Ahkam is a reference to the Islamic commandments, derived and understood from religious jurisprudence resources . A law, value, ordinance or ruling of Shari'ah (Islamic law). In order to arrive at any new legal doctrine, or hukm, one must employ a systematic methodology by which to extract meaning from the sources. Traditionally, this methodology has been categorized under the rules of ijtihad
Ijtihad is the making of a decision in Islamic law by personal effort , independently of any school of jurisprudence . as opposed to taqlid, copying or obeying without question....

 (independent reasoning, authentic scholarly endeavor).

In the Quran, hukm denotes arbitration, judgement, authority, and Allah's will. Following the passing of Muhammad
Muhammad |ligature]] at U+FDF4 ;Arabic pronunciation varies regionally; the first vowel ranges from ~~; the second and the last vowel: ~~~. There are dialects which have no stress. In Egypt, it is pronounced not in religious contexts...

, with no central legal power in the post-Medina
Medina , or ; also transliterated as Madinah, or madinat al-nabi "the city of the prophet") is a city in the Hejaz region of western Saudi Arabia, and serves as the capital of the Al Madinah Province. It is the second holiest city in Islam, and the burial place of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad, and...

 Muslim society, the noun acquired new meanings over time, with hukm coming to refer to temporal executive rule or to a court decision and the plural, ahkam, referring to specific Quranic rules, positive fiqh
Fiqh is Islamic jurisprudence. Fiqh is an expansion of the code of conduct expounded in the Quran, often supplemented by tradition and implemented by the rulings and interpretations of Islamic jurists....

 laws derived from Islamic legal methodology, and rules or edicts. Early in Muslim history, the Kharijites' declaration to accept only the hukm of Allah
Allah is a word for God used in the context of Islam. In Arabic, the word means simply "God". It is used primarily by Muslims and Bahá'ís, and often, albeit not exclusively, used by Arabic-speaking Eastern Catholic Christians, Maltese Roman Catholics, Eastern Orthodox Christians, Mizrahi Jews and...

 (Arabic: حُكْمُ اللّهِ ) gave the word a political connotation.

Ahkam pentad

The acts of a Muslim
A Muslim, also spelled Moslem, is an adherent of Islam, a monotheistic, Abrahamic religion based on the Quran, which Muslims consider the verbatim word of God as revealed to prophet Muhammad. "Muslim" is the Arabic term for "submitter" .Muslims believe that God is one and incomparable...

 must be done according to Islamic commandments
Commandments is a 1997 romantic comedy-drama which was written and directed by Daniel Taplitz and stars Aidan Quinn, Courteney Cox and Anthony LaPaglia. Its executive producer was Ivan Reitman.-Synopsis:...

, categorized in five groups, forming a pentad or al-hukm al-khamis . Actions are evaluated and placed in one of these five categories and permitted or prohibited as appropriate to culture and the dictates of Islamic jurisprudence. According to Islamic terminology the pentad consists of:
  1. Wajib, obligatory; also known as: fard
    also is an Islamic term which denotes a religious duty. The word is also used in Persian, Turkish, and Urdu in the same meaning....

    , rukn
  2. Mustahabb
    Mustahabb is an Islamic term referring to recommended, favored or virtuous actions.-Definition:Mustahabb actions are those whose status of approval in Islamic law falls between mubah and wajib...

     / Sunnah
    The word literally means a clear, well trodden, busy and plain surfaced road. In the discussion of the sources of religion, Sunnah denotes the practice of Prophet Muhammad that he taught and practically instituted as a teacher of the sharī‘ah and the best exemplar...

    , recommended, also known as fadilah, mandub
  3. Mubah
    'Mubah' is an Islamic Arabic term denoting an action as neither forbidden nor recommended, and so religiously neutral. This is one of the degrees of approval in Islamic law....

    , neither obligatory nor recommended (neutral)
  4. Makruh
    In Islamic terminology, something which is makruh is a disliked or offensive act . Though it is not haram and therefore not a sin, a person who abstains from this action will be rewarded. Muslims are encouraged to avoid such actions when possible...

    , abominable (abstaining is recommended)
  5. Haraam
    Haraam is an Arabic term meaning "forbidden", or "sacred". In Islam it is used to refer to anything that is prohibited by the word of Allah in the Qur'an or the Hadith Qudsi. Haraam is the highest status of prohibition given to anything that would result in sin when a Muslim commits it...

    , prohibited (abstaining is obligatory)

Emergency conditions and public affairs

Religious precepts may be relaxed under certain extraordinary conditions. For example, although Muslims are required to fast during Ramadan
Ramadan is the ninth month of the Islamic calendar, which lasts 29 or 30 days. It is the Islamic month of fasting, in which participating Muslims refrain from eating, drinking, smoking and sex during daylight hours and is intended to teach Muslims about patience, spirituality, humility and...

, it may be acceptable for an ill man to break his fast if he is certain that fasting will worsen his illness.

The Islamic commandment for a society may become different from the one for an individual, considering the social and public aspects of certain actions. For example, according to various verses of the Quran, Muslims are required to carry weapons, but the Islamic state can prohibit or limit weapons to ensure security in the society.

There are three types of pentad:
  1. Primary commandments, in the normal condition, for personal affairs
  2. Secondary commandments, in the emergency condition , for personal affairs
  3. State commandments, for public affairs

External links

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