Camus was awarded the 1957 Nobel Prize for Literature "for his important literary production, which with clear-sighted earnestness illuminates the problems of the human conscience in our times".
We have exiled beauty; the Greeks took up arms for her.
We turn our backs on nature; we are ashamed of beauty. Our wretched tragedies have a smell of the office clinging to them, and the blood that trickles from them is the color of printer's ink.
Man cannot do without beauty, and this is what our era pretends to want to disregard. It steels itself to attain the absolute and authority; it wants to transfigure the world before having exhausted it, to set it to rights before having understood it. Whatever it may say, our era is deserting this world.
O light! This is the cry of all the characters of ancient drama brought face to face with their fate. This last resort was ours, too, and I knew it now. In the middle of winter I at last discovered that there was in me an invincible summer.
A character is never the author who created him. It is quite likely, however, that an author may be all his characters simultaneously.
With rebellion, awareness is born.
A living man can be enslaved and reduced to the historic condition of an object. But if he dies in refusing to be enslaved, he reaffirms the existence of another kind of human nature which refuses to be classified as an object.
There is not love of life without despair about life.
Camus was awarded the 1957 Nobel Prize for Literature "for his important literary production, which with clear-sighted earnestness illuminates the problems of the human conscience in our times". He was the second-youngest recipient of the Nobel Prize in Literature, after Rudyard Kipling
, and the first African-born writer to receive the award. He is the shortest-lived of any Nobel literature laureate to date, having died in an automobile accident just over two years after receiving the award.
Although often cited as a proponent of existentialism
, the philosophy with which Camus was associated during his own lifetime, he rejected this particular label. In an interview in 1945, Camus rejected any ideological associations: "No, I am not an existentialist. Sartre
and I are always surprised to see our names linked..."
Specifically, his views contributed to the rise of the philosophy known as absurdism
. He wrote in his essay "The Rebel" that his whole life was devoted to opposing the philosophy of nihilism
while still delving deeply into individual freedom.
Early yearsAlbert Camus was born on 7 November 1913 in Dréan
(then known as Mondovi) in French Algeria
to a Pied-Noir
settler family. Pied-Noir was a term used to refer to European colonists of French Algeria until Algerian independence
in 1962. His mother was of Spanish descent and was half-deaf. His father Lucien, a poor agricultural worker, died in the Battle of the Marne
in 1914 during World War I
, while serving as a member of the Zouave
infantry regiment. Camus and his mother lived in poor conditions during his childhood in the Belcourt section of Algiers
In 1923, the bright boy was accepted into the lycée and eventually he was admitted to the University of Algiers
. After he contracted tuberculosis
(TB) in 1930, he had to end his football activities (he had been a goalkeeper for the university team) and reduce his studies to part-time. To earn money, he also took odd jobs: as private tutor, car parts clerk and assistant at the Meteorological Institute. He completed his licence de philosophie (BA) in 1935; in May 1936, he successfully presented his thesis on Plotinus
, Néo-Platonisme et Pensée Chrétienne (Neo-Platonism and Christian Thought), for his diplôme d'études supérieures (roughly equivalent to an M.A.
Camus joined the French Communist Party
in the spring of 1935, seeing it as a way to "fight inequalities between Europeans and 'natives' in Algeria." He did not suggest he was a Marxist or that he had read Das Kapital, but did write that "[w]e might see communism as a springboard and asceticism that prepares the ground for more spiritual activities." In 1936, the independence-minded Algerian Communist Party
(PCA) was founded. Camus joined the activities of the Algerian People's Party
(Le Parti du Peuple Algérien), which got him into trouble with his Communist party comrades. As a result, in 1937 he was denounced as a Trotskyite
and expelled from the party. Camus went on to be associated with the French anarchist
The anarchist André Prudhommeaux
first introduced him at a meeting in 1948 of the Cercle des Étudiants Anarchistes (Anarchist Student Circle) as a sympathiser familiar with anarchist thought. Camus wrote for anarchist publications such as Le Libertaire, La révolution Proletarienne and Solidaridad Obrera
(Workers' Solidarity, the organ of the anarcho-syndicalist CNT
(National Confederation of Labor)). Camus stood with the anarchists when they expressed support for the uprising of 1953 in East Germany
. He again allied with the anarchists in 1956, first in support of the workers’ uprising in Poznań
, Poland, and then later in the year with the Hungarian Revolution.
