Akihito
Overview
 
is the current , the 125th emperor of his line according to Japan
Japan
Japan is an island nation in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies to the east of the Sea of Japan, China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia, stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south...

's traditional order of succession. He acceded to the throne in 1989.
In Japan, the emperor is never referred to by his given name, but rather is referred to as "His Imperial Majesty the Emperor" which may be shortened to . In writing, the emperor is also referred to formally as .
Encyclopedia
is the current , the 125th emperor of his line according to Japan
Japan
Japan is an island nation in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies to the east of the Sea of Japan, China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia, stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south...

's traditional order of succession. He acceded to the throne in 1989.

Name

In Japan, the emperor is never referred to by his given name, but rather is referred to as "His Imperial Majesty the Emperor" which may be shortened to . In writing, the emperor is also referred to formally as . The Era
Japanese era name
The Japanese era calendar scheme is a common calendar scheme used in Japan, which identifies a year by the combination of the and the year number within the era...

 of Akihito's reign bears the name "Heisei" , and according to custom he will be renamed "Emperor Heisei" (平成天皇 Heisei tennō; see "posthumous name
Posthumous name
A posthumous name is an honorary name given to royalty, nobles, and sometimes others, in East Asia after the person's death, and is used almost exclusively instead of one's personal name or other official titles during his life...

") by order of the cabinet after his death. At the same time, the name of the next era under his successor will also be established.

Biography

Akihito is the eldest son and the fifth child of Emperor Hirohito
Hirohito
, posthumously in Japan officially called Emperor Shōwa or , was the 124th Emperor of Japan according to the traditional order, reigning from December 25, 1926, until his death in 1989. Although better known outside of Japan by his personal name Hirohito, in Japan he is now referred to...

 (the Showa
Showa period
The , or Shōwa era, is the period of Japanese history corresponding to the reign of the Shōwa Emperor, Hirohito, from December 25, 1926 through January 7, 1989.The Shōwa period was longer than the reign of any previous Japanese emperor...

 Emperor) and Empress Kōjun
Empress Kojun
' was empress consort of Emperor Hirohito of Japan. Born , she was the mother of the present Emperor .Her posthumous name is Kōjun, which means "fragrant purity"...

. Titled as a child, he was raised and educated by his private tutors and then attended the elementary and secondary departments of the Peers' School (Gakushuin
Gakushuin
The or Peers School is an educational institution founded in Tokyo in 1877, during the Meiji period, for the education of the children of the Japanese aristocracy, though it eventually also opened its doors to the offspring of extremely wealthy commoners...

) from 1940 to 1952. Unlike his predecessors in the Imperial Family, he did not receive a commission as an Army officer, at the request of his father, Hirohito.

During the American firebombing raids on Tokyo
Tokyo
, ; officially , is one of the 47 prefectures of Japan. Tokyo is the capital of Japan, the center of the Greater Tokyo Area, and the largest metropolitan area of Japan. It is the seat of the Japanese government and the Imperial Palace, and the home of the Japanese Imperial Family...

 in March 1945, he and his younger brother, HIH Prince Masahito
Prince Hitachi
is a member of the Imperial House of Japan and the younger brother of current Emperor Akihito. He is the second son and sixth born child of HIM Emperor Shōwa and Empress Kōjun and is fourth in line to the Chrysanthemum throne...

, were evacuated from the city. During the American occupation of Japan
Occupied Japan
At the end of World War II, Japan was occupied by the Allied Powers, led by the United States with contributions also from Australia, India, New Zealand and the United Kingdom. This foreign presence marked the first time in its history that the island nation had been occupied by a foreign power...

 following World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

, Prince Akihito was tutored in English
English language
English is a West Germanic language that arose in the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of England and spread into what was to become south-east Scotland under the influence of the Anglian medieval kingdom of Northumbria...

 and Western manners by Elizabeth Gray Vining
Elizabeth Gray Vining
Elizabeth Janet Gray Vining , born Elizabeth Janet Gray and also known as Elizabeth Gray Vining, was a professional librarian who tutored Emperor Akihito of Japan in English while he was the crown prince...

. He briefly studied at the Department of Political Science at Gakushuin University
Gakushuin University
is an elite higher educational institution in Mejiro, Toshima Ward, Tokyo. It was re-established after World War II as an affiliate of the Gakushūin School Corporation, the privatized successor to the original Gakushūin University or "Peers School" set up during the Meiji era to educate the...

 in Tokyo, though he never received a degree
Academic degree
An academic degree is a position and title within a college or university that is usually awarded in recognition of the recipient having either satisfactorily completed a prescribed course of study or having conducted a scholarly endeavour deemed worthy of his or her admission to the degree...

. Although he was Heir-Apparent to the Chrysanthemum Throne
Chrysanthemum Throne
The is the English term used to identify the throne of the Emperor of Japan. The term can refer to very specific seating, such as the takamikura throne in the Shishin-den at Kyoto Imperial Palace....

 from the moment of his birth, his formal was held at the Tokyo Imperial Palace on 10 November 1952. In June 1953, Crown Prince
Crown Prince
A crown prince or crown princess is the heir or heiress apparent to the throne in a royal or imperial monarchy. The wife of a crown prince is also titled crown princess....

