Afro-Mexicans in the Mexican War of Independence
The Need for the Mexican War of IndependenceWith the help of rebel leader, Miguel Hidalgo, who formally denounced the observance of the caste system in 1810, people of color were able to see that putting up a fight for their independence was worth it. However, Hidalgo was defeated. Morelos was dedicated to the cause and diligently recruited and trained an army consisting of free black peasants from various regions within the country. However, in 1815 he was also defeated and put to death.
Vicente GuerreroUpon Miguel Hidalgo's death the army declined and the future was not looking very promising. Guerrilla warfare
Guerrilla warfare is a form of irregular warfare and refers to conflicts in which a small group of combatants including, but not limited to, armed civilians use military tactics, such as ambushes, sabotage, raids, the element of surprise, and extraordinary mobility to harass a larger and...
seemed to be the main line of attack.The army was now under the command of Vicente Guerrero
Vicente Ramón Guerrero Saldaña was one of the leading revolutionary generals of the Mexican War of Independence, who fought against Spain for independence in the early 19th century, and served briefly as President of Mexico...
. This war did not seem to be looking good for those fighting for independence.
There were many heroes associated with the war for independence. Vicente Guerrero was one of them. He was able to succeed in gaining leadership due to his oratory skills and ability to speak different languages. Although he had little education he possessed other skills that helped him as a military leader. Although his four-year command was mostly a holding action and the military was almost always on the brink of collapse, he was considered one of the greatest Mexican war heroes. In 1821, when he finally decided to take over the entire army, he was offered a settlement by the Spanish. The settlement ruled out the abolition of slavery as well as the land reform proposed by Morelos, nonetheless the caste system of Spain would cease to exist. Guerrero agreed, the caste laws were revoked and independence and peace were soon to come. Upon his death in 1831, all of his alliance moved their all allegiance to populist Juan Alvarez
Juan Nepomuceno Álvarez Hurtado was a general and interim president of Mexico for a few months in 1855. He fought in all the major wars of Mexico, from the War of Independence through the Pastry War, the Mexican-American War, and the War of the Reform to the war against the French Intervention...