In 1934, he married Simone Hie, a morphine
addict, but the marriage ended as a consequence of infidelities on both sides. In 1935, he founded Théâtre du Travail (Worker's Theatre), renamed Théâtre de l'Equipe (Team's Theatre) in 1937. It lasted until 1939. From 1937 to 1939 he wrote for a socialist paper, Alger-Républicain. His work included an account of the peasants who lived in Kabylie
in poor conditions, which apparently cost him his job. From 1939 to 1940, he briefly wrote for a similar paper, Soir-Republicain. He was rejected by the French army because of his TB.
In 1940, Camus married Francine Faure
, a pianist and mathematician. Although he loved her, he had argued passionately against the institution of marriage, dismissing it as unnatural. Even after Francine gave birth to twins, Catherine and Jean, on 5 September 1945, he continued to joke to friends that he was not cut out for marriage. Camus conducted numerous affairs, particularly an irregular and eventually public affair with the Spanish-born actress Maria Casares
. In the same year, Camus began to work for Paris-Soir
magazine. In the first stage of World War II
, the so-called Phoney War, Camus was a pacifist
. In Paris during the Wehrmacht occupation, on 15 December 1941, Camus witnessed the execution of Gabriel Péri
; it crystallized his revolt against the Germans. He moved to Bordeaux
with the rest of the staff of Paris-Soir. In the same year he finished his first books, The Stranger
and The Myth of Sisyphus
. He returned briefly to Oran
, Algeria in 1942.
Literary careerDuring the war Camus joined the French Resistance
, which published an underground newspaper of the same name. This group worked against the Nazis, and in it Camus assumed the nom de guerre
Beauchard. Camus became the paper's editor in 1943 and was in Paris when the Allies liberated the city, where he reported on the last of the fighting. Soon after the event on 6 August 1945, he was one of the few French editors to publicly express opposition to the United States' dropping the atomic bomb in Hiroshima
. He resigned from Combat in 1947 when it became a commercial paper. It was then that he became acquainted with Jean-Paul Sartre.
After the war, Camus began frequenting the Café de Flore
on the Boulevard Saint-Germain
in Paris with Sartre and others. He also toured the United States to lecture about French thought. Although he leaned left
, politically, his strong criticisms of Communist doctrine did not win him any friends in the Communist parties
and eventually alienated Sartre.
In 1949 his TB returned and Camus lived in seclusion for two years. In 1951 he published The Rebel, a philosophical analysis of rebellion and revolution which expressed his rejection of communism. Upsetting many of his colleagues and contemporaries in France, the book brought about the final split with Sartre. The dour reception depressed him and he began to translate plays.
Camus's first significant contribution to philosophy was his idea of the absurd. He saw it as the result of our desire for clarity and meaning within a world and condition that offers neither, which he expressed in The Myth of Sisyphus
and incorporated into many of his other works, such as The Stranger
and The Plague
. Despite his split from his "study partner", Sartre, some still argue that Camus falls into the existentialist camp. He specifically rejected that label in his essay "Enigma" and elsewhere (see: The Lyrical and Critical Essays of Albert Camus). The current confusion arises in part because many recent applications of existentialism have much in common with many of Camus's practical ideas (see: Resistance, Rebellion, and Death). But, his personal understanding of the world (e.g. "a benign indifference", in The Stranger
), and every vision he had for its progress (e.g. vanquishing the "adolescent furies" of history and society, in The Rebel) undoubtedly set him apart.
In the 1950s Camus devoted his efforts to human rights
. In 1952 he resigned from his work for UNESCO
when the UN accepted Spain as a member under the leadership of General Franco
. In 1953 he criticized Soviet
methods to crush a workers' strike in East Berlin
. In 1956 he protested against similar methods in Poland (protests in Poznań
) and the Soviet repression of the Hungarian revolution in October.
Camus maintained his pacifism and resisted capital punishment anywhere in the world. He wrote an essay against capital punishment in collaboration with Arthur Koestler
, the writer, intellectual and founder of the League Against Capital Punishment.