 Akihito represented Japan at the coronation
Coronation
A coronation is a ceremony marking the formal investiture of a monarch and/or their consort with regal power, usually involving the placement of a crown upon their head and the presentation of other items of regalia...

 of Queen Elizabeth II in London.

Then-Crown Prince Akihito and Crown Princess Michiko made official visits to thirty-seven countries. As an Imperial prince, Akihito compared the role of Japanese royalty to that of a robot; and he expressed the hope that he would like to help in bringing the Imperial family closer to the people of Japan.

After the death of Emperor Hirohito
Hirohito
, posthumously in Japan officially called Emperor Shōwa or , was the 124th Emperor of Japan according to the traditional order, reigning from December 25, 1926, until his death in 1989. Although better known outside of Japan by his personal name Hirohito, in Japan he is now referred to...

 on 7 January 1989, the crown prince received the succession (senso). Emperor Akihito formally acceded to the throne (sokui) on 12 November 1990. In 1998, during a state visit to the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

, he was invested with The Most Noble Order of the Garter.

Emperor Akihito underwent surgery for prostate cancer
Prostate cancer
Prostate cancer is a form of cancer that develops in the prostate, a gland in the male reproductive system. Most prostate cancers are slow growing; however, there are cases of aggressive prostate cancers. The cancer cells may metastasize from the prostate to other parts of the body, particularly...

 in January 2003. Since succeeding to the throne, Emperor Akihito has made an effort to bring the Imperial Family closer to the Japanese people. The Emperor and Empress of Japan have made official visits to eighteen countries, as well as all forty-seven Prefectures of Japan
Prefectures of Japan
The prefectures of Japan are the country's 47 subnational jurisdictions: one "metropolis" , Tokyo; one "circuit" , Hokkaidō; two urban prefectures , Osaka and Kyoto; and 43 other prefectures . In Japanese, they are commonly referred to as...

.

In response to the 2011 earthquake and tsunami
2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami
The 2011 earthquake off the Pacific coast of Tohoku, also known as the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, or the Great East Japan Earthquake, was a magnitude 9.0 undersea megathrust earthquake off the coast of Japan that occurred at 14:46 JST on Friday, 11 March 2011, with the epicenter approximately east...

 and the Fukushima I nuclear crisis, the Emperor made a historic televised appearance urging his people not to give up hope and to help each other. The Emperor had never been featured in a prerecorded televised message before, and so this event is historic and showed the scale of this disaster. The Emperor and the Empress also made a visit on Wednesday, 30 March 2011 to a temporary shelter housing refugees of the disaster, in order to inspire hope in the people. This kind of event is also extremely rare, though in line with the Emperor's attempts to bring the Imperial Family closer to the people.

Marriage and children

On 10 April 1959, he married Michiko Shōda
Empress Michiko of Japan
Empress Michiko of Japan is the wife and consort of Emperor Akihito, the current monarch of Japan. She was the first commoner to marry into the Japanese Imperial Family. As crown princess and later as empress consort, she has become the most visible and widely-travelled imperial consort in...

 (born 24 October 1934), the eldest daughter of Hidesaburo Shōda, the president and later honorary chairman of Nisshin Flour Milling Company. The new Crown Princess was the first commoner
Commoner
In British law, a commoner is someone who is neither the Sovereign nor a peer. Therefore, any member of the Royal Family who is not a peer, such as Prince Harry of Wales or Anne, Princess Royal, is a commoner, as is any member of a peer's family, including someone who holds only a courtesy title,...

 to marry into the imperial family. The Emperor and the Empress have three children:
  • HIH
    Imperial Highness
    His/Her Imperial Highness is a style used by members of an imperial family to denote imperial - as opposed to royal - status to show that the holder in question is descended from an Emperor rather than a King .Today the style has mainly fallen from use with the exception of the Imperial Family of...

     The Crown Prince Naruhito
    Naruhito, Crown Prince of Japan
    is the eldest son of Emperor Akihito and Empress Michiko, which makes him the heir apparent to the Chrysanthemum Throne of Japan.-Early life and education:...

     (b. 23 February 1960, titled Hiro-no-miya or Prince Hiro),
  • HIH The Prince Akishino
    Prince Akishino
    Fumihito, The Prince Akishino is a member of the Japanese imperial family...

     (Fumihito, b. 30 November 1965, titled Aya-no-miya or Prince Aya) and
  • Sayako Kuroda
    Sayako Kuroda
    , formerly , is the third child and only daughter of Emperor Akihito and Empress Michiko of Japan. She held the childhood appellation "Nori no miya" . She married Yoshiki Kuroda on 15 November 2005...

    , formerly HIH The Princess Sayako (titled Nori-no-miya or Princess Nori, b. 18 April 1969).

Official functions

Despite being strictly constrained by his constitutional
Constitution of Japan
The is the fundamental law of Japan. It was enacted on 3 May, 1947 as a new constitution for postwar Japan.-Outline:The constitution provides for a parliamentary system of government and guarantees certain fundamental rights...

 position, he also issued several wide-ranging statements of remorse to Asia
Asia
Asia is the world's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the eastern and northern hemispheres. It covers 8.7% of the Earth's total surface area and with approximately 3.879 billion people, it hosts 60% of the world's current human population...

n countries, for their suffering under Japanese occupation, beginning with an expression of remorse to China
China
Chinese civilization may refer to:* China for more general discussion of the country.* Chinese culture* Greater China, the transnational community of ethnic Chinese.* History of China* Sinosphere, the area historically affected by Chinese culture...

 made in April 1989, three months after the death of his father, Emperor Hirohito.

