Aphrodisiac
Overview
An aphrodisiac is a substance that increases sexual desire. The name comes from Aphrodite
Aphrodite
Aphrodite is the Greek goddess of love, beauty, pleasure, and procreation.Her Roman equivalent is the goddess .Historically, her cult in Greece was imported from, or influenced by, the cult of Astarte in Phoenicia....

, the Greek goddess
Greek mythology
Greek mythology is the body of myths and legends belonging to the ancient Greeks, concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world, and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices. They were a part of religion in ancient Greece...

 of sexuality and love. Throughout history, many foods, drinks, and behaviors have had a reputation for making sex more attainable and/or pleasurable. However, from a historical and scientific standpoint, the alleged results may have been mainly due to mere belief by their users that they would be effective (i.e., the placebo effect
Placebo effect
Placebo effect may refer to:* Placebo effect, the tendency of any medication or treatment, even an inert or ineffective one, to exhibit results simply because the recipient believes that it will work...

).
Encyclopedia
An aphrodisiac is a substance that increases sexual desire. The name comes from Aphrodite
Aphrodite
Aphrodite is the Greek goddess of love, beauty, pleasure, and procreation.Her Roman equivalent is the goddess .Historically, her cult in Greece was imported from, or influenced by, the cult of Astarte in Phoenicia....

, the Greek goddess
Greek mythology
Greek mythology is the body of myths and legends belonging to the ancient Greeks, concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world, and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices. They were a part of religion in ancient Greece...

 of sexuality and love. Throughout history, many foods, drinks, and behaviors have had a reputation for making sex more attainable and/or pleasurable. However, from a historical and scientific standpoint, the alleged results may have been mainly due to mere belief by their users that they would be effective (i.e., the placebo effect
Placebo effect
Placebo effect may refer to:* Placebo effect, the tendency of any medication or treatment, even an inert or ineffective one, to exhibit results simply because the recipient believes that it will work...

). In particular, Western medical science has no substantiated claims that any particular food increases sexual desire or performance.

Some purported aphrodisiacs gain their reputation from the principles of sympathetic magic
Sympathetic magic
Sympathetic magic, also known as imitative magic, is a type of magic based on imitation or correspondence.-Similarity and contagion:The theory of sympathetic magic was first developed by Sir James George Frazer in The Golden Bough...

, for example oysters, due to their shape. The same factor explains the trade in the phallic-looking horn of the rhinoceros
Rhinoceros
Rhinoceros , also known as rhino, is a group of five extant species of odd-toed ungulates in the family Rhinocerotidae. Two of these species are native to Africa and three to southern Asia....

. Other animal-based aphrodisiacs gain their reputation from the apparent virility or aggressiveness of the animal source, such as tiger
Tiger
The tiger is the largest cat species, reaching a total body length of up to and weighing up to . Their most recognizable feature is a pattern of dark vertical stripes on reddish-orange fur with lighter underparts...

 penis.

Testosterone

Libido
Libido
Libido refers to a person's sex drive or desire for sexual activity. The desire for sex is an aspect of a person's sexuality, but varies enormously from one person to another, and it also varies depending on circumstances at a particular time. A person who has extremely frequent or a suddenly...

 is clearly linked to levels of sex hormones, particularly testosterone
Testosterone
Testosterone is a steroid hormone from the androgen group and is found in mammals, reptiles, birds, and other vertebrates. In mammals, testosterone is primarily secreted in the testes of males and the ovaries of females, although small amounts are also secreted by the adrenal glands...

. When a reduced sex drive occurs in individuals with relatively low levels of testosterone (e.g., post-menopausal women or men over age 60), testosterone supplements will often increase libido. Approaches using a number of precursors intended to raise testosterone levels have been effective in older males, but have not fared well when tested on other groups.