When the Algerian War began in 1954, Camus was confronted with a moral dilemma. He identified with the pied-noir
s such as his own parents and defended the French government's actions against the revolt. He argued that the Algerian uprising was an integral part of the 'new Arab imperialism' led by Egypt and an 'anti-Western' offensive orchestrated by Russia to 'encircle Europe' and 'isolate the United States'. Although favouring greater Algerian autonomy
or even federation, though not full-scale independence, he believed that the pied-noirs and Arabs could co-exist. During the war he advocated a civil truce that would spare the civilians, which was rejected by both sides, who regarded it as foolish. Behind the scenes, he began to work for imprisoned Algerians who faced the death penalty.
From 1955 to 1956, Camus wrote for L'Express
. In 1957 he was awarded the Nobel Prize in literature
"for his important literary production, which with clear-sighted earnestness illuminates the problems of the human conscience in our times", not for his novel The Fall, published the previous year, but for his writings against capital punishment in the essay "Réflexions sur la Guillotine
" (Reflections on the Guillotine). When he spoke to students at the University of Stockholm, he defended his apparent inactivity in the Algerian question; he stated that he was worried about what might happen to his mother, who still lived in Algeria. This led to further ostracism by French left-wing intellectuals.
Revolutionary Union Movement and EuropeAs he wrote in L'Homme révolté (in the chapter about "The Thought on Midday", Camus was a follower of the ancient Greek 'Solar Tradition' (la pensée solaire). In 1947–48 he founded the Revolutionary Union Movement (Groupes de liaison internationale – GLI) a trade union movement in the context of revolutionary syndicalism (Syndicalisme révolutionnaire). According to Olivier Todd, in his biography, 'Albert Camus, une vie', it was a group opposed to some tendencies of the Surrealist movement of André Breton. For more, see the book Alfred Rosmer et le mouvement révolutionnaire internationale by Christian Gras).
His colleagues were Nicolas Lazarévitch, Louis Mercier, Roger Lapeyre, Paul Chauvet, Auguste Largentier, Jean de Boë (see the article: "Nicolas Lazarévitch, Itinéraire d'un syndicaliste révolutionnaire" by Sylvain Boulouque in the review Communisme, n° 61, 2000). His main aim was to express the positive side of surrealism
and existentialism, rejecting the negativity and the nihilism
of André Breton.
From 1943, Albert Camus had correspondence with Altiero Spinelli
who founded the European Federalist Movement in Milan—see Ventotene Manifesto
and the book "Unire l'Europa, superare gli stati", Altiero Spinelli nel Partito d'Azione del Nord Italia e in Francia dal 1944 al 1945-annexed a letter by Altiero Spinelli to Albert Camus.
In 1944 Camus founded the "French Committee for the European Federation" (Comité Français pour la Féderation Européene – CFFE) declaring that Europe "can only evolve along the path of economic progress, democracy and peace if the nation states become a federation."
From 22–25 March 1945, the first conference of the European Federalist Movement was organised in Paris with the participation of Albert Camus, George Orwell, Emmanuel Mounier
, Lewis Mumford
, André Philip
, Daniel Mayer
, François Bondy
and Altiero Spinelli (see the book The Biography of Europe by Pan Drakopoulos). This specific branch of the European Federalist Movement disintegrated in 1957 after Winston Churchill
's ideas about the European integration rose to dominance.
DeathCamus died on 4 January 1960 at the age of 46 in a car accident near Sens
, in Le Grand Fossard in the small town of Villeblevin
. In his coat pocket lay an unused train ticket. He had planned to travel by train with his wife and children, but at the last minute he accepted his publisher's proposal to travel with him.
car, Michel Gallimard, his publisher and close friend, also died in the accident. In August 2011, the Milan newspaper Corriere della Sera
reported a theory that the writer had been the victim of a Soviet plot, but Camus biographer Olivier Todd did not consider it credible. Camus was buried in the Lourmarin Cemetery, Lourmarin
, Vaucluse, France.
He was survived by his wife and twin children, Catherine and Jean, who hold the copyrights to his work.
Two of Camus's works were published posthumously. The first, entitled A Happy Death
(1970), featured a character named Patrice Mersault, comparable to The Stranger
(1995), which Camus was writing before he died. The novel was an autobiographical work about his childhood in Algeria
Summary of absurdismMany writers have addressed the Absurd, each with his or her own interpretation of what the Absurd is and what comprises its importance. For example, Sartre recognizes the absurdity of individual experience, while Kierkegaard explains that the absurdity of certain religious truths prevent us from reaching God rationally. Camus regretted the continued reference to himself as a "philosopher of the absurd". He showed less interest in the Absurd shortly after publishing Le Mythe de Sisyphe (The Myth of Sisyphus). To distinguish his ideas, scholars sometimes refer to the Paradox of the Absurd, when referring to "Camus' Absurd".