In June 2005, the Emperor visited the US
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 territory of Saipan
Saipan
Saipan is the largest island of the United States Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands , a chain of 15 tropical islands belonging to the Marianas archipelago in the western Pacific Ocean with a total area of . The 2000 census population was 62,392...

, the site of a battle in World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

 from 15 June to 9 July 1944 (Battle of Saipan
Battle of Saipan
The Battle of Saipan was a battle of the Pacific campaign of World War II, fought on the island of Saipan in the Mariana Islands from 15 June-9 July 1944. The Allied invasion fleet embarking the expeditionary forces left Pearl Harbor on 5 June 1944, the day before Operation Overlord in Europe was...

). Accompanied by Empress Michiko, he offered prayers and flowers at several memorials, honoring not only the Japanese who died, but also American soldiers, Korean laborers, and local islanders. It was the first trip by a Japanese monarch to a World War II battlefield abroad. The Saipan journey was received with high praise by the Japanese people, as were the Emperor's visits to war memorials in Tokyo
Tokyo
, ; officially , is one of the 47 prefectures of Japan. Tokyo is the capital of Japan, the center of the Greater Tokyo Area, and the largest metropolitan area of Japan. It is the seat of the Japanese government and the Imperial Palace, and the home of the Japanese Imperial Family...

, Hiroshima
Hiroshima
is the capital of Hiroshima Prefecture, and the largest city in the Chūgoku region of western Honshu, the largest island of Japan. It became best known as the first city in history to be destroyed by a nuclear weapon when the United States Army Air Forces dropped an atomic bomb on it at 8:15 A.M...

, Nagasaki, and Okinawa in 1995.

On 6 September 2006, the Emperor celebrated the birth of his first grandson, Prince Hisahito
Prince Hisahito of Akishino
is the third child of the Prince and Princess Akishino, and their only son. He is third in line to become Emperor of Japan.Prince Hisahito has two older sisters, Princess Mako of Akishino and Princess Kako of Akishino .- Name :His personal name Hisahito in this case means "serene and virtuous,"...

, the third child of the Emperor's younger son. Prince Hisahito is the first male heir born to the Japanese imperial family in 41 years (since his father Prince Akishino) and could avert a possible succession crisis
Japanese imperial succession controversy
The Japanese imperial succession controversy refers to desires to change the laws of succession to the Japanese Throne, which is currently limited to males of the Japanese imperial family.- Overview :...

 as the Emperor's elder son, the Crown Prince, has only one daughter, Princess Aiko
Aiko, Princess Toshi
, born 1 December 2001, is the daughter and only child of the heir apparent to the Japanese throne, Crown Prince Naruhito, and Crown Princess Masako....

. Under Japan's current male-only succession law, Princess Aiko is not eligible for the throne. The birth of Prince Hisahito could mean that proposed changes to the law to allow Aiko to ascend the Chrysanthemum Throne
Chrysanthemum Throne
The is the English term used to identify the throne of the Emperor of Japan. The term can refer to very specific seating, such as the takamikura throne in the Shishin-den at Kyoto Imperial Palace....

 will not go through after being temporarily shelved following the announcement of Princess Kiko's third pregnancy in February 2006.

Ichthyological research

In extension of his father's interest in marine biology
Marine biology
Marine biology is the scientific study of organisms in the ocean or other marine or brackish bodies of water. Given that in biology many phyla, families and genera have some species that live in the sea and others that live on land, marine biology classifies species based on the environment rather...

, the Emperor is a published ichthyological
Ichthyology
Ichthyology is the branch of zoology devoted to the study of fish. This includes skeletal fish , cartilaginous fish , and jawless fish...

 researcher, and has specialized studies within the taxonomy
Taxonomy
Taxonomy is the science of identifying and naming species, and arranging them into a classification. The field of taxonomy, sometimes referred to as "biological taxonomy", revolves around the description and use of taxonomic units, known as taxa...

 of the family
Family (biology)
In biological classification, family is* a taxonomic rank. Other well-known ranks are life, domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, genus, and species, with family fitting between order and genus. As for the other well-known ranks, there is the option of an immediately lower rank, indicated by the...

 Gobiidae
Goby
The gobies form the family Gobiidae, which is one of the largest families of fish, with more than 2,000 species in more than 200 genera. Most are relatively small, typically less than 10 cm in length...

. He has written papers for scholarly journals, namely Gene
Gene (journal)
Gene is a peer-reviewed scientific journal in genetics, focusing on gene cloning and gene structure and function. Gene has been published since 1976 by Elsevier....

and the Japanese Journal of Ichthyology.