Yohimbine

Yohimbine
Yohimbine
Yohimbine is an alkaloid with stimulant and aphrodisiac effects found naturally in Pausinystalia yohimbe . It is also found naturally in Rauwolfia serpentina , Alchornea floribunda , along with several other active alkaloids...

 is the main alkaloid
Alkaloid
Alkaloids are a group of naturally occurring chemical compounds that contain mostly basic nitrogen atoms. This group also includes some related compounds with neutral and even weakly acidic properties. Also some synthetic compounds of similar structure are attributed to alkaloids...

 of Yohimbe. Yohimbe, but not Yohimbine, is often popularly referred to as a "weak MAO
Monoamine oxidase
L-Monoamine oxidases are a family of enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of monoamines. They are found bound to the outer membrane of mitochondria in most cell types in the body. The enzyme was originally discovered by Mary Bernheim in the liver and was named tyramine oxidase...

 inhibitor." Pharmaceutical preparations of yohimbine do not indicate that the drug, which is approved in the US for treatment of impotence (under such brand names as Yocon,Yohimex, Aphrodyne and Viritab), is an MAO inhibitor. Its main action is as an alpha-adrenergic antagonist
Antagonist
An antagonist is a character, group of characters, or institution, that represents the opposition against which the protagonist must contend...

, by which yohimbine may increase genital bloodflow and both sexual sensitivity and excitation in some people.
Preparations of yohimbe bark are available over-the-counter and should be used with caution. The unrefined yohimbe bark contains several active alkaloids besides yohimbine. Side effects can include rapid pulse, sweating, and anxiety reactions in susceptible people. Pharmaceutical preparations of yohimbine can also produce these side effects at higher doses, but are available in standardized doses which allow the patient to dose in a controlled fashion. Some patients report a cumulative prosexual effect using the drug over time.

Bremelanotide

Some compounds that activate the melanocortin receptor
Melanocortin receptor
Melanocortin receptors are members of the rhodopsin family of 7-transmembrane, G protein-coupled receptors.There are five known members of the melanocortin receptor system each with differing specificities for melanocortins:...

s MC3-R
Melanocortin 3 receptor
Melanocortin receptor 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MC3R gene.-Further reading:...

 and MC4-R
Melanocortin 4 receptor
Melanocortin receptor 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MC4R gene. It encodes the MC4 protein, a G-protein coupled receptor that binds α-melanocyte stimulating hormone...

 in the brain
Brain
The brain is the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals—only a few primitive invertebrates such as sponges, jellyfish, sea squirts and starfishes do not have one. It is located in the head, usually close to primary sensory apparatus such as vision, hearing,...

 are effective aphrodisiacs. One compound from this class, bremelanotide
Bremelanotide
Bremelanotide is a compound under drug development by Palatin Technologies as a treatment for hemorrhagic shock and reperfusion injury...

, formerly known as PT-141, is undergoing clinical trials for the treatment of sexual arousal disorder
Sexual arousal disorder
Sexual arousal disorder is characterized by a lack or absence of sexual fantasies and desire for sexual activity in a situation that would normally produce sexual arousal, or the inability to attain or maintain typical responses to sexual arousal. The disorder is found in the DSM-IV...

 and erectile dysfunction. It is intended for both men and women. Preliminary results have proven the efficacy of this drug, however development was briefly suspended due to a side effect of increased blood pressure observed in a small number of trial subjects who administered the drug intra-nasally. On August 12, 2009, Palatin, the company developing the drug, announced positive results (none of the previous heightened blood pressure effects were observed) of a phase I clinical study where trial subjects were instead administered the drug subcutaneously. Palatin is concurrently developing a related compound they call PL-6983.

Melanotan II

Melanotan II
Melanotan II
Melanotan II developed at the University of Arizona is a synthetic analog of the naturally occurring melanocortin peptide hormone alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone that in usage has been shown to have melanogenesis and aphrodisiac effects in preliminary studies and clinical trials...

, bremelanotide's precursor, has been demonstrated to have aphrodisiac properties.

PEA

There is some debate in lay circles as to whether a chemical called phenylethylamine present in chocolate
Chocolate
Chocolate is a raw or processed food produced from the seed of the tropical Theobroma cacao tree. Cacao has been cultivated for at least three millennia in Mexico, Central and South America. Its earliest documented use is around 1100 BC...

 is an aphrodisiac. There is some evidence to support the theory that phenethylamine release in the brain may be involved in sexual attraction and arousal, but this compound is quickly degraded by the enzyme MAO
Monoamine oxidase
L-Monoamine oxidases are a family of enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of monoamines. They are found bound to the outer membrane of mitochondria in most cell types in the body. The enzyme was originally discovered by Mary Bernheim in the liver and was named tyramine oxidase...

 and so it is unlikely that any significant concentrations would reach the brain when phenethylamine is taken orally.