His early thoughts appeared in his first collection of essays, L'Envers et l'endroit (The Two Sides Of The Coin) in 1937. Absurd themes were expressed with more sophistication in his second collection of essays, Noces (Nuptials), in 1938. In these essays Camus reflects on the experience of the Absurd. In 1942 he published the story of a man living an absurd life as L'Étranger (The Stranger)
. In the same year he released Le Mythe de Sisyphe (The Myth of Sisyphus)
, a literary essay on the Absurd. He also wrote a play about Caligula
, a Roman Emperor, pursuing an absurd logic. The play was not performed until 1945.
The turning point in Camus' attitude to the Absurd occurs in a collection of four letters to an anonymous German friend, written between July 1943 and July 1944. The first was published in the Revue Libre in 1943, the second in the Cahiers de Libération in 1944, and the third in the newspaper Libertés, in 1945. The four letters were published as Lettres à un ami allemand (Letters to a German Friend) in 1945, and were included in the collection Resistance, Rebellion, and Death
Ideas on the AbsurdIn his essays Camus presented the reader with dualisms: happiness and sadness, dark and light, life and death, etc. His aim was to emphasize the fact that happiness is fleeting and that the human condition is one of mortality. He did this not to be morbid, but to reflect a greater appreciation for life and happiness. In Le Mythe, this dualism becomes a paradox: We value our lives and existence so greatly, but at the same time we know we will eventually die, and ultimately our endeavours are meaningless. While we can live with a dualism (I can accept periods of unhappiness, because I know I will also experience happiness to come), we cannot live with the paradox (I think my life is of great importance, but I also think it is meaningless). In Le Mythe, Camus was interested in how we experience the Absurd and how we live with it. Our life must have meaning for us to value it. If we accept that life has no meaning and therefore no value, should we kill ourselves?
In Le Mythe, Camus suggests that 'creation of meaning', would entail a logical leap or a kind of philosophical suicide in order to find psychological comfort. But Camus wants to know if he can live with what logic and lucidity has uncovered – if one can build a foundation on what one knows and nothing more. Creation of meaning is not a viable alternative but a logical leap and an evasion of the problem. He gives examples of how others would seem to make this kind of leap. The alternative option, namely suicide, would entail another kind of leap, where one attempts to kill absurdity by destroying one of its terms (the human being). Camus points out, however, that there is no more meaning in death than there is in life, and that it simply evades the problem yet again. Camus concludes, that we must instead 'entertain' both death and the absurd, while never agreeing to their terms.
Meursault, the absurdist hero of L'Étranger, has killed a man and is scheduled to be executed. Caligula ends up admitting his absurd logic was wrong and is killed by an assassination he has deliberately brought about. However, while Camus possibly suggests that Caligula's absurd reasoning is wrong, the play's anti-hero does get the last word, as the author similarly exalts Meursault's final moments.
Camus made a significant contribution to a viewpoint of the Absurd, and always rejected nihilism as a valid response.
"If nothing had any meaning, you would be right. But there is something that still has a meaning." Second Letter to a German Friend, December 1943.
Camus' understanding of the Absurd promotes public debate; his various offerings entice us to think about the Absurd and offer our own contribution. Concepts such as cooperation, joint effort and solidarity are of key importance to Camus, though they are most likely sources of 'relative' versus 'absolute' meaning.
Religious beliefs and absurdismWhile writing his thesis on Plotinus
and Saint Augustine of Hippo
, Camus became very strongly influenced by their works, especially that of St. Augustine. In his work, Confessions (consisting of 13 books), Augustine promotes the idea of a connection between God and the rest of the world. Camus identified with the idea that a personal experience could become a reference point for his philosophical and literary writings. Although he considered himself an atheist, Camus later came to tout the idea that the absence of religious belief can simultaneously be accompanied by a longing for "salvation and meaning". This line of thinking presented an ostensible paradox and became a major thread in defining the idea of absurdism in Camus' writings.