He has also written papers about the history of science
History of science
The history of science is the study of the historical development of human understandings of the natural world and the domains of the social sciences....

 during the Edo
Edo period
The , or , is a division of Japanese history which was ruled by the shoguns of the Tokugawa family, running from 1603 to 1868. The political entity of this period was the Tokugawa shogunate....

 and Meiji era
Meiji period
The , also known as the Meiji era, is a Japanese era which extended from September 1868 through July 1912. This period represents the first half of the Empire of Japan.- Meiji Restoration and the emperor :...

s, which were published in Science
Science (journal)
Science is the academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and is one of the world's top scientific journals....

and Nature
Nature (journal)
Nature, first published on 4 November 1869, is ranked the world's most cited interdisciplinary scientific journal by the Science Edition of the 2010 Journal Citation Reports...

. In 2005, a newly described goby was named Exyrias akihito
Exyrias akihito
Exyrias akihito is a species of marine goby. Since the recent description of this species it has been found to have a wide distribution in the western Pacific including the Great Barrier Reef, New Guinea, Indonesia, the Philippines and the Yaeyama Islands, Japan...

in his honour.

Awards

National

  • Collar and Grand Cordon of the Supreme Order of the Chrysanthemum
    Order of the Chrysanthemum
    is Japan's highest order. The Grand Cordon of the Order was established in 1876 by Emperor Meiji of Japan; the collar of the Order was added on January 4, 1888. Although technically the order has only one class, it can either be awarded with collar , or with grand cordon...

  • Grand Cordon of The Order of the Rising Sun
    Order of the Rising Sun
    The is a Japanese order, established in 1875 by Emperor Meiji of Japan. The Order was the first national decoration awarded by the Japanese Government, created on April 10, 1875 by decree of the Council of State. The badge features rays of sunlight from the rising sun...

     with the Paulownia Blossoms (renamed Grand Cordon of The Order of the Paulownia Flowers
    Order of the Paulownia Flowers
    The ' is an order presented by the Japanese Government. Established in 1888 during the Meiji Restoration as the highest award in the Order of the Rising Sun; however, since 2003 it has been an Order in its own right...

     from 2003)
  • Grand Cordon of the Order of the Sacred Treasure
    Order of the Sacred Treasure
    The is a Japanese Order, established on January 4, 1888 by Emperor Meiji of Japan as the Order of Meiji. It is awarded in eight classes . It is generally awarded for long and/or meritorious service and considered to be the lowest of the Japanese orders of merit...

  • Order of Culture
    Order of Culture
    The is a Japanese order, established on February 11, 1937. The order has one class only, and may be awarded to men and women for contributions to Japan's art, literature or culture; recipients of the order also receive an annuity for life...

  • The Golden Medal of Merit of the Japanese Red Cross
    Japanese Red Cross
    The ' is the Japanese affiliate of the International Red Cross.The Imperial Family of Japan traditionally has supported the society, with Empress as Honorary President and other royal family members as vice-presidents. Its headquarters is located in Tokyo and local chapters are set up in all 47...

  • The Golden Medal of Honorary Member of the Japanese Red Cross
    Japanese Red Cross
    The ' is the Japanese affiliate of the International Red Cross.The Imperial Family of Japan traditionally has supported the society, with Empress as Honorary President and other royal family members as vice-presidents. Its headquarters is located in Tokyo and local chapters are set up in all 47...





International

Country Awards
 Afghanistan Order of the Supreme Sun
Order of the Supreme Sun
The Order of the Supreme Sun was a decoration of the former Kingdom of Afghanistan.The Order was instituted in 1920 by King Habibu'llah Shah and discontinued in 1973...

 Austria Decoration for Services to the Republic of Austria
Decoration for Services to the Republic of Austria
The Decoration of Honour for Services to the Republic of Austria is a state decoration of the Republic of Austria...

 Grand Star
 Bahrain Order of al-Khalifa Collar
 Belgium Order of Leopold Grand Cordon
 Botswana Presidential Order
 Brazil Order of the Southern Cross
Order of the Southern Cross
The National Order of the Southern Cross is a Brazilian order of chivalry founded by Emperor Pedro I on 1 December 1822. This order was intended to commemorate the independence of Brazil and the coronation of Pedro I...

 Grand Collar
 Cameroon Order of Valour Grand Cordon
 Chile Order of the Merit of Chile
Order of the Merit of Chile
The Order of the Merit of Chile is a Chilean military decoration and was created in 1929. Succeeding the Medal of the Merit, it was created during the term of the President Germán Riesco through the Minister of War decree No. 1350 on September 4, 1906...

 Grand Collar
 Colombia Order of the Cross of Boyaca Grand Collar
 Democratic Republic of the Congo National Order of the Leopard Grand Cordon
 Côte d'Ivoire Order of the Ivory Coast Grand Cordon
 Czech Republic Order of the White Lion
Order of the White Lion
The Order of the White Lion is the highest order of the Czech Republic. It continues a Czechoslovak order of the same name created in 1922 as an award for foreigners....

 1st Class (Civil Division) with Collar Chain
 Denmark Order of the Elephant
Order of the Elephant
The Order of the Elephant is the highest order of Denmark. It has origins in the 15th century, but has officially existed since 1693, and since the establishment of constitutional monarchy in 1849, is now almost exclusively bestowed on royalty and heads of state.- History :A Danish religious...

 Knight Grand Cross
 Egypt Order of the Nile
Order of the Nile
The Order of the Nile is Egypt's highest state honor. The award was instituted in 1915 by Sultan Hussein Kamel to be awarded by Egypt for exceptional services to the nation...