Crocin

As per a new study, Crocin
Crocin
Crocin is a natural carotenoid chemical compound that is found in the flowers crocus and gardenia. It is the diester formed from the disaccharide gentiobiose and the dicarboxylic acid crocetin. It has a deep red color and forms crystals with a melting point of 186 °C...

 has demonstrated the properties of an aphrodisiac in rats. This is supported by pilot tests that demonstrate the efficacy of saffron
Saffron
Saffron is a spice derived from the flower of Crocus sativus, commonly known as the saffron crocus. Crocus is a genus in the family Iridaceae. Each saffron crocus grows to and bears up to four flowers, each with three vivid crimson stigmas, which are each the distal end of a carpel...

 as an aphrodisiac.

Alkyl nitrites

Alkyl nitrites
Alkyl nitrites
Alkyl nitrites are a group of chemical compounds based upon the molecular structure R-ONO. Formally they are alkyl esters of nitrous acid. They are distinct from nitro compounds ....

, (poppers
Poppers
Poppers is a slang term for various alkyl nitrites inhaled for recreational purposes, particularly isopropyl nitrite and isobutyl nitrite , and now more rarely, butyl nitrite and amyl nitrite...

), have a long history of use as a sexual enhancement aid, going back about fifty years. According to the text "Isobutyl nitrite and Related Compounds", many researchers agree that the alkyl nitrite may be a true aphrodisiac in the sense of promoting and enhancing sexual response.

Other drugs

Stimulants affecting the dopamine
Dopamine
Dopamine is a catecholamine neurotransmitter present in a wide variety of animals, including both vertebrates and invertebrates. In the brain, this substituted phenethylamine functions as a neurotransmitter, activating the five known types of dopamine receptors—D1, D2, D3, D4, and D5—and their...

 system such as cocaine
Cocaine
Cocaine is a crystalline tropane alkaloid that is obtained from the leaves of the coca plant. The name comes from "coca" in addition to the alkaloid suffix -ine, forming cocaine. It is a stimulant of the central nervous system, an appetite suppressant, and a topical anesthetic...

 and amphetamines (e.g. methamphetamine
Methamphetamine
Methamphetamine is a psychostimulant of the phenethylamine and amphetamine class of psychoactive drugs...

, aka crystal meth
Methamphetamine
Methamphetamine is a psychostimulant of the phenethylamine and amphetamine class of psychoactive drugs...

) are frequently associated with hyperarousal and hypersexuality, though both may impair sexual functioning, particularly with long term use.

Some directly acting dopamine agonist
Dopamine agonist
A dopamine agonist is a compound that activates dopamine receptors in the absence of dopamine. Dopamine agonists activate signaling pathways through the dopamine receptor and trimeric G-proteins, ultimately leading to changes in gene transcription.-Uses:...

s may also cause increased libido, although they can also cause various side effects. Pramipexole
Pramipexole
Pramipexole is a non-ergoline dopamine agonist indicated for treating early-stage Parkinson's disease and restless legs syndrome...

 is the only dopamine agonist
Agonist
An agonist is a chemical that binds to a receptor of a cell and triggers a response by that cell. Agonists often mimic the action of a naturally occurring substance...

 used in medicine as an aphrodisiac, and is sometimes prescribed to counteract the decrease in libido associated with SSRI antidepressant drugs. The older dopamine agonist apomorphine
Apomorphine
Apomorphine is a non-selective dopamine agonist which activates both D1-like and D2-like receptors, with some preference for the latter subtypes. It is historically a morphine decomposition product by boiling with concentrated acid, hence the -morphine suffix...

 has been used for the treatment of erectile dysfunction
Erectile dysfunction
Erectile dysfunction is sexual dysfunction characterized by the inability to develop or maintain an erection of the penis during sexual performance....

, but is of poor efficacy and has a tendency to cause nausea
Nausea
Nausea , is a sensation of unease and discomfort in the upper stomach with an involuntary urge to vomit. It often, but not always, precedes vomiting...