Opposition to totalitarianismThroughout his life, Camus spoke out against and actively opposed totalitarianism
in its many forms. Early on, Camus was active within the French Resistance to the German occupation of France during World War II, even directing the famous Resistance journal, Combat. On the French collaboration with Nazi occupiers he wrote: "Now the only moral value is courage, which is useful here for judging the puppets and chatterboxes who pretend to speak in the name of the people." After liberation, Camus remarked, "This country does not need a Talleyrand, but a Saint-Just." The reality of the bloody postwar tribunals soon changed his mind: Camus publicly reversed himself and became a lifelong opponent of capital punishment
Camus' well-known falling out with Sartre is linked to this opposition to totalitarianism. Camus detected a reflexive totalitarianism in the mass politics
espoused by Sartre in the name of radical Marxism
. This was apparent in his work L'Homme Révolté (The Rebel) which not only was an assault on the Soviet police state, but also questioned the very nature of mass revolutionary politics. Camus continued to speak out against the atrocities of the Soviet Union
, a sentiment captured in his 1957 speech, The Blood of the Hungarians, commemorating the anniversary of the 1956 Hungarian Revolution
, an uprising crushed in a bloody assault by the Red Army.
FootballCamus was once asked by his friend Charles Poncet which he preferred, football or the theatre. Camus is said to have replied, "Football, without hesitation."
Camus played as goalkeeper for Racing Universitaire d'Alger
(RUA won both the North African Champions Cup
and the North African Cup
twice each in the 1930s) junior team from 1928–30. The sense of team spirit, fraternity, and common purpose appealed to Camus enormously. In match reports Camus would often attract positive comment for playing with passion and courage. Any aspirations in football disappeared at age 17, upon contracting tuberculosis—then incurable, Camus was bedridden for long and painful periods.
When Camus was asked in the 1950s by an alumni sports magazine for a few words regarding his time with the RUA, his response included the following:
After many years during which I saw many things, what I know most surely about morality and the duty of man I owe to sport and learned it in the RUA.
Camus was referring to a sort of simplistic morality he wrote about in his early essays, the principle of sticking up for your friends, of valuing bravery and fair-play. Camus' belief was that political and religious authorities try to confuse us with over-complicated moral systems to make things appear more complex than they really are, potentially to serve their own needs.
- The StrangerThe Stranger (novel)The Stranger or The Outsider is a novel by Albert Camus published in 1942. Its theme and outlook are often cited as examples of existentialism, though Camus did not consider himself an existentialist; in fact, its content explores various philosophical schools of thought, including absurdism, as...
(L'Étranger, often translated as The Outsider) (1942)
- The PlagueThe PlagueThe Plague is a novel by Albert Camus, published in 1947, that tells the story of medical workers finding solidarity in their labour as the Algerian city of Oran is swept by a plague. It asks a number of questions relating to the nature of destiny and the human condition...
(La Peste) (1947)
- The Fall (La Chute) (1956)
- A Happy DeathA Happy DeathA Happy Death was the first novel by French writer-philosopher Albert Camus. The existentialist topic of the book is the "will to happiness," the conscious creation of one's happiness, and the need of time to do so...
(La Mort heureuse) (written 1936–1938, published posthumously 1971)
- The First ManThe First ManThe First Man is Albert Camus' unfinished final novel.On January 4, 1960, at the age of forty-six, Camus was killed in a car accident outside Paris. The incomplete manuscript of The First Man, the autobiographical novel Camus was working on at the time of his death, was found in the mud at the...
(Le premier homme) (incomplete, published posthumously 1995)
- Exile and the KingdomExile and the KingdomExile and the Kingdom is a 1957 collection of six short stories by French-Algerian writer Albert Camus.These works of fiction cover the whole variety of existentialism, or absurdism, as Camus himself insisted his philosophical ideas be called...
(L'exil et le royaume) (collection) (1957)
- "The Adulterous WomanThe Adulterous Woman"The Adulterous Woman" is a short story written in 1957. It is the first short story published in the volume Exile and the Kingdom by Albert Camus.-Characters:...
" ("La Femme adultère")
- "The Renegade or a Confused SpiritThe Renegade (Camus short story)"The Renegade" is a short story written in 1957. It is the second short story published in the volume Exile and the Kingdom by Albert Camus.-Plot summary:...
" ("Le Renégat ou un esprit confus")
- "The Silent MenThe Silent Men"The Silent Men" is a short story written in 1957. It is the third short story published in the volume Exile and the Kingdom by Albert Camus.-The Common Fate:...