 Grand Collar
 Estonia Order of the Cross of Terra Mariana
Order of the Cross of Terra Mariana
The Order of the Cross of Terra Mariana was instituted in 1995 to honour the independence of the Estonian state. The Order of the Cross of Terra Mariana is bestowed upon the President of the Republic. Presidents of the Republic who have ceased to hold office shall keep the Order of the Cross of...

 The Collar of the Cross
 Ethiopia Order of Solomon
Order of Solomon
The Order of Solomon was an order of knighthood of the Ethiopian Empire.The Solomonic dynasty, the ancient Imperial House of Ethiopia, claims descent from King Solomon and the Queen of Sheba, said to have given birth to King Menelik I after her visit to Solomon in Jerusalem.As the Empire's...

 Grand Collar
 Finland Order of the White Rose
Order of the White Rose
The Order of the White Rose of Finland is one of three official orders in Finland, along with the Order of the Cross of Liberty, and the Order of the Lion of Finland. The President of Finland is the Grand Master of all three orders. The orders are administered by boards consisting of a chancellor,...

 Grand Cross with Collar
 Early Modern France Légion d'honneur
Légion d'honneur
The Legion of Honour, or in full the National Order of the Legion of Honour is a French order established by Napoleon Bonaparte, First Consul of the Consulat which succeeded to the First Republic, on 19 May 1802...

 Grand Cross
 Germany Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany Grand Cross, Special Class
 Greece Order of the Redeemer
Order of the Redeemer
The Order of the Redeemer , also known as the Order of the Savior, is an order of Greece. The Order of the Redeemer is the oldest and highest decoration awarded by the modern Greek state.- History :...

 Grand Cross
 Hungary Order of Merit of Hungary Grand Cross
 Iceland Order of the Falcon
Order of the Falcon
The Order of the Falcon or Hin íslenska fálkaorða is a national Order of Iceland, established on July 3, 1921 by King Christian X of Denmark and Iceland.-History and appointments:...

 Grand Cross with Collar
 Indonesia Star of Adipurna 1st Class
 Italy Order of Merit of the Republic Grand Cross with Cordon
 Jordan Order of Hussein ibn' Ali Collar
 Kazakhstan Order of the Golden Eagle
 Kenya Order of the Golden Heart
 Kuwait Order of Mubarak the Great Collar
 Latvia Order of the Three Stars
Order of the Three Stars
Order of the Three Stars is order awarded for merits in service for Latvia. It was established in 1924 in remembrance of founding of Latvia. Its motto is "Per aspera ad astra"...

 Commander Grand Cross with Chain
 Liberia Order of the Star of Africa Knight Grand Band
Order of the Pioneers of the Republic Knight Grand Band
 Lithuania Order of Vytautas the Great
Order of Vytautas the Great
The Order of Vytautas the Great is the Lithuanian Presidential Award. It may be conferred on the heads of Lithuania and foreign states, as well as their citizens, for distinguished services to the State of Lithuania.-History:...

 the Great Grand Cross with Collar
 Luxembourg Order of the Gold Lion of the House of Nassau Knight
 Malawi Order of the Lion
Order of the Lion
The Order of the Lion may refer to:* Order of the Lion of Finland* Order of the Netherlands Lion* Order of the Norwegian Lion* Royal Order of the Lion * Order of the Lion and the Sun of Persia* Order of the Lion...

 Grand Commander
Darjah Utama Seri Mahkota Negara
Darjah Utama Seri Mahkota Negara
The Darjah Utama Seri Mahkota Negara is a Malaysian Federal Award conferred to the Queen of Malaysia and newly appointed Malay rulers in his state, foreign Heads of State and other distinguished individuals....

 Mali National Order Grand Cordon
 Mexico Order of the Aztec Eagle
Order of the Aztec Eagle
The Order of the Aztec Eagle is a Mexican order and is the highest decoration awarded to foreigners in the country.It was created by decree on December 29, 1933 by President Abelardo L. Rodríguez as a reward to services given to Mexico or humankind by foreigners...

 Grand Collar
 Morocco Order of Muhammad Grand Collar
 Nepal Order of Ojaswi Rajanya
 Netherlands Order of the Netherlands Lion Knight Grand Cross
 Nigeria Order of the Federal Republic
Order of the Federal Republic
The Federal Republic of Nigeria has instituted two orders of merit, the Order of the Federal Republic and the Order of the Niger after gaining independence from the United Kingdom in 1960....

 Grand Cordon
 Norway Royal Norwegian Order of St. Olav Grand Cross with Collar
 Oman Order of Oman Superior Class
 Pakistan Nishan-e-Pakistan
Nishan-e-Pakistan
The Nishan-e-Pakistan is the highest of civil awards and decorations given by the Government of Pakistan for the highest degree of service to the country and nation of Pakistan...

 1st Class
 Panama Order of Manuel Amador Guerrero Gold Collar
 Peru Order of the Sun Grand Cross in Brilliants
 Philippines Philippine Legion of Honor
Philippine Legion of Honor
The Philippine Legion of Honor was established by President Manuel Roxas, through Philippine Army Circular No. 60 dated July 3, 1947. The Philippine Legion of Honor was patterned after the Legion of Merit of the United States of America, and was meant to honor both civilians and members of the...