. Other dopamine agonists such as bromocriptine
Bromocriptine
Bromocriptine , an ergoline derivative, is a dopamine agonist that is used in the treatment of pituitary tumors, Parkinson's disease , hyperprolactinaemia, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, and type 2 diabetes.- Indications :Amenorrhea, female infertility, galactorrhea, hypogonadism, and acromegaly...

 and cabergoline
Cabergoline
Cabergoline , an ergot derivative, is a potent dopamine receptor agonist on D2 receptors. In vitro, rat studies show cabergoline has a direct inhibitory effect on pituitary lactotroph cells...

 may also be associated with increased libido, as can the dopamine precursor L-Dopa, but this is often part of a spectrum of side effects which can include mood swings
Mood Swings
Mood Swings is an album by Koby Israelite released in 2005 on Tzadik.- Track listing :# "Dror Ikra" - 3:03# "Return of the Idiots" - 2:19# "It Is Not a War Here" - 7:05# "Ethnometalogy" - 5:08# "Europa?" - 2:49# "Hiriya On My Mind" - 4:53...

 and problem gambling and so these drugs are not prescribed for this purpose.

The libido-enhancing effects of dopamine agonists prescribed for other purposes has led to the development of a number of more selective compounds such as flibanserin
Flibanserin
Flibanserin is a drug that was investigated by Boehringer Ingelheim as a novel, non-hormonal treatment for pre-menopausal women with Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder . Development was terminated in October 2010 following a negative report by the U.S...

, ABT-670
ABT-670
ABT-670 is a drug which acts as a potent, orally bioavailable dopamine agonist selective for the D4 subtype, which was developed as a possible treatment for erectile dysfunction, although its current uses are limited to scientific research.-See also:...

 and PF-219,061
PF-219,061
PF-219,061 is a drug developed by Pfizer which acts as a potent and highly selective agonist for the dopamine D3 receptor. It is under development as a potential medication for the treatment of female sexual dysfunction.-See also:* ABT-670* ABT-724...

, which have been developed specifically for the treatment of sexual dysfunction disorders, although none of them have yet passed clinical trials.

Unconfirmed and Fake Aphrodisiacs

Some psychoactive substances such as alcohol
Alcohol
In chemistry, an alcohol is an organic compound in which the hydroxy functional group is bound to a carbon atom. In particular, this carbon center should be saturated, having single bonds to three other atoms....

, cannabis
Cannabis
Cannabis is a genus of flowering plants that includes three putative species, Cannabis sativa, Cannabis indica, and Cannabis ruderalis. These three taxa are indigenous to Central Asia, and South Asia. Cannabis has long been used for fibre , for seed and seed oils, for medicinal purposes, and as a...

, methaqualone
Methaqualone
Methaqualone is a sedative-hypnotic drug that is similar in effect to barbiturates, a general central nervous system depressant. The sedative-hypnotic activity was first noted by Indian researchers in the 1950s and in 1962 methaqualone itself was patented in the US by Wallace and Tiernan...

, GHB
Gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid
γ-Hydroxybutyric acid , also known as 4-hydroxybutanoic acid and sodium oxybate when used for medicinal purposes, is a naturally occurring substance found in the central nervous system, wine, beef, small citrus fruits, and almost all animals in small amounts. It is also categorized as an illegal...

 and MDMA can increase libido and sexual desire. However these drugs are not aphrodisiacs in the strict sense of the definition, as they do not consistently produce aphrodisiac effects as their main action. However, these drugs are sometimes used to increase sexual pleasure and to reduce sexual inhibition
Sexual inhibition
A sexual inhibition is a conscious or unconscious constraint or curtailment by a person of behaviour relating to specific sexual matters or practices or of a discussion of sexual matters....

.
Anti-erectile dysfunction
Erectile dysfunction
Erectile dysfunction is sexual dysfunction characterized by the inability to develop or maintain an erection of the penis during sexual performance....

 drugs, such as Viagra and Levitra, are not considered aphrodisiacs because they do not have any direct effect on the libido, although increased ability to attain an erection may be interpreted as increased sexual arousal
Sexual arousal
Sexual arousal, or sexual excitement, is the arousal of sexual desire, during or in anticipation of sexual activity. Things that precipitate human sexual arousal are called erotic stimuli, or colloquially known as turn-ons. There are many potential stimuli, both physical or mental, which can cause...

 by users of these drugs.

