for having commanded the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia in the American Civil War....

. To this day, the army and Lee are famed in Southern culture
Culture of the Southern United States
The Culture of the Southern United States, or Southern Culture, is a subculture of the United States that is perhaps America's most distinct, in the minds both of its residents and of those in other parts of the country...

.

See also

  • Gettysburg Confederate order of battle
    Gettysburg Confederate order of battle
    The following units and commanders fought in the Battle of Gettysburg on the Confederate side. The Gettysburg Union order of battle is shown separately...

     (detailed command organization at the Battle of Gettysburg, 1863)
  • Virginia Units in the Civil War
    Virginia Units in the Civil War
    Virginia provided the following units to the Virginia Militia and the Provisional Army of the Confederate States during the American Civil War.-Infantry Brigades:*1st Virginia Brigade *2nd Virginia Brigade Cdrs: John M...

  • “A Small but Spartan Band: The Florida Brigade in Lee’s Army of Northern Viginia, by Zack C. Waters and James C. Edmonds, 2010, published by the University of Alabama Press
    University of Alabama Press
    The University of Alabama Press was founded in 1945 and is the scholarly publishing arm of the University of Alabama.An Editorial Board composed of representatives from all doctoral degree granting public universities within Alabama oversees the publishing program. Projects are selected that...

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
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