 Chief Commander
 Poland Order of the White Eagle
 Portugal Order of Prince Henry Grand Collar
 Qatar Collar of Independence
 Saudi Arabia Badr Chain
 Senegal Order of the Lion Grand Cordon
 South Africa Order of Good Hope Grand Cross in Gold
 Spain Order of the Golden Fleece
Order of the Golden Fleece
The Order of the Golden Fleece is an order of chivalry founded in Bruges by Philip III, Duke of Burgundy in 1430, to celebrate his marriage to the Portuguese princess Infanta Isabella of Portugal, daughter of King John I of Portugal. It evolved as one of the most prestigious orders in Europe...

 Knight
 Sweden Royal Order of the Seraphim Knight
 Thailand The Most Auspicious Order of the Rajamitrabhorn
The Most Illustrious Order of the Royal House of Chakri
 The Gambia Order of the Republic of Gambia Grand Commander
 Ukraine Order of Prince Yaroslav the Wise
Order of Prince Yaroslav the Wise
The Order of Prince Yaroslav the Wise is an award of Ukraine. It is awarded for distinguished services to the state and people of the Ukrainian nation. The Order was instituted on August 23, 1995 by the Ukrainian President, Leonid Kuchma....

 First Class
 United Arab Emirates Collar of the Federation
 United Kingdom Stranger 984th Knight of Order of the Garter
Order of the Garter
The Most Noble Order of the Garter, founded in 1348, is the highest order of chivalry, or knighthood, existing in England. The order is dedicated to the image and arms of St...


Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order
Royal Victorian Order
The Royal Victorian Order is a dynastic order of knighthood and a house order of chivalry recognising distinguished personal service to the order's Sovereign, the reigning monarch of the Commonwealth realms, any members of her family, or any of her viceroys...


Queen Elizabeth II Coronation Medal
Queen Elizabeth II Coronation Medal
The Queen Elizabeth II Coronation Medal was a commemorative medal made to celebrate the coronation of Queen Elizabeth II.-Issue:For Coronation and Jubilee medals, the practice up until 1977 was that United Kingdom authorities decided on a total number to be produced, then allocated a proportion to...

 Serbia and Montenegro Order of the Yugoslav Star
Order of the Yugoslav Star
Order of the Yugoslav Star was the highest National order of merit awarded in Yugoslavia. It was divided into four classes. The highest class, the Yugoslav Great Star was the highest state decoration awarded in Yugoslavia...

 Zaire Order of the Leopard Grand Cordon


Other Awards
  • The Royal Society King Charles II Medal

Ancestors



Patrilineal descent

Akihito's patriline is the line from which he is descended father to son.

Patrilineal descent is the principle behind membership in royal houses, as it can be traced back through the generations, which means that Akihito is a member of the Imperial House of Japan
Imperial House of Japan
The , also referred to as the Imperial Family or the Yamato Dynasty, comprises those members of the extended family of the reigning Emperor of Japan who undertake official and public duties. Under the present Constitution of Japan, the emperor is the symbol of the state and unity of the people...

.

Imperial House of Japan
  1. Emperor Keitai
    Emperor Keitai
    , also known as Keitai-okimi, was the 26th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession.No firm dates can be assigned to this emperor's life or reign, but he is conventionally considered to have reigned from 507–531....

    , ca. 450–534
  2. Emperor Kimmei
    Emperor Kimmei
    was the 29th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession.His reign is said to have spanned the years from 539 through 571.-Traditional narrative:...

    , 509–571
  3. Emperor Bidatsu
    Emperor Bidatsu
    was the 30th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession.Bidastsu's reign spanned the years from 572 through 585.-Traditional narrative:Bidatsu was called in the Nihonshoki....

    , 538–585
  4. Prince Oshisaka, ca. 556–???
  5. Emperor Jomei
    Emperor Jomei
    was the 34th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession.Jomei's reign spanned the years from 629 through 641.-Traditional narrative:Before Jomei's ascension to the Chrysanthemum Throne, his personal name was or...

    , 593–641
  6. Emperor Tenji
    Emperor Tenji
    , also known as Emperor Tenchi, was the 38th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession.Tenji's reign spanned the years from 661 through 671.-Traditional narrative:...

    , 626–671
  7. Prince Shiki, ???–716
  8. Emperor Kōnin
    Emperor Konin
    was the 49th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. Kōnin's reign lasted from 770 to 781.-Traditional narrative:The personal name of Emperor Kōnin was given was As a son of Imperial Prince Shiki and a grandson of Emperor Tenji., his formal style was Prince Shirakabe...

    , 709–786
  9. Emperor Kammu
    Emperor Kammu
    was the 50th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. Kammu reigned from 781 to 806.-Traditional narrative:Kammu's personal name was . He was the eldest son of Prince Shirakabe , and was born prior to Shirakabe's ascension to the throne...

    , 737–806
  10. Emperor Saga
    Emperor Saga
    was the 52nd emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. Saga's reign spanned the years from 809 through 823.-Traditional narrative:...

    , 786–842
  11. Emperor Ninmyō, 810–850
  12. Emperor Kōkō
    Emperor Koko
    was the 58th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession.Kōkō reigned from 884 to 887.- Traditional narrative :Before his ascension to the Chrysanthemum Throne, his personal name was or Komatsu-tei. He would later be identified sometimes as "the Emperor of...