Aphrodisiac foods and herbs

Some natural items claimed to be aphrodisiacs when ingested or applied to the body.
  • Ambergris
    Ambergris
    Ambergris is a solid, waxy, flammable substance of a dull gray or blackish color produced in the digestive system of and regurgitated or secreted by sperm whales....

  • Arugula (Rocket)
    Arugula
    Eruca sativa , is an edible annual plant, commonly known as rocket, roquette, rucola or arugula, not to be confused with Wild rocket. It is a species of Eruca native to the Mediterranean region, from Morocco and Portugal east to Lebanon and Turkey...

     (Eruca sativa)
  • Atta laevigata
    Atta laevigata
    Atta laevigata is one of about a dozen species of leafcutter ants in the genus Atta, found from Colombia south to Paraguay. This species is one of the largest leafcutter species, and can be recognized by the smooth and shining head of the largest workers in a colony...

  • Balut
  • Catuaba bark
  • Cow cod soup
    Cow cod soup
    Cow cod soup is a traditional dish in Jamaican cuisine that is considered an aphrodisiac and made with bull penis . It is cooked with bananas and scotch bonnet pepper in a white rum-based broth. Cow cod is a rural delicacy.-External links:**...

     (Jamaican Aphrodisiac)
  • Borojo (Borojoa patinoi)
  • Damiana
    Damiana
    Turnera diffusa, known as damiana, is a shrub native to southwestern Texas in the United States, Central America, Mexico, South America, and the Caribbean. It belongs to the family Passifloraceae....

     (Turnera diffusa)
  • Deer penis
    Deer penis
    In traditional Chinese medicine, a deer penis is said to have important therapeutic properties. Deer penis and powdered deer penis is commonly sold in Chinese pharmacies. Like turtle's blood and penis, deer penis is also popular in Taiwan and is one of the "delicacies" served in large jars in...

     and antlers (in Taiwan and China)
  • Dulce de Leche
    Dulce de leche
    Dulce de leche is a thick,creamy, caramel-like milk-based sauce or spread.Literally translated, dulce de leche means "sweet from milk". It is prepared by slowly heating sweetened milk to create a product that derives its taste from caramelised sugar. It is a popular sweet in Latin America, where...

  • Epimedium grandiflorum
    Epimedium grandiflorum
    Epimedium grandiflorum is a species of flowering plant in the barberry family, Berberidaceae, that is native to China, Japan, and Korea. It may have aphrodisiac characteristics due to the presence of icariin and is believed to cause increased sexual activity in goats. It commonly is packed in a...

    (Horny Goat Weed)
  • Eurycoma longifolia
    Eurycoma longifolia
    Eurycoma longifolia is a flowering plant in the family Simaroubaceae, native to Indonesia, Malaysia, and, to a lesser extent, Thailand, Vietnam, and Laos...

  • Ginkgo biloba
  • Ginseng
    Ginseng
    Ginseng is any one of eleven species of slow-growing perennial plants with fleshy roots, belonging to the genus Panax of the family Araliaceae....

  • Kabocha Squash
    Kabocha
    Kabocha is a Japanese variety of winter squash. The word kabocha has come to mean a general type of winter squash to many English-speaking growers and buyers. In some cultures it is revered as an aphrodisiac....

     (especially roasted)
  • Lettuce
    Lettuce
    Lettuce is a temperate annual or biennial plant of the daisy family Asteraceae. It is most often grown as a leaf vegetable. It is eaten either raw, notably in salads, sandwiches, hamburgers, tacos, and many other dishes, or cooked, as in Chinese cuisine in which the stem becomes just as important...

    , considered an aphrodisiac in Ancient Egypt
    Ancient Egypt
    Ancient Egypt was an ancient civilization of Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in what is now the modern country of Egypt. Egyptian civilization coalesced around 3150 BC with the political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under the first pharaoh...

    . Eaten by the sexually potent God of Chaos, Set.
  • Maca
    MACA
    MACA or maca can mean:* Maca * Mongol-American Cultural Association* Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance* Military Aid to the Civil Authorities* Member Australian Counselling Association...

  • Mannish Water
    Mannish water
    Mannish water is a goat soup in Jamaican cuisine. It is believed to be an aphrodisiac and is made from various goat parts, sometimes including the head,brains and heart....

