An Admonition to the nobility and people of England
The An Admonition to the Nobility and People of England (1588) was written by William Cardinal Allen in an attempt to raise the English Catholics in revolt against their Queen, Elizabeth I, at the same time that the Spanish Armada
Spanish Armada
This article refers to the Battle of Gravelines, for the modern navy of Spain, see Spanish NavyThe Spanish Armada was the Spanish fleet that sailed against England under the command of the Duke of Medina Sidonia in 1588, with the intention of overthrowing Elizabeth I of England to stop English...

 mounted their invasion of England
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west; the Irish Sea is to the north west, the Celtic Sea to the south west, with the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south separating it from continental...

. The publication was a scathing attack on Elizabeth, her ancestry and her legitimacy. Allen wrote that Elizabeth was "known for an incestuous bastard, begotten and born in sin of an infamous courtesan Anne Boleyn
Anne Boleyn
Anne Boleyn ;c.1501/1507 – 19 May 1536) was Queen of England from 1533 to 1536 as the second wife of Henry VIII of England and Marquess of Pembroke in her own right. Henry's marriage to Anne, and her subsequent execution, made her a key figure in the political and religious upheaval that was the...

". It was intended for distribution just after the Armada. It has been described as "vituperative billingsgate
Billingsgate is a small ward in the south-east of the City of London, lying on the north bank of the River Thames between London Bridge and Tower Bridge...


However, the majority of English Catholics refused to betray their Queen. Seeing the Armada as predominantly politically (rather than religiously) motivated, they felt no obligation to support the arriving Spanish. The publication was an embarrassment to politically loyal Catholics in England, particularly after the dramatic failure of the Armada.

Upon the defeat of the Armada, Allen carefully consigned his publication to the fire, and we only know of it through one of Elizabeth's spies, who had stolen a copy.
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