    , 830–867
  13. Emperor Uda
    Emperor Uda
    was the 59th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession.Uda's reign spanned the years from 887 through 897.-Name and legacy:Before his ascension to the Chrysanthemum Throne, his personal name was or Chōjiin-tei....

    , 867–931
  14. Emperor Daigo
    Emperor Daigo
    was the 60th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession.Daigo's reign spanned the years from 897 through 930. He is named after his place of burial.-Traditional narrative:...

    , 885–930
  15. Emperor Murakami
    Emperor Murakami
    was the 62nd emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession.Murakami's reign spanned the years from 946 to his death in 967.-Traditional narrative:...

    , 926–967
  16. Emperor En'yū
    Emperor En'yu
    was the 64th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession.En'yū's reign spanned the years from 969 through 984.-Traditional narrative:Before his ascension to the Chrysanthemum Throne, his personal name was Morihira-shinnō....

    , 959–991
  17. Emperor Ichijō
    Emperor Ichijo
    was the 66th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession.Ichijō's reign spanned the years from 986 to 1011.-Traditional narrative:Before he ascended to the Chrysanthemum Throne, his personal name was Kanehito-shinnō....

    , 980–1011
  18. Emperor Go-Suzaku
    Emperor Go-Suzaku
    was the 69th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession.Go-Suzaku's reign spanned the years from 1036 through 1045.This 11th-century sovereign was named after the 10th-century Emperor Suzaku and go- , translates literally as "later;" and thus, he is sometimes called the...

    , 1009–1045
  19. Emperor Go-Sanjō
    Emperor Go-Sanjo
    was the 71st emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession.Go-Sanjō's reign spanned the years from 1068 through 1073.This 11th century sovereign was named after Emperor Sanjō and go- , translates literally as "later;" and thus, he is sometimes called the "Later Emperor Sanjō"...

    , 1034–1073
  20. Emperor Shirakawa
    Emperor Shirakawa
    was the 72nd emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession.Shirakawa's reign lasted from 1073 to 1087.-Genealogy:Before his ascension to the Chrysanthemum Throne, his personal name was Sadahito-shinnō ....

    , 1053–1129
  21. Emperor Horikawa
    Emperor Horikawa
    was the 73rd emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession.Horikawa's reign spanned the years from 1087 through 1107.-Traditional narrative:...

    , 1079–1107
  22. Emperor Toba
    Emperor Toba
    was the 74th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession.Toba's reign spanned the years from 1107 through 1123.- Genealogy :...

    , 1103–1156
  23. Emperor Go-Shirakawa
    Emperor Go-Shirakawa
    Emperor Go-Shirakawa was the 77th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession...

    , 1127–1192
  24. Emperor Takakura
    Emperor Takakura
    Emperor Takakura was the 80th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. His reign spanned the years from 1168 through 1180.-Genealogy:...

    , 1161–1181
  25. Emperor Go-Toba
    Emperor Go-Toba
    was the 82nd emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. His reign spanned the years from 1183 through 1198....

    , 1180–1239
  26. Emperor Tsuchimikado
    Emperor Tsuchimikado
    was the 83rd emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession.Tsuchimikado's reign spanned the years from 1198 through 1210.-Genealogy:Before Tsuchimikado's ascension to the Chrysanthemum Throne, his personal name was ....

    , 1196–1231
  27. Emperor Go-Saga
    Emperor Go-Saga
    Emperor Go-Saga was the 88th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession...

    , 1220–1272
  28. Emperor Go-Fukakusa
    Emperor Go-Fukakusa
    was the 89th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. This reign spanned the years 1246 through 1260....

    , 1243–1304
  29. Emperor Fushimi
    Emperor Fushimi
    Emperor Fushimi was the 92nd emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession...

    , 1265–1317
  30. Emperor Go-Fushimi
    Emperor Go-Fushimi
    Emperor Go-Fushimi was the 93rd emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession...

    , 1288–1336
  31. Emperor Kōgon
    Emperor Kōgon
    Emperor Kōgon was the 1st of Ashikaga Pretenders during the Period of the Northern and Southern Courts in Japan...

    , 1313–1364
  32. Emperor Sukō
    Emperor Suko
    ) was the third of Ashikaga Pretenders during the Period of the Northern and Southern Courts in Japan. According to pre-Meiji scholars, his reign spanned the years from 1348 through 1351.-Genealogy:...

    , 1334–1398
  33. Prince Yoshihito Fushimi
    Fushimi-no-miya
    The ' is the oldest of the four shinnōke, branches of the Imperial Family of Japan which were eligible to succeed to the Chrysanthemum Throne in the event that the main line should die out....

    , 1351–1416
  34. Prince Sadafusa Fushimi
    Fushimi-no-miya
    The ' is the oldest of the four shinnōke, branches of the Imperial Family of Japan which were eligible to succeed to the Chrysanthemum Throne in the event that the main line should die out....

    , 1372–1456
  35. Emperor Go-Hanazono
    Emperor Go-Hanazono
    was the 102nd emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. His reign spanned the years from 1428 through] 1464....