     (goat soup, Jamaican Aphrodisiac)

  • Mucuna pruriens
    Mucuna pruriens
    Mucuna pruriens is a tropical legume known as velvet bean or cowitch and by other common names , found in Africa, India and the Caribbean. The plant is infamous for its extreme itchiness produced on contact, particularly with the young foliage and the seed pods...

  • Mamajuana
    Mamajuana
    Mamajuana is a Dominican band assembled by the Dominican composer/arranger Eddi González.Mamajuana combines Afro-Caribbean and contemporary rhythms with romantic lyrics. Their self-titled debut album, released by Sony International, featured the hit singles Mamasota" and "Sin Un Beso Suyo". After...

     Dominican Republic alcoholic sex drink
  • Oysters
  • Saffron
    Saffron
    Saffron is a spice derived from the flower of Crocus sativus, commonly known as the saffron crocus. Crocus is a genus in the family Iridaceae. Each saffron crocus grows to and bears up to four flowers, each with three vivid crimson stigmas, which are each the distal end of a carpel...

  • Shilajit
    Shilajit
    Shilajit, also known as silajit, mumijo, and momia, is a thick, sticky tar-like substance with a colour ranging from white to dark brown , sometimes found in Caucasus mountains, Altai mountains and Tibet mountains....

  • Socratea exorrhiza
    Socratea exorrhiza
    Socratea exorrhiza, the Walking Palm or Cashapona, is a palm native to rainforests in tropical Central and South America. It can grow to 25 meters in height, with a stem diameter of up to 17 cm. It has unusual stilt roots, the function of which has been debated. Many species of epiphyte have...

  • Spanish fly
    Spanish fly
    The Spanish fly is an emerald-green beetle in the family Meloidae, Lytta vesicatoria. Other species of blister beetle used by apothecaries are often called by the same name...

     (cantharidin
    Cantharidin
    Cantharidin, a type of terpenoid, is a poisonous chemical compound secreted by many species of blister beetle, and most notably by the Spanish fly, Lytta vesicatoria. The false blister beetles and cardinal beetles also have cantharidin.-History:...

    )
  • Tribulus terrestris
    Tribulus terrestris
    Tribulus terrestris is a flowering plant in the family Zygophyllaceae, native to warm temperate and tropical regions of the Old World in southern Europe, southern Asia, throughout Africa, and Australia. It can thrive even in desert climates and poor soil...

  • Yohimbine
    Yohimbine
    Yohimbine is an alkaloid with stimulant and aphrodisiac effects found naturally in Pausinystalia yohimbe . It is also found naturally in Rauwolfia serpentina , Alchornea floribunda , along with several other active alkaloids...



Some newly introduced exotic foods often acquire such a reputation, at least until they become more familiar; for example:
  • Artichokes
  • Bananas The sap of the red banana is considered an aphrodisiac in Central America
  • Mamey sapote
    Mamey sapote
    The mamey sapote is a species of tree native to southern Mexico. Today, the tree is cultivated not only in Mexico, but also in Central America, the Caribbean, and South Florida for its fruit, which is commonly eaten in many Latin American countries...

     

Popular culture

The invention of an Aphrodisiac is the basis of a number of films including Perfume: The Story of a Murderer
Perfume: The Story of a Murderer (film)
Perfume: The Story of a Murderer is a 2006 German thriller film directed by Tom Tykwer and written by Andrew Birkin, Bernd Eichinger and Tykwer. It is based on the 1985 novel Perfume by Patrick Süskind. Set in 18th century France, the film tells the story of Jean-Baptiste Grenouille , an olfactory...

, Spanish Fly
Spanish Fly (1975 film)
Spanish Fly is a 1975 British-Spanish comedy film directed by Bob Kellett and starring Terry-Thomas, Leslie Phillips, Graham Armitage, Sue Lloyd and Nadiuska...

, She'll Follow You Anywhere
She'll Follow You Anywhere
She'll Follow You Anywhere is a 1971 British comedy film directed by David C. Rea and starring Kenneth Cope, Keith Barron and Richard Vernon. Two chemists working in a lab of a big corporation accidentally stumble across a love potion while working to create a new aftershave. The potion makes a man...

and Love Potion No. 9.

External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
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