" ("Les Muets")
- "The GuestThe Guest"The Guest" is a short story by the French writer Albert Camus. It was first published in 1957 as part of a collection entitled Exile and the Kingdom . The French title "L'Hôte" translates into both "the guest" and "the host" which ties back to the relationship between the main characters of the...
- "Jonas or the Artist at WorkThe Artist at Work"The Artist at Work" is a short story by the French writer Albert Camus from Exile and the Kingdom .- Synopsis :...
" ("Jonas ou l’artiste au travail")
- "The Growing StoneThe Growing Stone"The Growing Stone" is a short story by the French writer Albert Camus. It is the final short story in the collection Exile and the Kingdom.-Plot summary:...
" ("La Pierre qui pousse")
- "The Adulterous Woman
- Christian Metaphysics and Neoplatonism (1935)
- Betwixt and BetweenBetwixt and BetweenBetwixt and Between is a work of non-fiction by Albert Camus....
(L'envers et l'endroit, also translated as The Wrong Side and the Right Side) (Collection, 1937)
- Nuptials (Noces) (1938)
- The Myth of SisyphusThe Myth of SisyphusThe Myth of Sisyphus is a philosophical essay by Albert Camus. It comprises about 120 pages and was published originally in 1942 in French as Le Mythe de Sisyphe; the English translation by Justin O'Brien followed in 1955....
(Le Mythe de Sisyphe) (1942)
- The Rebel (L'Homme révolté) (1951)
- Notebooks 1935–1942 (Carnets, mai 1935 — fevrier 1942) (1962)
- Notebooks 1943–1951 (1965)
- Notebooks 1951–1959 (2008) Published as "Carnets Tome III : Mars 1951 – December 1959" (1989)
- CaligulaCaligula (play)Caligula is a play written by Albert Camus, begun in 1938 and published for the first time in May 1944 by Éditions Gallimard. The play was later the subject of numerous revisions. It was part of what the author called the "Cycle of the Absurd", with the novel The Outsider and the essay The Myth...
(performed 1945, written 1938)
- Requiem for a Nun (Requiem pour une nonne, adapted from William FaulknerWilliam FaulknerWilliam Cuthbert Faulkner was an American writer from Oxford, Mississippi. Faulkner worked in a variety of media; he wrote novels, short stories, a play, poetry, essays and screenplays during his career...
's novel by the same nameRequiem for a NunRequiem for a Nun is a book written by William Faulkner in 1951. Like many of Faulkner's works, Requiem experiments with narrative technique—the book is part novel, part play. The protagonist is Temple Drake, a character introduced as a college student in Sanctuary, one of Faulkner's early novels...
- The MisunderstandingThe MisunderstandingThe Misunderstanding , sometimes published as Cross Purpose, is a play written in 1943 in occupied Paris by Albert Camus.-Plot summary:...
(Le Malentendu) (1944)
- The State of SiegeThe State of SiegeThe State of Siege is the fourth play by Albert Camus.Written in 1948, The State of Siege—the original sense is closer to state of emergency—is a play in three acts presenting the arrival of plague, personified by a young opportunist, in sleepy Cadiz and the subsequent creation of a...
(L' Etat de Siege) (1948)
- The Just AssassinsThe Just AssassinsThe Just Assassins is a 1949 play by Algerian writer and philosopher Albert Camus....
(Les Justes) (1949)
- The PossessedThe Possessed (play)The Possessed is a play written by Albert Camus in 1959. The piece is a theatrical adaptation of Fyodor Dostoyevsky's novel by the same name....
(Les Possédés, adapted from Fyodor Dostoyevsky's novel by the same name) (1959)
- Create Dangerously (Essay on Realism and Artistic Creation) (1957)
- The Ancient Greek Tragedy (Parnassos lecture in Greece) (1956)
- The Crisis of Man (Lecture at Columbia University) (1946)
- Why Spain? (Essay for the theatrical play L' Etat de Siege) (1948)
- Reflections on the GuillotineReflections on the Guillotine"Reflections on the Guillotine" is an extended essay written in 1957 by Albert Camus. In the essay Camus takes an uncompromising position for the abolition of the death penalty. Camus's view is similar to that of De Sade who also argued that murder premeditated and carried out by the state was the...