    , 1419–1471
  36. Emperor Go-Tsuchimikado
    Emperor Go-Tsuchimikado
    was the 103rd emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. His reign spanned the years from 1464 through 1500....

    , 1442–1500
  37. Emperor Go-Kashiwabara
    Emperor Go-Kashiwabara
    Emperor Go-Kashiwabara was the 104th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. He reigned from November 16, 1500 to May 19, 1526. His personal name was Katsuhito...

    , 1464–1526
  38. Emperor Go-Nara
    Emperor Go-Nara
    Emperor Go-Nara was the 105th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. He reigned from June 9, 1526 until September 27, 1557, at the end of the Sengoku period. His personal name was Tomohito .-Genealogy:He was the second son of Emperor Go-Kashiwabara...

    , 1495–1557
  39. Emperor Ōgimachi
    Emperor Ogimachi
    Emperor Ōgimachi was the 106th Emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. He reigned from October 27, 1557 to December 17, 1586, corresponding to the transition between the Warring States Era and the Azuchi-Momoyama period...

    , 1517–1593
  40. Prince Masahito
    Prince Masahito
    , also known as Prince Sanehito and posthumously named Yōkwōin daijō-tennō, was the eldest son of Emperor Ōgimachi.Prince Masahito died before his father.Masahito's eldest son was , who acceded to the Chrysanthemum Throne on the death of Emperor Ōgimachi...

    , 1552–1586
  41. Emperor Go-Yōzei
    Emperor Go-Yozei
    was the 107th Emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession.Go-Yōzei's reign spanned the years from 1586 through 1611, corresponding to the transition between the Azuchi-Momoyama period and the Edo period....

    , 1572–1617
  42. Emperor Go-Mizunoo
    Emperor Go-Mizunoo
    was the 108th Emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession.Go-Mizunoo's reign spanned the years from 1611 through 1629.This 17th century sovereign was named after the 9th century Emperor Seiwa and , translates literally as "later;" and thus, he could be called the "Later...

    , 1596–1680
  43. Emperor Reigen
    Emperor Reigen
    was the 112th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession.Reigen's reign spanned the years from 1663 through 1687.-Genealogy:...

    , 1654–1732
  44. Emperor Higashiyama
    Emperor Higashiyama
    was the 113th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession.Higashiyama's reign spanned the years from 1687 through 1709.-Genealogy:...

    , 1675–1710
  45. Prince Naohito Kanin
    Kan'in-no-miya
    The ' is the youngest of the four shinnōke, branches of the Imperial Family of Japan which were eligible to succeed to the Chrysanthemum Throne in the event that the main line should die out. It was founded by Prince Naohito, the son of Emperor Higashiyama....

    , 1704–1753
  46. Prince Sukehito Kanin
    Kan'in-no-miya
    The ' is the youngest of the four shinnōke, branches of the Imperial Family of Japan which were eligible to succeed to the Chrysanthemum Throne in the event that the main line should die out. It was founded by Prince Naohito, the son of Emperor Higashiyama....

    , 1733–1794
  47. Emperor Kōkaku
    Emperor Kokaku
    was the 119th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession.Kōkaku's reign spanned the years from 1780 through 1817.-Genealogy:...

    , 1771–1840
  48. Emperor Ninkō
    Emperor Ninko
    was the 120th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. Ninkō's reign spanned the years from 1817 through 1846.-Genealogy:Before Ninkō's ascension to the Chrysanthemum Throne, his personal name was ....

    , 1800–1846
  49. Emperor Kōmei
    Emperor Komei
    was the 121st emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. Kōmei's reign spanned the years from 1846 through 1867.-Genealogy:Before Kōmei's accession to the Chrysanthemum Throne, his personal name was ;, his title was ....

    , 1831–1867
  50. Emperor Meiji
    Emperor Meiji
    The or was the 122nd emperor of Japan according to the traditional order of succession, reigning from 3 February 1867 until his death...

    , 1852–1912
  51. Emperor Taishō
    Emperor Taishō
    The was the 123rd emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession, reigning from 30 July 1912, until his death in 1926.The Emperor’s personal name was . According to Japanese customs, the emperor has no name during his reign and is only called the Emperor...

    , 1879–1926
  52. Emperor Hirohito
    Hirohito
    , posthumously in Japan officially called Emperor Shōwa or , was the 124th Emperor of Japan according to the traditional order, reigning from December 25, 1926, until his death in 1989. Although better known outside of Japan by his personal name Hirohito, in Japan he is now referred to...

    , 1901–1989
  53. Emperor Akihito, b. 1933


See also

  • The Emperor's Birthday
    The Emperor's Birthday
    is a national holiday in the Japanese calendar. It is currently celebrated on 23 December. The date is determined by the present Emperor's birthdate. Emperor Akihito was born on this date in 1933....

  • Imperial Household Agency
    Imperial Household Agency
    The is a government agency of Japan in charge of the state matters concerning Japan's imperial family and also keeping the Privy Seal and the State Seal...

  • Imperial Household of Japan
  • Japanese era name
    Japanese era name
    The Japanese era calendar scheme is a common calendar scheme used in Japan, which identifies a year by the combination of the and the year number within the era...

  • List of Japanese Emperors
  • List of longest reigning current monarchs

External links

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