(Réflexions sur la guillotine) (Extended essay, 1957)
- Neither Victims Nor ExecutionersNeither Victims Nor ExecutionersNeither Victims Nor Executioners was a series of essays by Albert Camus that were serialized in Combat, the daily newspaper of the French Resistance, in November 1946. In the essays he discusses violence and murder and the impact these have on those who perpetrate, suffer, or observe...
- Resistance, Rebellion, and DeathResistance, Rebellion, and DeathResistance, Rebellion, and Death is a 1960 collection of essays written by Albert Camus and selected by the author prior to his death. The essays here generally involve conflicts near the Mediterranean, with an emphasis on his home country Algeria, and on the Algerian War of Independence in...
(1961) – a collection of essays selected by the author.
- Lyrical and Critical Essays (1970)
- Youthful Writings (1976)
- Between Hell and Reason: Essays from the Resistance Newspaper "Combat", 1944–1947 (1991)
- Camus at "Combat": Writing 1944–1947 (2005)
- Camus (1959), by Germaine Brée ISBN 1-122-01570-4
- Camus (1966), by Adele King ISBN 0-050-01423-4
- Camus: vida e obra (1970), by Vicente de Paulo Barretto.
- Albert Camus: A Biography (1997), by Herbert R. Lottman (ISBN 3-927258-06-7)
- Albert Camus and the Minister (2000), by Howard E. Mumma (ISBN 1-55725-246-7)
- Albert Camus, The Artist in the Arena (1965), by Emmett Parker
- Albert Camus, A Study of His Work (1957), by Philip Malcolm Waller Thody
- Albert Camus: A Life (2000), by Olivier Todd (ISBN 0-7867-0739-9)
- Albert Camus: Kunst und Moral, by Heiner Wittmann (ISBN 3-631-39525-6)
- Sartre and Camus in Aesthetics. The Challenge of Freedom.(2009), by Heiner Wittmann, Ed. by Dirk Hoeges. Dialoghi/Dialogues. Literatur und Kultur Italiens und Frankreichs, vol. 13, Frankfurt/M. ISBN 978-3-631-58693-8
- Ethics and Creativity in the Political thought of Simone Weil and Albert Camus 2004, by Dr. John Randolph LeBlanc (ISBN 978-0-7734-6567-1)
- The MandarinsThe MandarinsThe Mandarins is a 1954 roman-à-clef by Simone de Beauvoir. Beauvoir was awarded the Prix Goncourt prize in 1954 for The Mandarins. It was first published in English in 1957....
by Simone de BeauvoirSimone de BeauvoirSimone-Ernestine-Lucie-Marie Bertrand de Beauvoir, often shortened to Simone de Beauvoir , was a French existentialist philosopher, public intellectual, and social theorist. She wrote novels, essays, biographies, an autobiography in several volumes, and monographs on philosophy, politics, and...
(1954) Winner of the 1954 Goncourt Prize; Camus himself states that he is "the hero" of the book in his Notebooks 1951-1959.
- Camus, A Romance (2009), by Elizabeth HawesElizabeth Hawes (author)Elizabeth Hawes is an American writer of biography, journalism and creative non-fiction. Her most recent book, Camus, A Romance, is a biography-memoir of the Nobel-Prize winning French-Algerian writer Albert Camus, in which she chronicles his life along with her own experience trying to follow...
- Many books of Albert Camus available, in French, in Les Classiques des sciences sociales.
- Albert Camus' Week: Excerpts, articles, interviews and videos on the website of the Prague Writers' Festival
- Nobel Prize in Literature (1957) Link
- "Accidental Friends" the story of the Camus-Sartre friendship and very public breakup
- Interview with daughter Catherine – 3AM
- Another interview with daughter Catherine – Spike
- The Logic of Existential Meaning
- Albert Camus Society UK
- Université McGill: le roman selon les romanciers (French) Inventory and analysis of Albert Camus' non-novelistic writings
- Lesjustes.co.uk : English synopsis of "Les Justes" for students
- Camus 'Bookweb' on literary website The Ledge, with suggestions for further reading.
- Camus Interview with Prof. Jean-Marie Apostolides, from the radio program Entitled OpinionsEntitled OpinionsEntitled Opinions is a literary talk show hosted by Robert P. Harrison, a professor of French and Italian at Stanford University. The show is also available as a podcast. Topics range broadly on issues related to literature, ideas, and lived experience...